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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

The term drug is defined as any substance that when absorbed into a living organism may modify
one or more of its physiological functions. The term is generally used in reference to a substance
taken for both therapeutic purpose and abused substances (Kwamanga, Odhiambo &Amukoye,
2003). Globally and even regionally, drug and substance abuse is an ever expanding problem and
is recognized as a threat with serious effects on people’s health, security, social-economic and
cultural welfare. In Nigeria, students have consistently shown that there is considerable
prevalence of drug and substance use; with varying preference rates found for both overall and
specific drug abuse (Abdulkarim, 2005). Some of these commonly abused substances include
tobacco, Miraa (khat), bhang, alcohol, cocaine, mandrax and heroine (NACADA, 2006).

A report by United Nation Drug Control Programme (UNDCP, 1998) shows that 60% of
student’s abuse drugs. A survey by National Council Against Drug Abuse (NACADA, 2006)
shows that substance abuse is widespread. It affects the youth mostly although it cuts across all
social groups. Many young people especially the unemployed have resulted to using drugs like
heroin and cocaine which are injectables. This has been a major contributor to the spread of
HIV/AIDS due to the fact that they share syringes. Other drugs like alcohol can lead to risky
sexual behavior as they affect judgment and decision making. A drunkard is unable to assert
himself or herself especially when it comes to saying no to unprotected sex thus resulting to
exposures to sexually transmitted infections.

According to WHO (2005), drug abuse has been a part of human history for a long time. The
body maintained that what is different today is increased availability of a wide variety of
substances and the declining age at which experimentation with these substances take place.
Leary (2010) concurring with WHO’ adds that the concern now is the incidence, extent,
prevalence, potency and diversity of designer drugs, the health effects of long term use/abuse and
government legislation. In view of Leary’s assertion, the extent of drug abuse among secondary
school students was the major concern of the present study.
Drug abuse has a negative impact on the education of secondary school students. The overall
health of the user is affected negatively and behaviours associated with drug abuse predispose
the abuser to crime and contagious diseases including HIV/AIDS (CDC, 2000). Drug abuse has
thus become a national concern in Nigeria, given its impacts on education and future leadership,
innovations and human resources. Secondary school students are particularly at risk given that
they are in their formative years of education, career development, social skills and identity
formation. Reports from education officials in Bayelsa State suggest that students are using
alcohol and nicotine, in particular, at a rate that is causing concern. Despite National Agency for
Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and other organization-based
interventions, drug abuse is on the rise with over 40% of students abusing various types of drugs.
Drug abuse appears to be a well-entrenched behaviour among secondary school students. In
shopping centres and other public spaces, students who have dropped out of school because of
drug abuse, can be found loitering and participating in other forms of criminal activity. Given the
availability, consequences and increasing use of drugs in Nigeria, it is important to establish
students’ perception of drugs and substance abuse and how these perceptions influence their
behaviour when it comes to drugs and drug users. It is against this background that the current
study was undertaken. This study seeks to establish student perceptions of the drug problem and
to critically analyze strategies used to address the problem.

Guidance and counselling is a term usually used together which focus on assisting individuals
attain self-understanding and direction, although attempts have been made by various authors to
define the term separately. While Ezeji (2001), defines guidance as the help given by a person to
another in making choices, adjustment and in solving problems, Denga (2001), sees guidance as
a cluster of formalised educational services designed by the school to assist students to achieve
self-knowledge or self-understanding which is necessary for them to attain full self-development
and self- realization of their potential. On the other hand, Okeke (2003), defines counselling as a
helping relationship involving the counsellor and the client, in which the counsellor uses his
professional knowledge and skills to assist the client attain proper development and maturity,
improved functioning and ability to cope with life’s problems. Counselling is also defined
according to Eze (2012), as an inter-personal relationship between a professionally trained
individual (counsellor) and a troubled individual (counsellee) or individuals (counsellees)
whereby the former utilises his professional skills to help the latter to be able to solve his
educational, vocational and person social problems.

Based on various empirical literature presented above, the researcher sees guidance and
counselling as a process of utilising professional skills by a person (counsellor) to assist another
(client) in a person to person relationship to achieve the resolution of general life problems, in
order to attain proper development and functioning. General life problems here, refers to all
aspects of the individual’s life which include; personal, social, educational and vocational among
others, as no single individual is said to be free from trouble or problem. Guidance and
counselling is therefore designed to help individuals/students in their different problems and
concerns, so that they grow up well adjusted individuals capable not only of living productive
lives, but are also prepared to contribute their quota to the development of their society. Gibson,
2008 states that Guidance and counselling services prepare students to assume increasing
responsibility for their decisions and grow in their ability to understand and accept the results of
their choices.

1.2 Statement of Problem

It is evident that substance use and abuse is still a problem in Nigerian secondary schools despite
the various measures taken to curb it. Drug abuse menace has strangled youthful population both
secondary school students and non-students reducing them to dummies, zombies and drooling
figures as well as wasting their lives at the age which they are most needed in society (Ngesu, et
al 2008). Although the youth have been educated on the dangers of the drug abuse, most of the
secondary school students have little or no knowledge of how dangerous the vice is (Ngesu et al
2008).

