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Question 6 (02 Chem2)

An isolated research station is to be staffed by a small group of scientists for 13 weeks. Part of the
exercise is to test the effectiveness of liquid ethanol (CH3CH2OH) as a source of fuel under these
conditions. It is planned to use two different methods of generating energy from the ethanol.

a. Some of the ethanol is to be directly burnt for heating and cooking, using the reaction
CH3CH2OH(l) + 3O2(g)  2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l); ∆H = –1370 kJ mol-1
The average need for heating and cooking over the 13-week period is 800 MJ per week. Calculate the
total mass of ethanol needed to satisfy the heating and cooking requirements of the research station.
1 MJ = 103 kJ 3 marks
b. Some ethanol may also be used for electric power for lighting, refrigeration, computing and other
electronic equipment. This can be provided by a fuel cell with an acidic electrolyte, whose cell
reaction is identical to the equation given above. In the fuel cell the cathode reaction is
O2(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e–  2H2O(l)
The voltage across the fuel cell is 1.15 V.
i. Give the half reaction occurring at the anode where the ethanol is oxidised in the fuel cell. 1 mark
ii. Calculate the electrical energy provided per mole of ethanol consumed in the fuel cell. 2 marks

c. An alternative way of generating electricity from ethanol is to use it as the fuel for an internal
combustion engine driving a generator. Suggest one important reason why the fuel cell would be
better than the generator for this purpose. 1 mark

Questions 4, 5 and 6 refer to the following information.

The oxidation of methane (natural gas) can be used to produce electricity in a gas-fired power station.
Methane can also be oxidised to produce electricity in a fuel cell. The overall equation for the
oxidation of methane is
CH4(g) + 2O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) ΔH = –900 kJ mol–1

Question 5 (04 Chem2)

In a fuel cell based on the oxidation of methane, the equation for the anode half reaction is
CH4(g) + 2H2O(l) → CO2(g) + 8H+(aq) + 8e–
The corresponding equation for the half reaction at the cathode is
A. 2H2O(l) + 4e– → 4H+(aq) + O2(g)
B. 4H+(aq) + O2(g) → 2H2O(l)
C. 2H2O(l) → 4H+(aq) + O2(g) + 4e–
D. 4H+(aq) + O2(g) + 4e– → 2H2O(l)

Question 6 (04 Chem2)

A fuel cell is set up based on the oxidation of methane. Again, the equation for the anode half reaction
CH4(g) + 2H2O(l) → CO2(g) + 8H+(aq) + 8e–
Assuming that all the energy of the oxidation reaction is converted to electricity, the amount of
electric charge, in coulomb, obtained from the oxidation of one mole of methane is closest to
A. 8 × 102
B. 1 × 103
C. 8 × 105
D. 1 × 106
Question 4 (04 Chem2)
A small electric vehicle is powered by rechargeable lead-acid car batteries. The energy that drives the
vehicle comes from the cell reaction
Pb(s) + PbO2(s) + 2H2SO4(aq) → 2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)
The equation for the anode half reaction is
Pb(s) + H2SO4(aq) → PbSO4(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2e–

a. Write the equation for the cathode half reaction. 1 mark

b. In this vehicle, each battery operates at 12.0 V. When fully charged, the vehicle can travel on a
level surface for 2.5 hours with an average energy consumption of 1.0 kJ s –1, after which time the
batteries must be recharged.
i. How much energy, in kJ, is used by the vehicle in travelling for 2.5 hours? 1 mark
ii. Write the equation for the overall chemical reaction that occurs when the battery is being
recharged. 1 mark
iii. What voltage should be used to recharge each battery? 1 mark
Total 4 marks

Question 7 (05 Chem2)

The rechargeable nickel-cadmium cell is used to power small appliances such as portable computers.
When the cell is being used, the electrode reactions are represented by the following equations.
NiO2(s) + 2H2O(l) + 2e- → Ni(OH)2(s) + 2OH-(aq)
Cd(s) + 2OH-(aq) → Cd(OH)2(s) + 2e-
Which of the following occurs during the recharging of the nickel-cadmium cell?
I cadmium is deposited on the negative electrode
II the pH of the electrolyte increases
III the direction of electron flow in the external circuit is from the
anode to the cathode
A. I only
B. I and II only
C. II and III only
D. I and III only

Question 6 (06 Chem2)

