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Characteristic of aggregate- strength, particle shape, specific gravity, Compressive strength abram’s law- log F = log A- log B, where F is

bulk density, voids, porosity, moisture content and bulking. strength, compressive strength, A1 & B1 is constant x is w/c ratio by weight
particle shape, specific gravity, bulk density, voids, porosity, moisture
content and bulking. strength, particle shape, specific gravity, bulk Classification of concrete- based on cementing materials: lime
density, voids, porosity, moisture content and bulking. concrete, gypsum and cement concrete. Based on density: super heavy
(over 2500 kg/m3), dense (1800-2500 kg/m3), light weight (500–1800
Testing of aggregate-Particle size distribution T, Flakiness index and kg/m3) and extra light weight concrete (below 500 kg/m3), Based on
elongation index T, Deleterious materials and organic impurities test, place of casting- pre-cast and cast in situ.
Specific gravity and water absorption test, bulk density and void test,
Advantages of Concrete over other Materials of construction- it can
bulking T, crushing value test(ACV), ten per cent fines test, Aggregate be manufactured to desired strength and durability with economy, It
Impact Vale test(AIV), Aggregate abrasion Value test (AAV) can be cast to any desired shape, Maintenance cost of concrete
structures is almost negligible, concrete does not deteriorate
Types of preservations- Oil type preservatives, Organic solvent appreciably with age.
preservatives, Acetic anhydride treatment, Water soluble preservatives
are odorless organic or inorganic salts and are adopted for inside Slump Degree of Use for which concrete is suitable
locations only. value inch workability
0-1 Very low Precast and vibrated concrete works in roads and
piles (vibrated by power operated machine)
1-2 low Road works (vibrated by hand operated machine),
Mass concrete in foundation (without vibration),
lightly reinforced section (with vibration)
2-4 Medium Slabs (manually compacted), Normal reinforced
concrete (manually compacted), Heavily
reinforced sections (with vibration)
High For sections with congested reinforcement (Not
normally suitable for vibration)

Test of timber- Static bending strength test, Shear strength – parallel

and perpendicular to the grain, Tensile strength - parallel and
perpendicular to the grain, Impact bending strength, Compressive
strength test - parallel and perpendicular to the grain.

Functions of aggregate in concrete- The aggregate get the volume of

the concrete, around the surface of which the binding materials adheres
in the form of thin film. In the theory of voids in the fine aggregate is Concrete Mix design- (i)complies with the specifications of structural
filled up with binding materials. Finally, the binding materials ass the strength laid down, which is usually stated in terms of the compressive
name implies, Bind the individual units of the soil mass with the help strength of standard test specimens, (ii)complies with the durability
of water. requirements to resist the environment in which the structure will serve
its functional life, (iii) be capable of being mixed, transported,
Functions of water in concrete- water serves for: To wet the surface compacted as efficiently as possible without undue labor, (iv) and
of aggregates to develop the adhesion because the cement paste adhere lastly, but not least, be as economical as possible.
quickly and satisfactory to the wet surface of the aggregates than to dry
surface. To prepare a plastic mixture of various ingredients and to
impart workability to concrete to facilitate placing in the desired
position. Water in also needed for the hydration of the cementing
materials to set and harden during the period of curing.

Stages of concrete production- Batching or measurement of materials,

Mixing, Transporting, Placing, Compacting, Curing, Finishing

Methods of transporting- Mortar pan, Wheel barrow, Chute,

Damper, Bucket and ropeway, Belt conveyor, Skip and hoist, Pumping

Methods of curing- Water curing, Steam curing, Curing with infra-

red radiation, Electrical curing, Chemical curing

Concrete mix Design requirements- grade of concrete, Type of

concrete, Type and size of aggregate, Nominal maximum size
aggregate, Maximum/minimum cement content (kg/m3), Type of
mixing and curing water, Maximum free water-cement ratio by weight,
Degree of workability of concrete, Air content, Type of admixture
used, Maximum/ minimum density of concrete, Maximum/minimum
temperature of fresh concrete.

Factors defanging the choice of mix proportions- Compressive

strength, workability, Durability, Type size and grading of aggregates,
Aggregate cement ratio.