Drug and substance abuse lead to many problems in schools especially strikes which are
normally experienced in schools although many people attribute the strikes to school mocks
especially in the second term of the academic calendar. Some of the known incidents include
those at Nyeri High School where prefects were burnt in the dormitory, Kyanguli secondary
where many boys were killed and several cult clashes in secondary schools in Benin city,
Nigeria. It is possible that students who abuse drugs while in school play a big role in influencing
acts like strikes as they are under the influence of drugs.
It has been noted that students face a number of drug abuse related problems during adolescence
(Amakos, 2011). Since secondary school students are in the adolescent stage, the need for
effective guidance and counselling becomes compelling. Thus there is need to establish the
effectiveness of services from schools counsellors and students.

In addition, the view of the school as a context where students experience a number of problems
(Line in Daries 2009) as well as the increased number of problems students face in modern
society have prompted the researcher to investigate the effectiveness of counselling program in
addressing substance abuse in Ibusa, Oshimili North local government area, Delta state.

1.3 Objectives of the Study


• To examine the adequacy and quality of guidance and counselling personnel in
Government secondary schools in Oshimili North Local Government Area, Delta State.
• To investigate the adequacy of guidance and counselling facilities in addressing
substance abuse among secondary schools’ youth in Oshimili North Local Government
Area.
• To examine the guidance and counselling service carried out to addressing substance
abuse in secondary schools in Oshimili North Local Government Area.
• To find out the factors hindering effective guidance and counselling service in
addressing substance abuse in Oshimili North Local Government Area.
1.4 Research Questions
• Do secondary schools in Oshimili North Local Government have adequate and qualified

school guidance and counsellors?

• Are the guidance and counselling facilities in secondary schools in Oshimili North Local

Government Area adequate in addressing substance abuse?

• What are the guidance and counselling services provided by secondary schools in

addressing substance abuse in Oshimili North Local Government Area, Delta state?

• What are the obstacles to effective guidance and counselling services in addressing

substance abuse in Oshimili North Local Government, Delta State?


1.5 Significance of the Study

This study sought to generate useful data on the causes and impact of drugs abuse on education
in Nigeria. Therefore, the findings of this study may be useful in several, ways: The Ministry of
Education (MOE) may use the study findings to find out ways of preventing drug and substance
abuse through public enlightened campaigns in schools, promotion of awareness on the dangers
of drugs and how they affect an individual, the family and the society at large.

It is envisaged that the study will benefit school counsellors, students, researchers, policy makers
and administrators by making relevant information available about guidance and counselling
programmes on substance abuse of drug addicts. It will help school counsellors with information
and criteria with which to evaluate their guidance and counselling services. It will help parents to
know the effect of guidance and programmes in shaping the future of their children. It will also
provide the information needed by students in order to weigh the value of the guidance and
counselling services which the school offer them.

The government may put in modalities of strengthening the guidance and counseling department
in schools through taking the teachers for service teacher training courses. The findings may also
be used to advocate that campaigns against substance use should be incorporated in schools with
special focus on the adverse consequences of the substance use. Ultimately, the society will
benefit from the findings of this study in creating a drug free society for social, economic and
political development in line with sustainable development goals. The school principals may
assist the students in identifying the sources of drugs so that they can take remedial measures.
The guidance and counselling departments might be strengthened through appointment of trained
and qualified counsellors to head the departments.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The research limits the topical coverage of the study to the assessment of effectiveness of
counseling programs on addressing substance abuse among secondary school students within
Ibusa, Oshimili North LGA, Delta State.

1.7 Operational Definition of Terms


Drug abuse: Refers to excessive illegal drug use and/ or legal drug use without a doctor’s
prescription

Substance abuse: Refers to harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances including


alcohol and other illicit drugs to stimulate behaviour.

Adolescence: Refers to period between childhood and adulthood and characterized by physical
and emotional changes.

Guidance: Advice about what one should do or how one should behave. In this study, it is a
process of assisting individuals to help themselves through their own effort, to discover and
develop their own potentials for personal fulfillment and social usefulness.

Counselling: Advice which is given to someone experiencing problems. In this study


counselling means helping students to help themselves.

Quality of counselling personnel; The ability for the counsellor to carry out his duty’s
effectiveness using all recommended tools.
CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

2.1.1 Historical Review of the Development of School Guidance and Counselling Services

Guidance and counselling in school was introduced for different reasons in different countries.
Schmidt (2007) stated that school guidance and counselling services began in America in the
early 1900s to assist students with their educational development and career aspiration. He
further stated that the negative effect of industrial growth and corresponding neglect of human
conditions necessitated the introduction of school guidance and counselling services in the USA.
Schmidt (2003) stated that an increasing population of students entering schools necessitated the
introduction of school guidance and counselling services, after the 1900s, the world wars were
the next major events that had an impact on the development of school guidance and counselling
services. It arose as a response to social crises brought about by the wars. Student needed
counselling services to overcome the traumatic war experiences they had under gone together
with their families, relatives and friends.

