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PHYSICS PROJECT

AUTOMATIC WATER LEVEL


CONTROLLER USING TRANSISTORS

OR
555 TIMER IC
Introduction:
Hii Everyone here we are going to learn about Saving the water efficiently. so go
through the steps and the Sentences carefully. Water tank overflow is a common
problem which leads to the wastage of water. Though there are many solutions to it
like ball valves which automatically stop the water flow once the tank gets full. The
water level controller circuit is a simple mechanism to detect and control the level of
water in the overhead tank and also in the other containers. Nowadays, all the
householders/owners are storing the water in overhead tanks by using the pumps.
When the water is stored in the tank, no one can identify the level of water and also,
no one can know when the water tank will fill. Hence there is an overflow of water in
the tank, thus there is a wastage of energy and water.

To Resolve this type of problems by using the water level Controller circuit using
BC547 transistor it helps and control the overflow level of water. The cost of the water
level controller manufacturing cost is low and its use full for the overhead water tanks,
swimming pool boilers, etc.. The water level controller circuits are used in the
factories, chemical plants, and electrical substations and also in other liquid storage
systems.

This simple transistor based water level controller circuit is very useful to indicate the
water levels in a tank. Whenever tank gets filled, the motor Switches off. Here we
have created 3 levels (Main, Low, High), we can create alarms and LED for more
levels as we need. When tanks gets filled completely the motor will Turn Off.

Step 1: Components Required:


1. BC 547 Transistors = 3 Nos
2. 220k Resistor= 1 Nos
3. 5.6k Resistor= 1 Nos
4. 12v Dc Relay= 1 Nos
5. 2 Pin PCB Connector= 3 Nos
6. 3 Pin PCB Connector= 1 Nos
7. 1N4007 Diode=1 Nos
Step 2: Circuit Diagram
Step 3: Transistors and Other Components
Use this type for sensor wiring connections. In SPDT relay we are having 5
terminals Com(Movable Contact), Coil terminals, NO and NC

NO= Normally Opened

If your Motor Positive end is connected to NO. When the relay is switched,
the motor will turn ON. Otherwise it is in OFF state.

NC=Normally Closed

If your Motor Positive end is connected to NC. When the relay is switched,
the motor will turn OFF. Otherwise it is in ON state.

In the COM port we must add the external power supply to drive the motor.
The coil terminals is only for Switching the relay from NC to NO. The
relays are of different types here am using 12v DC SPDT Relay.

BC 547 transistor are very negligible so handle the transistor carefully and
don't change the polarity of the battery terminal to the circuit.

Step 4: Overall Setup of My Automatic Water Controller


Here I used 12v Submergible motor for my purpose so I Designed 12v DC
power supply connect to both circuit and Com Port of the Relay. We can
also give 5v for the circuit if you are using 5v Relay.If you need your
circuit for 230v motor control operation, you just connect the 230v positive
terminal to Com port of Relay and the negative terminal connect to motor
another end(-)Gnd. No need to change any components.

Step 5: Conclusion
Finally we Designed the circuit and make sure that your circuit should be
tested in Breadboard after that you can go for the Soldering in PCB or Dot
Board. We can also use IC555 timer for the automatic water level controller
to get the output in a Effective manner because transistors may burst any
time . See you next time to my Next Project. If you have any queries kindly
ask in the comments, we will clarify you at any time.