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TITLE OF THE PROJECT

Final Year Project Report

Group: 24 Batch: 20XX-20YY

Rakia Kamran ME-08158


Talha Jawed ME-08160
Syed Taha Shahid ME-08181
Syed Maisam Mehdi ME-08153

Internal Advisor: Umair Bin Asim


Lecturer
Department of Mechanical Engineering
External Advisor: Mr. Zafar Ahmed
XYZ
Karachi Water & Sewerage Board

Reference#: XX/20XX
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

NED UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

CERTIFICATE

It is to certify that the following students have completed their project “Your project
title in italics” satisfactorily.

Group: 24 Batch: 2008-2009


Name Seat No.
Rakia Kamran ME-08158
Talha Jawed ME-08160
Syed Taha Shahid ME-08181
Syed Maisam Mehdi ME-08153

Internal Advisor External Advisor


Umair Bin Asim Mr. Zafar Ahmed
Lecturer XYZ
Department of Mechanical Engineering Karachi Water & Sewerage Board
NED University of Engg. & Tech.

Projects’ Coordinator
Mr. NVD RHM
Department of Mechanical Engineering
NED University of Engg. & Tech.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

NED UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


DEDICATION

(optional)

I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

(1 page only)

II
ABSTRACT

KW & SB is the biggest consumer of electricity supplied by KESC, resulting in high


electricity bills. The availability of high flow rate of water makes it a possibility that
KW & SB can develop a mechanism to lessen its dependency on KESC. It has also
been noticed that on a number of occasions the KW & SB has to suffer huge financial
loss due to sudden power failure, as its biggest pumping station, Dhabeji, requires
electricity 24/7 and such sudden failures lead to back flow of water which damage the
water distribution pipes.
Hence, the basic idea behind this project is to make a suitable mechanism for
extraction of power utilizing the water distribution system of KW & SB, so that it can
make use of its flowing water for the production of electricity at a lower rate.

III
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Karachi Water & Sewerage Board.................................................................1


1.1 Introduction................................................................................................1
1.2 Water Supply..............................................................................................1
1.2.1 Water Management................................................................................1
1.2.2 Karachi Water Supply Historic Facts:....................................................1
1.2.3 Water Supply Scenario:..........................................................................1
1.3 Water Distribution System of KW & SB...................................................2
1.3.1 Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply System..........................................2

Karachi was the first capital city of the country after its birth in 1947. It also
became the most important industrial and commercial centre. The older system of
water supply could not cope up with the growing demand. In order to meet
shortages in supply and to cater to future demands of the expanding city, the
Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme was designed in 1953 for supply of
280 MGD potable water to the city. On the basis of a population projection of 3
million by the year 2000, the scheme was designed and divided into four equal
phases, each of 70 MGD. It comprises of open canals, covered conduits, a tunnel,
siphons, pumping stations, and draws water from Keenjhar Lake.............................2
1.3.2 Hub Water Supply System.....................................................................7
1.3.3 Total Quantum of Services to Manage and Look After.........................7
1.3.4 Available Supply of Water......................................................................7
1.4 Sewage Generation & Treatment...............................................................8
1.5 Water Contamination..................................................................................9

IV
2. Criteria for site Selection...............................................................................12
2.1 Availability of water.................................................................................12
3.1.1 Criteria Evaluation:..............................................................................19
3.2 Dhabeji:....................................................................................................24
3.2.1 Criteria Evaluation:..............................................................................24
..........................................................................................................................27
3.3 C.O.D.......................................................................................................29
3.3.1 Criteria Evaluation:..............................................................................29
3.4 Final Site Selection By factor Rating:......................................................33

4. Methods of determining head, velocity and flow used by KW & SB:.......34


4.1 Velocity....................................................................................................34
4.2 Cross-Sectional Area:...............................................................................34
4.3 Flow Rate:................................................................................................35
4.3.1 Method of Flow Measurement:............................................................35
4.4 Head Measurement:..................................................................................36
4.4.1 Direct Distance Measurement..............................................................36
4.5 Further Improvement...............................................................................38