In Britain, school guidance and counselling was introduced in reaction to the changes in societies
in family life and in school which created conditions where greater attention to individual needs
was necessary (Taylor 2012). He further stated that social pressure from urbanization, decline in
family tradition and the industrial revolution led to the introduction of school guidance and
counselling services development. In urbanization and the industrial revolution created
turbulence among students who were studying under higher anxiety levels as competition levels
had becomes stiffer. They had pressures to choose careers. Owing to these factors, vocational
counselling came in handy to keep them in their vocational plans.

In Hong Kong, the school guidance counselling services were introduced in 1950s because of the
“increased variation in children’s background, increase developmental, personal and social
problems, and lack of motivation toward schools, disruptive behaviors in classrooms and the rise
in juvenile delinquency. Brennan, (2004). The school guidance and counselling were introduced
to help students overcome the above problems and this led to better school adjustment and
improved academic achievement.

In Israel. School guidance and counselling was introduced in 1960 Kungman and Ajzen (1985).
It was introduced to cater for students’ career needs and learning disabilities.

In South Africa, school guidance and counselling was introduced to the white and colored South
African schools in 1960. Euvrand (2013). Manson (2005) argued that guidance and counselling
was introduced in black South Africa schools in 1981 as a social control measure aimed at
nurturing a spirit of submission among black learners. It was also seen as an instrument for
government imposition of religious, cultural and vocational ideologies and value systems.

2.1.2 Guidance and Counselling Services in Nigeria.

School guidance and counselling in Nigeria commenced in 2008. That year the Calotte Sisters of
St Theresa’s College, Ibadan recognized the need to give adequate careers or vocational
guidance to their final year students Dr. C I Bercpiki was the first vocation guidance officer
appointed by the Federal Ministry of Education Lagos, in 2012. Currently the unit is well
manned by trained professional counsellors. In 2007, Mr. Rees, an American, introduced
guidance and counselling in secondary schools successfully at comprehensive high school,
Aiyetoro, Ogun state and formed the CASSON i.e (Counselling Association of Nigeria). The
Federal Government has inserted the need for guidance and counselling in our schools in its
National Policy on Education (2013) this has helped to make all the state government to establish
guidance and counselling units in their Ministries of Education.

Suffice to say that, although the guidance and counselling is a relatively new comer to Nigeria
education scene, it is gradually making its impact. It is still evolving.

2.1.3 Components of Effective school guidance and counselling Services

The components presented here are as demonstrated by international literature and are used as a
benchmark for which effective guidance and counselling services in Nigeria could be assessed.
These include:

1. Policy and mission statements, services planning, needs assessment services, responsive
services, etc.
a. Policies and Mission Statements.

A policy is a kind of guide that delimits action (Starling, 2011). It can be a statement with
guidelines indicating how a group of people should behave in a given circumstance.

In the light of the above, school guidance policy gives guidelines for rules about how those
involved in the planning, decision making and implementation should behave in given
circumstances.

b. Mission Statement.

This is a short official statement that an organization makes about the work it does and why it
does it. A mission statement for school guidance and counselling is therefore a presentation of
the value of the services.

Literature shows that countries with schools running effective school guidance and counselling
services have mission statements and policy documents in place. The school guidance and
counselling services statement delineates who delivers the services, what competences student
should possess as a result of the students involvement and how the services is organized. The
American policy spells out the value of school guidance and counselling services, as an equal
partner in the education system and states the reason why students should acquire the
competencies that will accrue to them as a result of their participation in it (Gysber and
Henderson, 2009). Nigeria also has school guidance and counselling services policy. Ratondoki
(2008). The Nigeria government has the third National Development Plan of 1975 and the
National Policy on Education of 1981 that mandate all schools to offer school guidance and
counselling services (Ade-Goke and Culbreth, 2010, Ahia and Bradley. 2011).

c. Services Planning.

According to Regis Chireshe (2006), planning involves goal setting and development of methods
and strategies for goal attainment. During planning, decision on what is to be done, how to do it
and the route to follow to achieve the goals are made. From the above, planning for school
guidance and counselling services provides an essential framework for delivery of services,
successful planning in school guidance and counselling services ensure a structured response to
student’s personal, social, educational and career needs. A plan gives the objectives of school
guidance and counselling services which should answer the following questions:

i. What are the guidance and counselling needs?


ii. how can these be assessed?
iii. How would one include all learning partners? (Parent, student, past pupils)?
iv. What goal and objectives are defined for each year group?
v. What personal resources, facilities and support will the school make available.
vi. What review and evaluation method will be developed?

d. Needs Assessment:

Need assessment is the identification of the needs of those to be served or beneficiaries. It is the
formal process that determines the gap between what is and what should be. Rimmer and Burt
(2010) view it as an approach for involving students, families and communities in setting goals
and priorities for the school guidance and counselling services.