Natural gas can be burnt in a power station to provide electrical energy. Alternatively, natural gas can
be fed into a fuel cell for electricity generation. At the present time, which one of the following best
compares the efficiency and cost of generating electrical energy by these two methods in a city like
effi ciency of fuel cell cost per kJ of electricity from fuel cell
A. higher lower
B. higher higher
C. lower lower
D. lower higher
Question 5 (06 Chem2)
An Internet site reporting the latest developments in fuel cell technology describes a cell that uses a
solid ceramic material as the electrolyte and hydrogen gas and oxygen gas as the reactants.
Key features of this cell are
• water is the only product from the cell reaction
• the ceramic material allows the movement of oxide ions (O2-)
• the reaction at the anode is H2(g) + O2-(in ceramic) → H2O(l) + 2e-
• operation at very high temperatures of over 1000°C means that precious metal catalysts are
not required.
A representation of the cell providing electricity for an appliance is shown in the diagram below.

a. What distinguishes a fuel cell from a galvanic cell such as a dry cell or lead-acid battery?1 mark

b. On the diagram above

i. in circles A and B, indicate the polarity of the cathode and anode 1 mark
ii. show, by using an arrow, the direction of electron flow in the external circuit. 1 mark

c. Write an equation for each of the following reactions. You are not required to show states in these
two equations.
i. the overall cell reaction 1 mark
ii. the reaction at the cathode 1 mark

d. A ceramic fuel cell delivers a current of 0.500 A for 10.0 minutes at a potential of 0.600 volts.
i. How much electrical energy, in joules, would be provided by the cell? 1 mark
ii. Calculate the charge, in coulomb, produced by the cell. 1 mark
iii. If this particular cell operated at 60.0% efficiency, what amount of hydrogen gas (H2), in mole,
would be consumed by the fuel cell? 3 marks

Questions 15 and 16 refer to the following information.

A rechargeable cell, used in laptop computers, contains a metal alloy (designated M) which has
hydrogen atoms adsorbed on its surface, and nickel in the form of NiO(OH)(s) and Ni(OH)2(s).
The half reactions, written as reduction reactions, are
H2O(l) + e-  H (adsorbed on M) + OH-(aq)
NiO(OH)(s) + H2O(l) + e-  Ni(OH)2(s) + OH-(aq)
While this cell is generating electricity, the metal alloy acts as the negative electrode.
Question 15 (07 Chem2)
When this cell is generating electricity
A. NiO(OH) acts as the oxidant.
B. the concentration of OH- ions in the cell increases as the cell discharges.
C. OH- ions produced at the negative electrode migrate to the positive electrode.
D. electrons flow in the external circuit from the positive to the negative electrode.

Question 16 (07 Chem2)

When the cell is recharged, which one of the following processes occurs at the electrode connected to
the positive terminal of the external power source?
A. reduction of H2O(l)
B. reduction of NiO(OH)(s)
C. oxidation of Ni(OH)2(s)
D. oxidation of H (adsorbed on M)

Question 17 (07 Chem2)

A fuel cell currently under development for powering small electronic devices is based on the reaction
of methanol and oxygen using an acidic electrolyte.
The reductant in the cell reaction and the half reaction at the anode are
reductant anode reaction
A. methanol O2(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e- → 2H2O(l)
B. oxygen O2(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e- → 2H2O(l)
C. methanol CH3OH(g) + H2O(l) → CO2(g) + 6H+(aq) + 6e-
D. oxygen CH3OH(g) + H2O(l) → CO2(g) + 6H+(aq) + 6e-

The following information is referred to in questions 16, 17 and 18.

The Down’s cell is used for the industrial preparation of sodium and chlorine. The reaction occurring
in the Down’s cell is
2NaCl(l)  2Na(l) + Cl2(g)
Question 16 (02 Chem2)
An iron mesh screen is a necessary part of the Down’s cell. The primary role of the screen is to
A. allow electric current to flow from the anode compartment to the cathode compartment.
B. provide a way for the liquid sodium to be run into a collection vessel.
C. prevent the chlorine and sodium from coming into contact and thereby exploding.
D. prevent chloride ions from moving from the anode into the cathode compartment.

Question 17 (02 Chem2)

Pure NaCl is not used in a Down’s cell. The liquid that is in a Down’s cell is a mixture of CaCl2 and
NaCl. The CaCl2/NaCl mixture is used instead of pure NaCl because it
A. has a higher melting temperature.
B. improves the yield of chlorine produced.
C. improves the purity of the sodium produced.
D. enables the process to be carried out at a lower temperature.