5. Types of Hydraulic Turbines:........................................................................39


5.1 Reaction turbines......................................................................................39
5.2 Impulse turbines.......................................................................................39
5.3 Classification of Turbines:.......................................................................40
5.3.1 According to the head and quantity of water available........................40
5.3.2 According to power transmission system:...........................................40
5.3.3 According to direction of flow of water in the runner:........................40
5.3.4 According to the orientation of the turbine shaft:................................41
5.3.5 According to specific speed:................................................................41
5.4 Comparison of turbines............................................................................42
5.5 Comparison of Turbine according to Head..............................................42

6. Criteria of Turbine Selection:.......................................................................44


6.1 Net Head...................................................................................................44
6.1.1 Head losses:..........................................................................................44
6.2 Specific Speed:.........................................................................................47
6.3 Range Of Discharge:................................................................................50

V
7. Kaplan Turbine Components............................................................................51
7.1 Spiral Case:..............................................................................................51
7.2 Stay Ring/Vanes:......................................................................................51
7.3 Wicket Gates:...........................................................................................51
7.4 Runner:.....................................................................................................52
7.5 Draft Tube................................................................................................52
7.6 Turbine Shaft............................................................................................52
7.7 Guide Bearing:.........................................................................................53
7.8 Mechanical Seals / Packing:.....................................................................53
7.9 Head Cover / Bottom Ring:......................................................................53
7.10 Discharge / Throat Ring:..........................................................................54
The discharge ring serves as the steel housing of the runner which is the
transitional piece to the expanding draft tube......................................................54

 Conclusion
 References
 Appendix

VI
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: A cup of tea................................................................................................1


Figure 2: asdad...........................................................................................................2

i
LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: The growth and power relation in last years..............................................3

ii
CHAPTER #1

1. Karachi Water & Sewerage Board

1.1 Introduction
Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KW & SB) is the agency responsible for supplying
water to Karachi. There are two major sources of water. One is Keenjhar Lake and the other
one is the Hub dam. KW & SB pumps about 650 MGD of water to the city from both of its
sources, 550 MGD from Keenjhar Lake and 100 MGD from the Hub Dam.

1.2 Water Supply

1.2.1 Water Management


Water is being supplied to Karachi from a distant location. Water source through bulk
conveyance system comprises of a complex network of canals, conduits, siphons, multi-
stage pumping and filtration.

1.2.2 Karachi Water Supply Historic Facts:


 The quota of 450 cusecs (242 MGD 1089ml/day for Ruby season) and 520 cusecs (280
MDG 1260ml/day for Kharif season) from Indus river was sanctioned on May 11, 1957.
 In 1988, the same quota was increased to 1200 cusecs (2880 ml/day) by Presidential
decree, which has been exhausted in 2006 with implementation of K-III Project.

1.2.3 Water Supply Scenario:


 The present supply to Karachi from Indus and Hub source is approx. 650MGD (2925
ml/day).
 The per capita water demand @ 54 GPCD for population 20 Million is estimated as
1080 MDG.
 The current short fall is anticipated as 430 MGD.
 First Phase of K-IV Project may take up to 5 years to complete i.e. by the year 2015.
 By the year 2015, projected population of Karachi will be 23 Million and @ 54 gallons
per capita per day, the demand of water shall be 1242 MGD.

1
 By the year 2015 there will be a short fall of 600 MGD (2700 ml/day) water.
 100 MGD (450 ml/day) additional water is required after every 5 years to bridge the
gap of demand and supply.

1.3 Water Distribution System of KW & SB


Before the start of the project, it was necessary to study the water distribution system of
KW & SB as it will be of grave importance throughout the project. The Water distribution
system of KW & SB comprises of supply of raw water from its two major sources,
Keenjhar Lake and Hub Dam. This water is then pumped to the filtration plants and then
this treated water is supplied to various parts of Karachi City.
The Water distribution system was developed under the following scheme.