Ahia and Bradley (2010) note that in Nigeria, no definite student’s needs assessment has been
conducted to provide a base for effective school guidance and counselling services.

Goals and objectives of school counselling services evolve from needs assessment data. School
guidance and counselling committee members discuss the goals and objectives. Those strategies
and activities are then selected to meet the set goals. For example, if a survey found that SS2
students express anxiety about failing in SS3, the goal and objectives might look like this:
GOAL: student will be successful in their O’ level (SS2 AND SS3). OBJECTIVE: student will
be able to:

i. Describe the O’ level courses and regulations.


ii. Demonstrate effective study skills.

The activity for object ii will be attending student study skills lesson.

e. Peer counselling:

This is when student offer guidance and counselling services to their peers. Effective school
guidance and counselling make maximum use of peer helpers, who are trained in basic skills of
problem solving and decision making (Border and Drunj, 2010; Lapan, 2012; Robinson et al,
2010). They also state that “Peer counsellor may defuse minor problems before they become
crisis; provide support and information to their friend clients who may be experiencing normal
developmental stress”.

2.1.5 School Guidance and Counselling Evaluation.

Evaluation entails putting a value judgment on something or determination of worth.

As mentioned in chapter one, in this section emphasise will be on the place and modalities of
evaluating effective school guidance and counselling from international literature. As follows:

Types of Service Evaluation,

a. Process evaluation - also known as formative evaluation is an on-going process in that it


occurs repeatedly at various stages of implementations of school guidance and
counselling service. Its purpose is to ensure that the services is proceeding in a timeous
manner and that there are no problems to be addressed immediately (Baruth&Robinson
2011)
b. Outcome evaluation - also known as summative evaluation is an assessment of the
outcomes of the services provided by school guidance and counsellors. It serves an
accountability function.

2.1.6 Benefits of School Guidance and Counselling Services

a. Personal Social Benefit: Euvrard (2006) points out that effective Nigeria secondary
school guidance and counselling services acts in a preventive way and equip students
with information skills and attitudes which enable them to successfully negotiate the
challenges of adolescence. Adolescents are helped to develop social skills in getting
along personality or social maladjustment.
b. Scholarly and Academic Benefit: Wison (2005); Myrick and Dixon (2005) found that
classroom guidance lessons led by counsellors can “positively influence academic
achievement in Mathematics’’ Huil (2008) reports similar experience in Hong Kong.
Border &Drudry (2002) cited studies that show increased academic achievement,
academic persistence, school attendance and positive attitude towards school and others
as a result of effective guidance and counselling service.
c. Career and Vocational Benefit:

Hartman (2015) stated that students who received vocational guidance and counselling
developed decision making skills to the point of being capable of making real choices
from short term to long term. That is students are assisted in assessing their aspiration,
values, interest and aptitudes when making career decisions and plans.

2.1.7 Role of School Counsellors

Schmidt (1997) states that school guidance and counsellors roles are presented around the
following themes:

(i) Education development role,


(ii) Career development role,
(iii) Personal social development role and
(iv) Referral role
(i) Educational Development Role: Counsellors assess student’s abilities and provide
services for parents to learn about their students and progress, in Nigeria Secondary
schools. The counsellors help the students to improve their studies and attitudes so that
they realize their best potentialities. Schmidt (2007).
(ii) Career Development Role: The school counsellors provide students with experiences
that increase knowledge of occupation, training data, life styles, employment seeking
skills, decision making strategies and above all, knowledge of self. Ahia and Bradley
(2014) Lament that Nigeria students have career needs that can only be effectively met by
school counsellors rather than parents or relatives. Schmidt (2007)
(iii) Personal Social Development Role: The school counsellors help the students with their
normal physical, intellectual, emotional and social development. The students are taught
about physical changes in their bodies and communication skills to help them develop
friendship and relate more effectively to their peers, parents and teachers. Schmidt (2007)
(iv) Referral Role: some students’ problems are beyond the capability of the school
counsellors and in such cases the school counsellor’s role is to establish a referral
network Schmidt (2007).

2.1.7 Concept of Substance Abuse

Substance abuse is the use of drugs to the extent that it interferes with the health and social
function of an individual (Abdulahi,2009). World Book Encyclopedia (2004) defined substance
abuse as the non-medical use of a drug that interferes with a healthy and productive life. Manbe
(2008) defined substance abuse as the excessive, maladaptive or addictive use of drugs for non-
medical purpose. Those substances of abuse that are actually prescribed for medication may have
been obtained on the street by fraudulent means or may have been a legal, medically prescribed
that a person begins to use without regard to the directions of his or her body. In this study,
substance abuse refers to improper use of drugs to the degree that the consequences are defined
as detrimental to the society. In essence it is the arbitrary overdependence or miss-use of one
particular drug with or without a prior medical diagnosis from qualified health practitioner. It can
also be viewed as the unlawful overdose in the use of drug(s).