Question 18 (02 Chem2)

A particular Down’s cell operates for 1.00 × 104 s at a current of 96.5 A.
The amount of chlorine produced, in mole, is
A. 0.050
B. 5.00
C. 10.0
D. 20.0

Question 20 (02 Chem2)

5 L volumes of 1.0 M KNO3(aq), 1.0 M AgNO3(aq) and 1.0 M Cu(NO3)2(aq) are placed in three
separate electrolytic cells using platinum electrodes. Over a period of 30 minutes, 96 500 coulombs of
electric charge are passed through each solution. Which of the following alternatives correctly
indicates the amount, in mole, of metal deposited at the cathode in each cell?

n(K) n(Ag) n(Cu)

A. 0 1 2
B. 0 1 0.5
C. 1 1 0.5
D. 0.5 0.5 1

Questions 5 and 6 refer to the following information.

A student electrolyses a 0.1 M aqueous solution of sodium chloride. A colourless, odourless gas is
evolved at one electrode. A second colourless, odourless gas is evolved at the other electrode.

Question 5 (03 Chem2)

The gases evolved at the positive and negative electrodes are
Positive electrode Negative electrode
A. Oxygen Hydrogen
B. Hydrogen Oxygen
C. Chlorine Hydrogen
D. Hydrogen Chlorine

Question 6 (03 Chem2)

During this electrolysis, the pH of the solution will
A. decrease around the cathode and increase around the anode.
B. increase around the cathode and decrease around the anode.
C. decrease at both electrodes.
D. increase at both electrodes.

Question 4 (03 Chem2)

A piece of silver jewellery is coated with gold (Au) in an electrolytic cell that contains gold ions in an
aqueous solution. Use the information below to determine the oxidation number of the gold ions in the
aqueous solution.
volume of gold deposited 0.150 cm3
density of gold 19.3 g cm–3
cell current 4.00 A
time taken to plate jewellery 17.75 minutes
a. Calculate the amount of electrons, in mole, passed through the cell. 2 marks

b. Calculate the amount of gold, in mole, deposited on the jewellery. 2 marks

c. i. Determine the ratio n(e–)/n(Au). 1 mark

ii. Hence give the oxidation state of gold in the gold ions in this solution. 1 mark

Question 5 (03 Chem2)

Give a concise answer to each of the following questions.
a. The Downs Cell uses a molten electrolyte containing NaC1 to produce sodium at an iron cathode.
Explain why an aqueous solution of NaC1 cannot be used to produce sodium at an iron cathode.
1 mark
b. Alumina dissolved in molten cryolite is used in preference to molten alumina in the electrolytic
production of aluminium. Explain why. 1 mark
Question 3 (04 Chem2)
In the electrolytic production of aluminium metal from alumina (Al 2O3), the alumina is dissolved in
cryolite (Na3A1F6). The anodes and cathodes are made of carbon. The electrode reactions may be
represented by
C + 2O2– → CO2 + 4e–
Al3+ + 3e– → Al
The net reaction for this electrolysis process is
A. 2Al2O3 → 4Al + 3O2
B. Al3+ + C + 2O2– → Al + CO2
C. 2Al2O3 + 3C → 4Al + 3CO2
D. 4Al3+ + 6O2– + O2 + C → 2Al2O3 + CO2

Question 9 (04 Chem2)

96.5 C of electricity is used to completely deposit silver metal (Ag) from an aqueous solution in
which the silver ion is present as Ag+(aq). Another 96.5 C is used to completely deposit copper (Cu)
from an aqueous solution in which the copper ion is present as Cu2+(aq).
The silver metal deposited would
A. have half the mass of the copper deposited.
B. have twice the mass of the copper deposited.
C. be half the mole of the copper deposited.
D. be twice the mole of the copper deposited.

Question 9 (05 Chem2)

The disc to be plated is connected to the
A. positive terminal of a battery so that oxidation occurs at the disc.
B. positive terminal of a battery so that reduction occurs at the disc.
C. negative terminal of a battery so that oxidation occurs at the disc.
D. negative terminal of a battery so that reduction occurs at the disc.

