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DEVELOPMENTAL

MILESTONES IN
INFANTS
INDEPENDENT STUDY MENTORSHIP – SPRING 2019
SYDNEY SHINDLER

MRS. CLICK

*Please note that some of the information in this presentation comes from outside sources*
MY MENTOR AND MENTORSHIP FACILITY

My mentor for the spring semester is Jason Decker, M.D., who is a


pediatric doctor and works at Pearland Pediatrics. Dr. Decker got his
undergrad and medical school education from Texas A&M University.
ISM COURSE

• ISM, or Independent Study Mentorship, is a course that enables high school students
to follow a self-chosen mentor in a career field of their interest. Since this course
is at a college level, students are required to complete various tasks, such as:
• Meeting with their mentor three hours a week
• Creating a final project
• Make a product to enhance their presentation
• Create a website to document all assignments
• www.sydneyspringismportfolio.weebly.com

Kelly, Mary S. “Why Mentoring Makes a Difference to


Medical Students and Faculty.” The Doctor's Tablet,
20 Nov. 2014, blogs.einstein.yu.edu/why-mentoring-
makes-a-difference-to-medical-students-and-faculty/.
ARTIFACTS
MY ISM PROJECT

For my spring semester topic, I wanted to focus on Developmental Milestones in


Infants. Through this topic, I will emphasize the expected goals the babies should
accomplish as they grow older. I will also address common delays seen within children and
how this should be treated.
I chose to focus on this topic as I believed it would be extremely interesting and
potentially helpful information as I continue my journey into the medical field. I also believe
that this topic is extremely important as early
development can have lasting impacts throughout
the rest of one’s life.

Ecmp. “The Many Roles of a Pediatric Nurse Practitioner.”


Early Childhood Meeting Place, 15 Feb. 2016,
www.earlychildhoodmeetingplace.org/the-many-roles-
of-a-pediatric-nurse-practitioner/.
KEY POINTS

• Developmental Categories
• Expected Milestones
• Developmental Delay
• Examples of Delay
• Treatment of Delay
DEVELOPMENTAL CATEGORIES

• Motor – voluntary movement of the body; split into two sub-categories


• Fine Motor = small actions, usually with smaller muscle groups; ex. grasping objects
• Gross Motor = combination of many muscles for large movement; ex. walking

• Speech – communication skills and understanding of language; ex. babbling


• Social – ability to interact with others; ex. making eye contact
• Cognitive – skills required for attention, reason, and learning;
ex. exploring toys with various senses

“Pediatrician or Family Doctor? How to Decide.”


WebMD, WebMD,
www.webmd.com/parenting/baby/pick-
pediatrician-16/pediatrician-or-family-doctor.
EXPECTED MILESTONES (0-3 MONTHS)

• Motor – (Gross) holds head up, moves head side to side, holds self on forearms;
(Fine) open and closes hand, brings hands to mouth, holds some objects
• Speech – has different cries for different needs (hunger, pain, etc.), begins cooing
• Social – turns head toward sounds, makes eye contacts, interested in faces, smiles
• Cognitive – begins to reach for toys and visually track movement

“Baby Development Stages Milestones First One Year


Stick Figure..” 123RF Stock Photos, Vector Illustration
www.123rf.com/photo_24965222_baby-development-
stages-milestones-first-one-year-stick-figure-
pictogram-icon.html.
EXPECTED MILESTONES (4-6 MONTHS)

• Motor – (Gross) puts weight on hands, rolls from tummy to back and vice versa;
(Fine) moves toys between hands, holds bottle, reaches out with both arms
• Speech – reacts to noises and “responds”, starts babbling, makes different
sounds for different feelings (ex. joy, anger, etc.)
• Social – babbles to people, reacts to music by cooing
• Cognitive – begins to recognize own name, using both hands to explore toys,
not upset by everyday sounds

Fall Hill Pediatrics. “5 Reasons to See the


Pediatrician.” Fall Hill Pediatrics, 6 Apr.
2018, www.fallhillpediatrics.com/5-reasons-
see-pediatrician/.
EXPECTED MILESTONES (7-9 MONTHS)

• Motor – (Gross) sits without support, begins trying to crawl, moves into sitting;
(Fine) picks up smaller toys and holds them with both hands, purposely let go
• Speech – increased sound varieties in babbling, shouts for attention
• Social – uses simple gestures, takes part in two-way communication
• Cognitive – explores toys/surroundings with different senses, focuses on objects
near and far, experiments force needed to pick up different objects
EXPECTED MILESTONES (10-12 MONTHS)

• Motor – (Gross) crawls and scoots, stands and walks along furniture, slowly
beginning to stand and walk alone;
(Fine) claps hands, uses fingers to poke, scribbles
• Speech – imitates sounds, gibberish mimics speech, knows about 2-3 words
• Social – responds to human voice, can respond to some simple directions
• Cognitive – shows understanding of some words, attentive to where
someone points/looks

“When Do Babies Start Walking.” Pregnancy Articles, SureSwift Capital,


www.pregmed.org/baby-developmental-milestones/when-do-
babies-start-walking.
DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY

• Developmental Delay = a condition that causes children to be behind in


reaching their milestones; typically a significant lag that is reoccurring

• Late Bloomers = children that are slightly behind in reaching their milestones,
developing skills at their own pace but easily catch up to other children