A wide range of substance can be abused. In Nigeria the most common types of abused drug
according to NAFDAC (2000) as cited by Haladu (2003) are categorized as follows; stimulants;
these are substances that directly act and stimulate the central nervous system. Users at the initial
stage experience pleasant effects such as energy increase. The major source of these substance
come from caffeine substance. Hallucinogens: these are drugs that alter the sensory processing
unit in the brain. Thus, producing distorted perception, feeling of anxiety and euphoria, sadness
and inner joy. They normally come from marijuana, LSD etc.

Narcotics: these drugs relieve pains, induce sleeping and they are addictive. They are found in
heroin, codein, opium etc.

sedatives: these drugs are among the most widely used and abused. This is largely due to the
belief that they relieve stress and anxiety, and some of them induce sleep, ease tension, cause
relaxation or help users to forget their problems. They are sourced from valium, alcohol,
promotazine chloroform. Miscellaneous: this is a group of volatile solvents or inhalants that
provide euphoria, emotional disinhibition and perpetual distortion of thought to the users.

The main sources are glues, spot removers, tube repair, perfumes, chemical etc. tranquilizer:
they are believed to produce calmness without bringing drowsiness, they are chiefly derived
from Librium, Valium etc. The use and misuse of these substance usually occur because of
different reasons within the society in which children and adolescents belong. Andras (2006)
pointed out certain factors associated with substance abuse to include family, peer pressure and
other stressful factors that affect the way they cope with the society and make them more
exposed or prone to use and misuse different substances. He further states that it is easy to
determine if children and youths are engaged in these activities. The features or characteristics
that may be seen are aggressiveness, antisocial behaviour, difficulties in school failure. It has
previously been stated that attitude on substance abuse revealed by national Survey (2006)
showed that high stress, frequent boredom and too much spending of money can also be
considered significant risk factors for teens increasing the likelihood that they smoke, drink an
illegal drugs (ASA, 2003).

Onyemachi (2002) asserted that continued use of hard drugs lead to the production of
maladjusted and irresponsible citizens who become problematic to themselves and to the society
at large. Haladu (2003) gave the following as the main causes of substance abuse:

Experimental curiosity; curiosity to experiment the unknown facts about drugs thus motivates
adolescent into drug use. The first experience in drug abuse produces a state of aroused such as
happiness and pleasure which in turn motivate them to continue.

Peer group influence; peer pressure plays a major role in influencing many adolescents into
drug use. This is because peer pressure is a fact of teenage and youth life. As they try to depend
less on parents, they show more dependency on their friends. In Nigeria, as other parts of the
world, one may not enjoy the company of others unless he confirms to their norms.

Lack of parental supervision; many parents have no time to supervise their sons and daughters.
Some parents have little or no interaction with family members, while others put pressure on
their children to pass exams or perform better in their studies. These phenomena initialize and
increase drug abuse. Personality problems due to socioeconomic conditions; Adolescents with
personality problems arising from social conditions have been found to abuse drugs. The social
and economic status of most Nigerians is below average. Poverty is widespread, broken homes
and unemployment is on the increase, therefore our youths roam the streets looking for
employment or resort to begging. These situations have been aggravated by lack of skills,
opportunities for training and re-training and lack of committed action to promote job creation by
private and community entrepreneurs. Frustration arising these problems lead to recourse in drug
abuse for temporarily removing the tension and problems arising from it.

The need for energy to work for long hours; the increasing economic deterioration that leads to
poverty and disempowerment of the people has driven many parents to send their children out in
search of a means of earning something for contribution to family income. These children
engage in hawking, bus conducting, head loading, scavenging, serving in food canteens etc and
are prone to drug taking so as to gain more energy to work for long hours.Availability of the
drugs; in many countries, drugs have dropped in price as supplies have increased.

The need to prevent the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms; if a drug is stopped, the user
experience what is termed ‘withdrawal symptoms. Pain anxiety, excessive sweating and shaking
characterize such symptoms. The inability of the drug user to tolerate the symptoms motivate
him to cout. Saadatu (2006) contended that those drugs that are mostly abused are Indian hemps,
54 percent alcohol, 35 percent amphetamine, 19 percent mixed reborn blue. Briggs (2000) cited
major actions and effects of drugs to include, tolerance, habituation and addiction. He described
tolerance as acquired reaction to a drug that necessitates an increase of dosage to maintain a
given action or effect. It is also referred to as a person’s body being accustomed to the symptoms
produced by a specific quality of a substance. When a person first begins taking a substance he
or she will note various mental or physical reactions brought on by the drug (some of which are
the very changes in consciousness that the individual is seeking through substance use). Over
time with repeated use, the same dosage of the substance produces fewer of the desired effect of
the substance, progressively higher drug dose must be taken. Habituation is generally psychic
dependence upon a drug. Substance dependence is a group of behavioural and physiological
symptoms that indicate the continual compulsive use of a substance in self-administered dose
despite the problems related to the use of the substance (Detiveiler, 2008).
Mba (2008) identified numerous negative effects of substance abuse on the body chemistry as
follows: Alcohol- related problems examples liver cirrhosis, pancreatic, peptic ulcer,
tuberculosis, hypertension, neurological disorder; mental retardation for the fetus in the womb,
growth deficiency, delayed motor development; craniofacial abnormalities, limbs abnormalities
and cardiac deficits; psychiatric examples pathological drunkenness, suicidal behaviour; socially-
broken homes; increased crime rate, sexual offences, homicide and sexual transmitted diseases.
Tobacco: causes stimulation of heart and narrowing of blood vessels, producing hypertension,
headache, loss of appetite, nausea and delayed growth of the fetus. It also aggravates or cause
sinusitis, bronchitis, cancer, strokes, and heart attack. Stimulants: lethargy, irritability,
exaggerated self confidence , damage nose linings, sleeplessness, and psychiatric complications.
Inhalants: causes anemia, damage kidney and stomach bleeding. Narcotics: causes poor
perception, constipation, cough, suppression, vomiting, drowsiness and sleep, unconsciousness
and death.