1.3.1 Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply System

Karachi was the first capital city of the country after its birth in 1947. It also became the
most important industrial and commercial centre. The older system of water supply could
not cope up with the growing demand. In order to meet shortages in supply and to cater to
future demands of the expanding city, the Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme was
designed in 1953 for supply of 280 MGD potable water to the city. On the basis of a
population projection of 3 million by the year 2000, the scheme was designed and divided
into four equal phases, each of 70 MGD. It comprises of open canals, covered conduits, a
tunnel, siphons, pumping stations, and draws water from Keenjhar Lake.

2
3
1st Phase:
The first phase of the scheme for bringing 70 MGD Keenjhar Lake water to the city with
raw-water pumping at Dhabeji, a 70 MGD water treatment plant at COD Hills, Karachi and
complete water conveyance system comprising of a 280 MGD lined canal, a conduit of
equal capacity up to Pipri and of 140 MGD capacity up to Karachi, a 10 MG reservoir at
COD Hills along with the distribution net-work was started in 1954 and completed in 1961
at a total cost of Rs.18.5 Crores.
2nd Phase:
Contracts for the 2nd phase works were awarded in 1969. The main works included
construction of a 70 MGD pump house at Dhabeji, laying of 84” dia pre-stressed pipe
siphons a 25 MGD pump house at pipri and two water treatment plants of 25 and 45 MGD
along with 10 MG reservoirs at Pipri and COD Hills respectively. Some additional truck
mains were also laid for improving the distribution system. The 2 nd phase works were
completed in early 1971 at a total cost of Rs.20.0 Crores.
3rd Phase:
The 3rd phase works were taken up in 1975 and were commissioned in 1978. The works
completed under this phase include construction of a 70 MGD pumping station at Dhabeji,
two pumping stations along with water treatment plants of 25 MGD capacity each at North
East Karachi and pipri, 84” dia pipe syphone, three balancing reservoirs and the distribution
mains. Total cost of these works in Rs.75 crores. A reservation for supply of 22 MGD of
un-filtered water to Karachi Steel has also been made under this phase.
4th Phase:
Due to financial constraints, 4th Phase works have been divided into two parts. Under stage
I, improvement of lined canal, modifications of the present Dhabeji Pumping Stations,
laying of 84” dia pipe syphons, construction of a 25 MGD pump house and clarification
units at Pipri, improvement of the secondary distribution net-work and installation of
domestic meters in K.D.A. Scheme No.1 & 5 have been taken up with the World Bank
assistance and are due for completion by June, 1987. After completion of these projects at a
total cost of Rs.360 million, the city water supply will be augmented by 50 MGD.
5th Phase
A master study for identification of water supply requirements of the city during short,
medium and long term plans (up to 2025) and for preparing feasibility studies, including
costing of projects during various plan periods have been assigned to a consortium of

4
consultants. Implementation actions on the consultant’s proposals will be taken after their
approval by the Board and after allocation of funds by the Government.

5
6
1.3.2 Hub Water Supply System
A 151 ft. high and 21,000 ft. long earthen dam has been constructed by WAPDA on Hub
River for creating a reservoir of almost one million acre feet storage capacity for meeting
the agricultural and industrial water supply requirements of Baluchistan and for supply of
89 MGD water to Karachi for domestic use. The quality of Hub Water is comparable to
Indus water and therefore, similar para-meters for pumping and treatment have been
adopted. The project has been designed for completion in two stages. Stage-I works which
comprise of a 90 MGD pump house, two steel pressure mains one 20 MG reservoir, trunk
mains and primary treatment of lake water by screening and chlorination were completed
and commissioned in August, 1982 at a total cost of Rs.26.6 crores, Stage-II works, which
comprise of improvement of secondary distribution net-work and construction of a 90
MGD water treatment plant, will be taken up after the required fund are made available by
the Government.

1.3.3 Total Quantum of Services to Manage and Look After


 Over 150 pumping stations
 25 bulk reservoirs on various installations
 Over 10,000 km of pipe lines
 Over 900 million gallons of fluid
 Billing and recovery of 1.4 million establishment / consumers
 Over 400,000 valves
 Over 250,000 manholes
 Maximum demand of 972 MGD while minimum demand is 720 MGD

1.3.4 Available Supply of Water


 Greater Karachi 280 MGD
 Gharo 28 MGD
 K-II 100 MGD
 Additional 40 MGD
 K-III 100 MGD
 Steel mill 22 MGD
 PQA 8 MGD
 Hub dam 90 MGD
 Dumlotee wells 2 MGD
 Total 670 MGD
 Water lose reduction 35% (-) 234.50 MGD

7
Available Water Supply 435.50 MGD

At Present a total 640 Approx MGD of water is being supplied to the city of Karachi
(except Steel Mill & PQA) out of which 440 MGD is being filtered at the following
filtration plants.

