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ENGINEERING

MATERIALS
LECTURE-2

DR. ANEELA WAKEEL

Atomic mass Cu=63.5g/mol
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10 CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE
Axial length are represented by a, b,
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Interaxial angles are α, β, γ.
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• Determine the number of lattice points per cell in the cubic crystal
systems. If there is only one atom located at each lattice point,
calculate the number of atoms per unit cell.
NUMBER
• Example 3.1 SOLUTION
OF
• In the SC unit cell: lattice point / unit cell = (8 corners)1/8 = 1
ATOMS
• In BCC unit cells: lattice point / unit cell= (8 corners)1/8 + (1
PER UNIT
center)(1) = 2 CELL
• In FCC unit cells: lattice point / unit cell = (8 corners)1/8 + (6
faces)(1/2) = 4

• The number of atoms per unit cell would be 1, 2, and 4, for the
simple cubic, body-centered cubic, and face-centered cubic, unit
cells, respectively.
17 COORDINATION NUMBER

Number of nearest neighbours or touching atoms

around an atom
Coordination number
(SC)=6
BCC=8
FCC=12
The primitive, body-centred and face-centred cubic unit cells.mp4
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24 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
CHARACTERISTICS
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Determine the density of BCC iron, which has a lattice
parameter of 0.2866 nm.
Example 3.4 SOLUTION
Atoms/cell = 2, a0 = 0.2866 nm = 2.866  10-8 cm
Atomic mass = 55.847 g/mol
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Volume of unit cell = a 0= (2.866  10-8 cm)3 = 23.54  10-24
cm3/cell
Avogadro’s number NA = 6.02  1023 atoms/mol
(number of atoms/cell)(atomic mass of iron)
Density  =
(volume of unit cell)(Avogadro' s number)
(2)(55.847)
 = − 24
= 7. 882g / cm
3

(23.54  10 )(6.02  10 )
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LINEAR AND PLANAR ATOMIC
DENSITIES
Linear Density:
Directional equivalency is related to the atomic linear density in the
sense that equivalent directions have identical linear densities.
The direction vector is positioned so as to pass through atom centers.
The fraction of line length intersected by these atoms is equal to the
linear density.

Planar Density:
Crystallographic planes that are equivalent have the same atomic planar
density. The plane of interest is positioned so as to pass through atom
centers.
Planar density is the fraction of total crystallographic plane area that is
occupied by atoms.
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FCC: LINEAR DENSITY Number of atoms
• Linear Density of Atoms  LD =
Unit length of direction vector

2𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑚𝑠 1
𝐿𝐷110 = =
4𝑅 2𝑅
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