Okoroije (2000) opined that the drug use of an individual can be traceable to the parental
influence, peer group influence, community and desire to experiment, advertisement, to cover
inadequacies, for relaxation, to remove boredom, to enjoy sex, to keep awake and to get high.
Briggs (2000) described reasons why people use and abuse drugs as follows; that young people
suffering from low self-esteem are often unable to resist peer pressure to use drugs and also find
that drugs provide them with good feelings they lack. Family disorganization, inadequate
parenting and unsatisfactory parent child relationships correlate strongly with the adolescent
drug use and other disruptive behaviours. Other reasons are antisocial behaviour which includes
poor school performance, juvenile delinquency, vandalism, dropping out of school and sexual
promiscuity. Finally, young people themselves often give as their reason for using drugs that
they are bored and have nothing better to do. (Ige, 2000).

A study of this kind by lamptey (2006) exhibit that there is a strong association between some
forms of substance abuse and crime. The abuse of alcohol, for example is highly correlated
violent and crime. It is common knowledge that offenders committing murder and other violent
assaults use alcohol and carnnabis before the crime. According to Adolescents Health
Information Project AHIP (2001) the following are signs and symptoms of drug abuse;
possession of drug related paraphernalia such as pipes, rolling paper, small decongestant,
possession of drugs, peculiar plants or balts, seed of leaves in 24 ashtrays or clothing pockets.

Odour of drugs, smell of incense or other cover up scents; identification with drug culture- drug
related magazines, slogans on clothing, hostility in discussing drugs; signs of physical
deterioration memory lapses, short attention span, difficulty in concentration, poor physical co-
ordination, slurred or incoherent speech; unhealthy appearance, indifference to hygiene and
grooming, blood slot eyes, dilated pupils; changes in behaviour. District down ward performance
in school place of work, increased absenteeism or tardiness, chronic dishonesty, lying cheating
and stealing, trouble with the police and other law enforcement agencies, change of friends,
averseness, in talking about new ones, increasing and inappropriate anger, hostility, irritability,
sectravenessetc, reduce motivation, energy, self-discipline, self-esteem etc. the intake of drugs,
alcohol etc, contribute a lot to teenage pregnancy. As a teenager, one may not be ready nor have
interest for sexual intercourse at a particular moment but being intoxicated with drugs and
alcohol makes an individual to be involved in an unintended sexual activity just because sex at
that time is less emotionally painful and embarrassing (Okoro &Oseiwemen, 2005). Lamptey
(2006) pointed out that the abusers of these substances are more in adolescents who are between
the age of 15 and 24 years. He further states that male adolescents are more susceptible to drug
use than female adolescents because males are strongly monitored by their parents than females.

2.2 Theoretical Framework

2.2.1 Eric Erikson’s Psychoanalytic theory of development (1959).

This theory was propounded by Eric Erikson, in 1959. His ideas though were greatly influenced
by Freud, going along with Freud’s 1923 theory regarding the structure and topography of
personality. However, whereas Freud was an id psychologist, Erikson was an ego psychologist.
He emphasized the role of culture and society and the conflict that can take place within the ego
itself, whereas Freud emphasized the conflict between the id and the super ego.

According to Erikson, the ego develops as it successfully resolves crises that are distinctly social
in nature. These involve establishing a sense of trust in others, developing a sense of identity in
society, and helping the next generation prepare for the future. Erikson extends on Freudian
thoughts by focusing on the adaptive and creative characteristic of the ego, and expanding the
notion of the stages of personality development to include the entire lifespan. Like Feud and
many others, Eric Erikson maintained that, personality develops in a predetermined order, and
builds upon each previous stage. The outcome of this maturation time table is a wide and
integrated set of life skills and abilities that function together within the autonomous individual.
However, instead of focusing on sexual development (like Feud), he was interested in how
children socialize and how this affects their sense of ‘self’. Erikson theory has eight distinct
stages which he refers to as psychosocial stages.