Question 10 (05 Chem2)

The mass of silver to be deposited is 0.150 g.
If the current is held steady at 1.50 amps, the time, in seconds, that it takes to complete the plating is
closest to
A. 90
B. 180
C. 200
D. 360

Question 11 (05 Chem2)

An identical disc is to be gold-plated with a solution containing Au3+(aq) as the electrolyte using a
current of 1.50 amps. The ratio of the time that is needed to plate the disc with 0.150 g of gold to the
time needed to plate the disc with 0.150 g of silver is closest to
A. 1 to 3
B. 1 to 1.6
C. 1.6 to 1
D. 3 to 1

Question 12 (05 Chem2)

An electrolytic cell is used commercially to extract aluminium from its ore. The anode and cathode of
this electrolytic cell are composed of
Anode Cathode
A. carbon carbon
B. carbon iron
C. iron carbon
D. iron iron

Question 7 (05 Chem2)

A mineral ore contains a mixture of compounds of lead and calcium, in approximately equal
proportions. A chemist extracts the metal ions by roasting the ore in air and treating the product with
acid. The solution that contains the Pb2+(aq) and Ca2+(aq) is then placed in an electrolytic cell as
shown in the diagram below.

a. Label the anode and cathode of the cell. 1 mark

b. When the current begins to flow in the cell, write equations for the half reaction that is likely to
occur at the
• positive electrode
• negative electrode 2 marks

c. After some time has elapsed, a new half reaction occurs at one of the electrodes. Write the
equation for this half reaction. 1 mark

d. If the chemist had used copper electrodes instead of platinum electrodes, how would this have
affected the half reaction at the anode? 1 mark

Question 8 (05 Chem2)

One type of ‘breathalyser’ instrument used by police for the measurement of the concentration of
alcohol in a driver’s breath is a fuel cell. An acidic electrolyte is used. Ethanol is oxidised to ethanoic
acid at one electrode and oxygen from the air is converted to water at the other.
The overall equation for this reaction is
C2H5OH(aq) + O2(g) → CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l)

a. Write the equation for the half reaction at the anode. 2 marks

b. A motorist who has consumed alcohol blows into the fuel cell. If the breath entering the cell
provides alcohol at the rate of 3.0 × 10-5 g per second, calculate the maximum current, in amps, that
the cell would produce. 3 marks

c. The nature of the electrodes in the cell is essential to the effective operation of the breathalyser.
State two important functions that the electrodes must perform. 2 marks

Question 7 (06 Chem2)

Tin metal is electroplated onto sheets of iron using a tin anode and a well-stirred solution containing
Sn2+ ions. During this process
A. the anode increases in mass.
B. Sn2+ ions move towards the cathode.
C. the concentration of Sn2+ in the solution decreases.
D. the concentration of Sn2+ in the solution increases.

Question 8 (06 Chem2)

The passage of 0.019 faradays of electricity through a molten chromium compound yields 0.50 g of
chromium metal.
The oxidation number of chromium in the compound is likely to be
A. +2
B. +3
C. +4
D. +6

Question 6 (06 Chem2)

The simplified diagram below shows the Hall Cell that is used for the industrial production of

a. In circles X and Y in the diagram,

show the polarity of the electrodes.
1 mark
b. In the Hall Cell, the electrolyte
consists of alumina mixed with another
compound. In box Z, write the name or the formula of this compound.
1 mark

c. Write a half equation for the reaction that occurs at the

i. anode 1 mark
ii. cathode. 1 mark

d. Suppose the electrolyte was replaced with an aqueous solution of Al(NO3)3 at 25°C. Write an
equation for the half reaction that would occur at the cathode. 1 mark

Question 7 (06 Chem2)

Give concise explanations in answer to each of the following.
a. Calcium chloride is added to the molten sodium chloride electrolyte in the Downs Cell for the
production of sodium. Explain why calcium metal is not produced in the cell. 1 mark

Questions 12, 13 and 14 refer to the following information.

The diagram below represents a diaphragm cell used for the commercial production of chlorine gas.
Question 12 (07 Chem2)
The gases labelled X and Y are
A. chlorine oxygen
B. oxygen chlorine
C. chlorine hydrogen
D. hydrogen chlorine

Question 13 (07 Chem2)

One function of the porous diaphragm in the cell is to
A. act as a catalyst to increase the rate of the reaction.
B. allow movement of ions between the cell compartments.
C. prevent sodium ions from entering the solution near the anode.
D. prevent the electrolyte from making contact with the gases produced.

Question 14 (07 Chem2)

A highly concentrated salt solution, called brine, is used as the electrolyte in this cell.
The main reason that a highly concentrated, rather than a dilute, solution is used is in order to
A. allow an electric current to pass through the cell.
B. produce chlorine gas, in preference to oxygen gas.
C. allow sodium hydroxide to be separated from the salt by crystallisation.
D. create non-standard conditions that ensure hydrogen gas production.