 COD Filter Plants ( 70 + 45) 115MGD


 Pipri (New) Filter Plant 50MGD
 Pipri (Old) Filter Plant (25 +25) 50MGD
 NEK (old) Filter Plant 25MGD
 NEK (New) Filter Plant 100MGD
 Hub Filter Plant 80MGD
 Gharo Filter Plants (10 + 10) 20MGD
 Total 440MGD

1.4 Sewage Generation & Treatment


 Bulk Water Generation 670 MGD
 Sewage generated (at 60% of 670 MGD) 402 MGD

Treatment Plant- Treatment Plant- Treatment Plant-


Description TOTAL
1 II III
Treatment Capacity 51 MGD 46 MGD 54 MGD 151 MGD
Present Treatment 25 MGD 30 MGD 35 MGD 90 MGD
Deficiency in Optimal
26 MGD 16 MGD 19 MGD 61 MGD
Capacity
Shortfall in Treatment Capacity 402-151=251 MGD

Sewerage System:

Sewerage generated in City (70% of Water Supplied) 472 MGD


Optimum design capacity of Sewerage Treatment plants 151 MGD
Quantity of Sewage Treated 55 MGD
Shortfall in Sewage Treatment capacity 321 MGD
Untreated Sewage 417 MGD
Inventory of Sewerage System:

Number of Sewerage Treatment Plants 3


Number of Major Sewerage Pumping Station 6

8
Number of Sewerage Lift Pumping Station 32
Number of Sewer Cleaning Machines
Number of Suction Machines 23
Number of Jetting Machines
Total Length of Sewers 5670 Km
Number of Manholes 250,000

Sewage Treatment Plant:

Sewage Treatment plant Optimum Design Actual Treatment


Capacity (MGD) MGD
Sewage Treatment Plant-I Site 51.00 20
Sewage Treatment Plant-II 46.50 0
Mehmoodabad
Sewage Treatment Plant-III Mauripur 54.00 35
Total 151.50 55

1.5 Water Contamination


Water in the distribution system may become contaminated through:
 Cross connections
 Back siphon age
 Leaking service connection
 Defective storage tanks and reservoirs
 Damaged hydrants
 Utilization of illegal suction pumps
 Inexpert repairs to domestic plumping system

In 1984 WHO introduced a new set of "drinking water quality recommendation". These are
not presented as standards but rather guideline criteria which can serve as a basis for
preparation of local standards.

1.5.1 Measures Taken by KW & SB Against Contamination:

9
The KW & SB immediately after its creation has taken a number of measures to ensure
supply hygienically fit water to the city of Karachi as follows.
The minimum requirements of free chlorine in the distribution system according to WHO
standards are 0.25 to 0.50 ppm. However, KW & SB maintains 2.00 ppm residual (free)
chlorine at the reservoir outlets in order to ensure that the minimum of free chlorine
requirement is maintain throughout the distribution network, this is the best guard against
contamination.
One thousand water samples are now being collected every month for bacteriological
analysis. The testing for quality of water is regularly carried out in KW & SB laboratory at
COD Hills Filtration Plant.
The Board has introduced a system of 'counter check' and periodically samples are tested at
the Karachi University and Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR).
The complaints of contamination are given priority and immediate remedial measures are
adopted by expositing the line to locate the cause.