According to the theory, successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and
the acquisition of basic virtues. Basic virtues are characteristics of strengths which the ego can
use to resolve subsequent crises. Failure to successfully complete a stage can result in a reduced
ability to complete further stages and therefore an unhealthier personality and sense of self. 31
Erikson put a great deal of emphasis on the adolescent period, (12 to 18 yrs), feeling it is a
crucial stage for developing a person’s identity. According to Erikson, at this stage, the child
(adolescent) has to learn the roles he will occupy as an adult. The relationship between the theory
and this study is the emphasis on the adolescent stage which is regarded as the period when the
child has to learn roles he will occupy. It is a crucial stage in which the child needs to be guided.
If he might reach his full potentials in life. If the child is well guided at this period, he maybe
educationally and vocationally adjusted, which could led to high academic achievement and
smooth transition to the next educational level (tertiary education), which is the main thrust of
this study.

2.2.2 Carl Rogers’ client-centred theory (1951)

The client-centred theory in counseling was propounded by Carl Rogers in 1951. Originally
described as non-directive, this theory moved away from the idea that the therapist was the
expert, and towards a theory that trusted the innate tendency (known as the actualizing tendency)
of human beings to find fulfillment of their personal potentials. An important part of this theory
is that in a particular psychological environment, the fulfillment of personal potential includes
sociability, the need to be with other human beings and a desire to know and be known by other
people. It also includes being open to experience, being trusting and trustworthy, being curious
about the world, being creative and compassionate. The psychological environment described by
Rogers was one where a person felt free from threat, both physically and psychologically. This
environment could be achieved when being in a relationship with a person who was deeply
understanding (emphatic), accepting (having unconditional positive regard) and genuine
(congruent).

The theory is related to the present study in the sense that, it stresses the need for an empathic,
accepting and genuine environment for a person to ‘grow’ and be self-actualized. These are
supposed to be some of the qualities that the counsellor should possess. When the student is
allowed to operate in an environment that is free from ‘threat’, he becomes more open and self-
disclosure and hence a better egalitarian counselling relationship. This could in-turn lead to a
change in a more positive behavior that may greatly influence the student’s scholastic
achievement, and transition to the next level of education, which in the focus of this work.

2.3 Empirical Framework

A study was conducted by Eliamani, Richard and Baguma (2013) on Access to guidance and
counseling services and its influence on students’ school life. Descriptive and correlation designs
with both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. The scope of the study was private
secondary school students in Same, Tanzania. Four research questions and three hypotheses
guided the study. The population for the study was 247 while the sample size was 152
respondents. Instruments for data collection were a questionnaire and interview. Mean and
standard deviation was to analyze the data while Pearson moment correlation was used to test the
hypotheses at.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that accessing guidance and
counselling services has an impact on students’ school life. The study is related to the present
study because it examines access to guidance and counselling services which will be considered
in the present research.

In a related study conducted by Ogunsanmi (2011) on awareness of teachers on the effectiveness


of guidance and counselling services in primary schools in South-West Nigeria. 33 The focus of
the study was on primary school teachers in South-West, Nigeria. The design of the study was
descriptive survey design. One research question and one hypothesis guided the study. A total of
200 teachers were used in the study. A questionnaire was an instrument for data collection,
Frequency counts, means and percentages was used to analyze the data while t-test analysis was
used to test the hypothesis at .05 level of significance. Results revealed that there was no
significance difference in the awareness of male and female teachers towards the effectiveness of
guidance and counselling services in primary schools. The study is related to the present study
because it investigated guidance and counselling service which is also the focus of the present
study.

In a related study conducted by Ogunsanmi (2011) on awareness of teachers on the effectiveness


of guidance and counselling services in primary schools in South-West Nigeria. 33 The focus of
the study was on primary school teachers in South-West, Nigeria. The design of the study was
descriptive survey design. One research question and one hypothesis guided the study. A total of
200 teachers were used in the study. A questionnaire was an instrument for data collection,
Frequency counts, means and percentages was used to analyze the data while t-test analysis was
used to test the hypothesis at .05 level of significance. Results revealed that there was no
significance difference in the awareness of male and female teachers towards the effectiveness of
guidance and counselling services in primary schools. The study is related to the present study
because it investigated guidance and counselling service which is also the focus of the present
study.