“Children Diagnosed with Developmental Delays May Also Have Undetected Vision
Problems.” Dr. Phil Nicholson’s Visual Learning Center, Visual Learning Center,
19 Nov. 2015, www.visuallearningcenter.com/children-diagnosed-with-
developmental-delays-may-also-have-undetected-vision-problems/.
DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY (CAUSES)

• Risk Factors/Causes:
• Birth Complications – premature, low birth weight, low oxygen levels
• Environment – trauma, poor nutrition, prenatal drug/alcohol exposure, difficult
family situations
• Medical Conditions – significant injuries and illnesses, chronic ear infections, vision
problems

Chapman, Lindsey. “Incidence of Underweight Babies Rises in United


States.” FindingDulcinea, Dulcinea Media, 13 June 2008,
www.findingdulcinea.com/news/health/May-June-08/Incidence-of-
Underweight-Babies-Rises-in-United-States.html.
EXAMPLES OF DELAY

• Motor: Duchenne syndrome – progressive muscle degeneration and weakness,


especially within the skeletal muscles; varies in severity
• Speech: Chronic ear infections – reoccurring and/or constant fluid within the
middle ear; causes partial hearing loss which can lead to speech delay
• Social: Autism – affects social interaction and communication skills; causes poor
eye contact and little to no speech in infants
• Cognitive: Shaken Baby Syndrome – can result in brain
damage and future learning issues as it causes
swelling and bleeding in the brain
TREATMENTS FOR DELAY (MOTOR)

• Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy:


• No true cure, but there are several
methods to keep patients
comfortable
• Braces – supports structures to
maintain alignment (ex. AFOs)
• Wheelchairs – used around 12,
allows patients to stay mobile
• Physical Therapy – avoids
development of contractures and
keeps muscles/tendons healthy
“Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.” CheckRare.com, 20 Feb. 2019,
checkrare.com/duchenne-muscular-dystrophy/.
TREATMENTS FOR DELAY (SPEECH)

• Chronic Ear Infections:


• Antibiotics – prescribed by doctor in the case of a bacterial ear infection
• Tubes – surgery to place tubes in eardrums for fluid to drain out
• Wait it out – wait for fluid to drain on its own within a few months

Barrell, Amanda. “Home Remedies for Baby Ear Infection.”


Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 22
June 2018, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/
322219.php.
TREATMENTS FOR DELAY (SOCIAL)

• Autism:
• Early Intervention – programs that teaches basic skills and helps delay
children reach their full potential
• ABA Therapy – (Applied Behavior Analysis) uses positive reinforcement to
alter negative behaviors and teach useful social/life skills

“All About Developmental Delay.” Google


Sites, Sites, sites.google.com/site/
eligibilitycategory2/.
TREATMENTS FOR DELAY (COGNITIVE)

• Shaken Baby Syndrome:


• Emergency: breathing support and surgery to
stop brain bleeding
• Long-term:Various forms of therapy (ex. physical
and occupational) and early intervention

“Shaken Baby Syndrome Statistics.” Statistic Brain,


Statistic Brain, 6 Jan. 2018,
www.statisticbrain.com/shaken-baby-syndrome-
statistics/.
CURRENT EVENT

My current event mainly focused on the topic of developmental delay and


its effect on children. Some of the key points included:
• Describing the difference between delays, disabilities, and “late bloomers”
• Explaining the categories in which infants can experience delays
• Listing some of the risk factors that can cause delay
• Suggesting that a link exists between developmental delay and attention issues

“Developmental Delay.” NHS Choices, Worcestershire Health and


Care NHS Trust, www.hacw.nhs.uk/our-services/childrens-
community-health-services/community-paediatrics/common-
conditions/developmental-delay/.
PRODUCT
CONCLUSION

• From this project, I got to truly extend my knowledge about the multiple aspects
and significance of early childhood development
• During my mentorship experiences, I got to experience and learn about
numerous cases that included both common and uncommon conditions
experienced by children
• I also discovered how rewarding it is to treat the
young and sweet patients that came into the office

“Appleseed Pediatrics.” Community Health


Services of Lamoille Valley, chslv.org/our-
services/appleseedpediatrics/.
THANK YOU

I would just like to send out a huge thank you to everybody that has helped
me on this journey. I could not have done this without any of you. Thank you so much
to Dr. Decker and Dr. Wagner for being my mentors and teaching me this semester.
Thank you to my evaluators for taking time out of your day to be here for me.
I really appreciate you having to deal with a student even after school hours.
Thank you to Mrs. Click for your knowledge and giving me all the tools I
needed to have a successful first semester in ISM.
And lastly, thank you to my parents for knowing both when to push me and
when to help me when I need it most.
WORKS CITED

“Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA).” Autism Speaks, www.autismspeaks.org/applied-behavior-analysis-aba-0.

“Baby Milestones | 0-12 Month Milestones.” Pathways, Pathways.org, pathways.org/growth-development/baby/milestones/.

DuMond, Sara. “What Doctors Look for at Well-Baby Visits.” Parents, Meredith Corporation, 14 Aug. 2006,

www.parents.com/baby/care/pediatricians-medicine/what-doctors-look-for-at-well-baby-visits/.

Morin, Amanda. “What You Need to Know About Developmental Delays.” Understood.org, Mar. 2018,

www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/treatments-approaches/early-intervention/what-you-need-to-know-

about-developmental-delays#comment-list.

Pietrangelo, Ann. “Developmental Delay: Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis.” Healthline, Healthline Media, 28 Apr. 2016,

www.healthline.com/symptom/developmental-delay