1.5.1 Re-Treatment Process Adopted by KW & SB:

Patterson and Candys water treatment plants were acquired under the Hilaya Scheme
whereas WABAG and Degramont plants from West Germany and France respectively have
been installed under the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Phase of the Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply
Scheme. All these plants work on the principle of the pre and post chlorination,
coagulation and precipitation of settled matter in sedimentation basin and further
purification in rapid sand filter beds.
Row and Candys water is received in a distribution chamber for treatment, to chlorination.
The chlorination results in the reduction of organic and bacterial load as well as in
optimization of the pH value for effective and economical use of the coagulant Aluminum
soleplate, which is used as a coagulating agent. It is introduced in the raw water before a
flash mixer for uniform distribution of the coagulant in the water body.
The chemically mixed water is then conveyed to a flocculation unit for preparation of a
thick and heavy flock of settle able matter. This Unit has a retention time of 20-30 minutes.
The heavy flock is separated and removed in sedimentation basin. Circular and rectangular
clarification tanks having a detention time of 2-3 hours have been installed in the Patterson
and candy's and WABAG treatment plants where the heavier flock settles down and is

10
removed by mechanical, rakes under hydrostatic pressure. The Decrement plants have
pulsators for removal of settle able matter where the heavy flock is not allowed to settle at
the bottom but is kept in suspension up to 2/3rd of the height of the water column by means
of regular intermittent pulsations applied to the water body.
The upward flow of water, also assists in the connections by hydro-static pressure through
automatically operated and controlled sluice valves. The clarified water is then provided
further treatment in rapid send filter beds.
The water collected at the bottom of the filter is potable and according to WHO standards.
How-ever, post chlorination is applied before storage in reservoirs for distribution in the
city.
For effective treatment and quality control, during the treatment processes and for ensuring
a safe and potable water supply to the city KW & SB is maintaining chemical laboratories
at all treatment plants. Extensive check on the sanitary quality of the city water supply is
made. In addition further monitoring is carried out by independent agencies like KMC,
Karachi University, PCSIR and EPA.

11
CHAPTER #2

2. Criteria for site Selection


Before we can begin planning our systems or estimating how much power we shall
produce, we shall need to make some essential measurements:
In this section, we'll discuss how to make these measurements and how they affect the
design and efficiency of the given hydro system.
Some points which should be given importance while selecting a site for Hydro-electric
power station are given below.

2.1 Availability of water


Since the primary requirement for a hydroelectric power station is the availability of
adequate amount of water, such plants should be built at a place (e.g. river, canal) where
adequate water is available at a reasonable head.

2.1.1. Measuring Flow

Stream levels change through the seasons, so it is important to measure flow at various
times of the year. If this is not possible, attempt to determine various annual flows by
discussing the stream with a neighbor, or finding government geological survey flow data
for your stream or a nearby larger stream. Also keep in mind that fish, birds, plants and
other living things rely on your stream for survival. Especially during low water seasons,
avoid using all the water for your hydro system.

Flow is typically expressed as some volume of water per second or minute. Common
examples are gallons or liters per second (or minute), and cubic feet or cubic meters per
second (or minute): Each can be easily converted to another, as follows:
 1 cubic foot = 7.481 gallons
 1 cubic meter = 35.31 cubic feet
 1 cubic meter = 1,000 liters

12
There are three popular methods for measuring FLOW: using a Container, Float, Weir or
recently Electronic Transducers. Each will be described in detail below. Once again,
accuracy is important to ensure correct system design and optimum power generation.

Method 1: Measuring Time to Fill Container


The Container Fill method works only for very small systems.
Build a temporary dam that forces all the water to flow through a single outlet pipe, Using a
bucket or larger container of a known volume, use a stopwatch to time how long it takes to
fill the container. Then, divide the container size by the number of seconds.

Example:
Container = 5 gallon paint bucket
Time to fill = 8 seconds

 5 gallons / 8 seconds = 0.625 gallons per second (gps)

To convert into Cubic Feet per Second (cfs):


 7.481 gallons per second = 1 cubic foot per second, so
 0.625 gps / 7.481 = 0.0835 cubic feet per second (cfs).

Method 2: Measuring with a Float

The Float method is useful for large streams if you can locate a section about 10 feet long
where the stream is fairly consistent in width and depth.