Another study conducted by Chireshe (2011) on School Counsellors’ and Students’ Perceptions
of the Benefits of School Guidance and Counselling Services in Zimbabwean Secondary
Schools, the study sought to establish the benefits of school guidance and counselling (SGC)
services in Zimbabwe secondary schools as perceived by students and school counsellors.
Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Six research questions and five hypotheses
guided the study. The sample comprised of 950 participants of which three hundred and fourteen
(165 males and 149 females) were school counsellors while 636 (314 boys and 322 girls) were
students. Data were collected using questionnaires. The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAS/SAT)
statistical package version 9.1 was used to analyze the data. The analysis included tabulation and
computation of chi-square test, frequencies, percentages and ratios. Result revealed that both
school counsellors and students believed that the services resulted in personal-social, career and
vocational benefits. Overall, both school counsellors and students rated the Zimbabwean SGC
services fairly. The study is in line with the present study because it examines similar variables.
Such as guidance and counselling services.
In a related study carried out by Alemu (2013) on Assessment of the Provisions of Guidance and
Counselling Services in Secondary Schools. The scope of the study was secondary schools in
East Harerge Zone and Hareri Region, Ethiopia. The purpose of the study was to assess the
provision and perceived importance of guidance and counselling. Descriptive survey design was
used for the study. Three research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. A total of 336
participants (225 students, 90 teachers, 9 directors, 9 school guidance and counsellors, one
regional education bureau head, one zonal education bureau head and one supervisor)
participated in the study. The instruments that were used for collecting data were questionnaire
and semi-structured interview. Chi-square, independent sample t-test, KruskalWallis test and
percentages were used as data analysis techniques. The result indicated that the school
community had poor awareness about the presence of G&C services at their schools. Male
students’ utilization of the services was significantly higher than their female counter parts. The
study is related to present study because it examined guidance and counselling services, which is
also the focus of this study

CHAPTER THREE

RESEACH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

The research design that was used in this study was description survey design. The design
involves the study of a group of people which is true representation of the entire population
under study. Data were collected and analyzed based on the study. The tool for design is
questionnaire.

3.2 Study settings

The area of the study was Oshimili North LGA, Delta State.The Oshimili North is one of the
twenty-five Local Government Areas that make up Delta State, South-south geo-political region
of Nigeria. The Local Government was created in 1997 and until its creation, was part of the old
Oshimili Local Government Area. The Local Government is headquartered at Akwukwu-Igbo.

3.3 Target Population


The population of the study consists of the one hundred (90) student and forty five (45) teachers
of all the 9 Secondary Schools in Ibusa, Oshimili North LGA, Delta State. PPSMB, (2014).

3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques

The researcher used simple random sampling technique to obtain number of secondary schools

to be used. Cards marked “yes” or “No” were prepared for SSII student in each secondary

school. Twenty of the cards were shuffled for the students to pick; only the ten (10) students that

picked “yes” were used for the study.

3.5 Instrument for Data Collection

The Instrument that was used for data collection was the questionnaire. The questionnaire was

made up of (2) two sections, namely section A and section B. Section A was for the personal

data of the respondents and section B was for the main items derived from the research

questions. Section B of this self-made questionnaire consisted of 20 items dealing with the

assessment of the school guidance and counselling programme in addressing substance abuse.

The respondents were required to tick (√) against each item to indicate their own opinion on the

issues raised according to the likert-type rating scale. The scale ranges from strongly agree (SA),

agree (A), Disagree (D) and strongly Disagree (SD).

3.6 Validity of Instrument

In order to validate the research instrument, the researcher presented a copy of the questionnaire
to her supervisor and also, to a guidance counsellor. This was done to ascertain the
appropriateness of the questionnaire before it was administered to the respondents.

3.7 Reliability of Instrument

To establish the reliability of the instrument the researcher went to the nearest local government
area which is Enugu East and administered the questionnaire to 20 respondents in that local
government because similarity in the characteristics of both Areas.
3.8 Method of Data Collection

The researcher tallied the numbers of respondents that ticked for SA, A, D and SD against each
item in the questionnaire. The Likert-type of scale format with four (4) points scale was used
thus, strongly Agree-4 point, Agree- 3points, Disagree-2 points and strongly disagree 1 point.
The criterion means of 2.5 was used to determine acceptance. Thus 4+3+2+1 divided by the
number of the options (i.e. 4). Any items whose means is below 2.5 will be rejected and those
whose mean are 2.5 and above will be accepted.

3.9 Method of Data analysis

The responses for this study were analyzing using simple mean score based on the questionnaire
administered to the respondents.

Mean (X) = ∑f×


∑f(N)
Where ∑ = Summation
f = Number of responses (frequency)
× = Scores (ratings)
N = Total number of respondents
That is, sum of the total rating values divided by the number of rating items.

Therefore; 4+3+2+1 =10 = 2.50


4
From this value obtained, the researcher therefore, set the upper limit of the cut-off mean as 2.50
and above which will signify acceptance of responses for an item while the lower limit of the
cut-off mean was set below 2.50 which will signify disagreement or rejection of responses for an
item

3.10 Ethical Consideration

Ethical clearance: This was obtained from the Research Ethics Review Committee of Madonna
University, Elele, Rivers state.

Informed consent: Adequate information was given to potential subjects concerning the nature
of the study and only those that gave consent to participate were recruited. Consenting subjects
were required to fill and sign a consent form.
Confidentiality and safety of subjects:The questionnaires were anonymous.
Information obtained from the subjects was treated in strict confidence. No harm was done to
any subject in the course of this study and respondents who needed immediate attention were
sent to the medical clinic for treatment.