STEP 1: Measure the average depth of the stream. Select a board able to span the width of
the stream and mark it at one-foot intervals. Lay the board across the stream, and measure
the stream depth at each one-foot interval. To compute the average depth, add all of your
measurements together and divide by the number of measurements you made.
STEP 2: Compute the area of the cross section you just measured. Multiply the average
depth you just computed by the width of the stream. For example, a 6-foot wide stream
with an average depth of 1.5 feet would yield a cross section area of 9 square feet.

13
STEP 3: Measure the Speed. A good way to measure speed is to mark off about a 10-foot
length of the stream that includes the point where you measured the cross section.
Remember, you only want to know the speed of the water where you measured the cross
section, so the shorter the length of stream you measure, the better.

Using a weighted float that can be clearly seen (an orange works well), place it in the
stream well upstream of your measurement area, and then use a stopwatch to time how long
it takes to cover the length of your measurement section (e.g. 10 feet). The stream speed
probably varies across its width, so record the times for various locations and average them.
With these time and distance measurements, you can now compute the water speed.
For example, let’s assume it took 5 seconds for your float to travel 10 feet:
 10 feet / 5 seconds = 2 feet per second, or
 2 feet per second x 60 = 120 feet per minute

You can then compute FLOW by multiplying the feet traveled by the cross section area.
Using our cross section area and speed examples:
 120 feet per minute x 9 square feet = 1,080 cubic feet per minute (cfm) FLOW

STEP 4: Correct for Friction. Because the stream bed creates friction against the moving
water, the bottom of the stream tends to move a little slower than the top. This means actual
flow is a little less than what we computed. By multiplying our result by 0.83, we get a
closer approximation of actual flow:
 1,080 CFM x 0.83 = 896.4 cfm (cubic feet per minute), or
 896.4 CFM / 60 = 14.94 cfs (cubic feet per second)
 Design Flow
 Even though your Flow may be very high after exceptionally rainy periods, it
probably won’t be cost effective to design your turbine system to handle all that
water for just a few days of the year. Instead, it makes sense to build a system that
uses Flow you can count on for much of the year. This is called Design Flow, and it
is the maximum Flow your hydro system is designed to accommodate.
 Design Flow, along with Net Head, determines everything about your hydro system,
from pipeline size to power output.

14
2.2. Availability of Head:
HEAD is pressure, created by the difference in elevation between the intake of your
pipeline, and your water turbine. Head can be measured as vertical distance (feet or meters)
or as pressure (pounds per square inch, newtons per square meter, etc.). Regardless of the
size of your stream, higher HEAD will produce higher pressure – and therefore power – at
the turbine.
The following conversions may be helpful:
 1 vertical foot = 0.433 pounds per square inch (psi) pressure
 1 psi = 2.31 vertical feet

Accuracy is critical when measuring HEAD. It not only affects power, but also determines
the type of turbine to use (such as a Francis or Pelton design), as well as the hydrodynamic
design of the turbine buckets or blades. An altimeter can be useful in estimating Head for
preliminary site evaluation, but should not be used for the final measurement. It is quite
common for low-cost barometric altimeters to reflect errors of 150 feet or more, even when
calibrated.
There are two accurate methods for measuring HEAD: direct distance measurement, and
water pressure.

2.2.1. Direct Distance Measurement

15
You can use a surveyor’s transit, a contractor's level on a tripod, or a level taped to a
straight board to measure head. You will also require a pole with graduated measurements.
(A measuring tape affixed to a 20' section of PVC pipe works well.) Direct measurement
requires an assistant.
As shown in the diagram, make a series of vertical measurements using the transit level and
the vertical measuring pole. Make sure each transit setup is exactly level, and ensure the
measuring pole is vertical. Keep detailed notes at each step, and then add up the series of
measurements (A,B,C,D,etc.) to find total HEAD.

2.2.2. Water Pressure Measurement

If the distance is short enough, one or more garden hoses can be used to measure Head.
This method relies on the constant that each vertical foot of HEAD creates 0.433 psi of
water pressure. (10 vertical feet would create 4.33 psi.) By measuring the pressure in the
hose, you can calculate the elevation change of your system.

Run the hose (or hoses) from your proposed intake site to your proposed turbine location. If
you attach multiple hoses together, ensure each connection is tight and leak-free. Attach an
accurate pressure meter to the bottom end of the hose and completely fill the hose with
water. Make sure there are no high spots in the hose that could trap air.

If necessary, you can measure total HEAD over longer distances by moving the hose(s) and
taking multiple readings. Keep in mind, however, that there is less than a half-psi difference
for every vertical foot. Except for very steep hillsides, even a hundred foot hose may drop
only a few vertical feet. The chance for error significantly increases with a series of low-
Head readings. Use the longest possible hose, along with a highly accurate pressure meter,
to measure HEAD. The pressure meter must be graduated so that measurements are taken
in the middle of the pressure gauge's range. Don't use a 0 - 800 PSI gauge to measure 5 -15
PSI pressure. Select instead a 0 - 30 PSI gauge.

2.3. Storage of Water


There are wide variations in water supply from a river or canal during the year. This makes
it necessary to store water by constructing a dam in order to ensure the generation of power
throughout the year. The storage helps in equalizing the flow of water so that any excess

16
quantity of water at a certain period of the year can be made available during times of very
low flow in the river. This leads to the conclusion that site selected for hydroelectric plant
should provide adequate facilities for erecting a dam and storage of water.

But in our case this criteria is rather not important. This is due to two major reasons:

a) The proposed project is a run of the river project.


b) Flow of water is nearly constant throughout the year.

Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity (ROR) is a type of hydroelectric generation whereby little


or no water storage is provided. Run-of-the-river power plants may either have no storage
at all, or a limited amount of storage, in which case the storage reservoir is referred to as
pondage. A plant without pondage has no storage and is, therefore, subject to seasonal river
flows and serves as a peaking power plant while a plant with pondage can regulate water
flow and serve either as a peaking or base load power plant.

2.4. Cost and Type of Land


The land for the construction of plant should be available at a reasonable price. Further, the
bearing capacity of the soil should be adequate to withstand the installation of heavy
equipment.
Bearing capacity is the ability of the soil to safely carry the pressure placed on the soil from
any engineered structure without undergoing shear failure with accompanying large
settlements. Applying a bearing pressure which is safe with respect to failure does not
ensure the settlement of the foundation will be within acceptable limits. Therefore,
settlement analysis should be generally performed since most structures are sensitive to
excessive settlement.

2.5. Transportation Facilities


The site selected for the hydro-electric plant should be accessible by rail and road so that
necessary equipment and machinery could be easily transported. Also the transportation
cost should be minimized. Therefore, all the sites under consideration should be close
enough to the warehouse and easily accessible by all means.

17
2.6. Political Influence
Due to the feudal system that exists in the interior parts of Sindh, some of the land which is
legally a property of KW&SB is inaccessible. So although it has got nothing to do with site
selection according to engineering point of view but still we are bound to consider it for the
safety and integrity of the entire project.

18
CHAPTER #3

3. Sites Visited
In order to find the perfect location for this project, a number of sites were visited. Each of
them was critically evaluated. All the merits and demerits were discussed and analyzed
before the selection of the most feasible site.
A brief description of the visited sites is as follows.

3.1.Gharo
Our team visited Gharo to look for the potential of that site related to our project. Situated
at about 10 km from Dhabeji pumping station, Gharo is the point where the open canals are
transformed into closed conduits. The availability of land and a constant high flow rate of
water make this site best suited for a micro hydro power project.
One of them is the G.K Canal, which has a flow rate of about 300 MGD, while the other is
the K-II/K-III canal which has a capacity of 250 MGD.

2.1.1 Criteria Evaluation:


 Availability of Water:
Gharo receives 550 MGD of water from Gujjo Headwork located at 20 km ( 12 Miles from
Gujjo. Just before Gharo there is an interconnection and the main canal is divided into two
parallel canals flowing in the same direction towards Dhabeji Pumping Station. One of
them is GK Canal, which has a flow rate of about 330 MGD, while the other one is K –II/K
– III canal which has a capacity of 250 MGD. The flow rate of 550 MGD is maintained
through out the year.

 Availability of Head:
The elevation of Gharo is 10 m (32 ft) above sea level, wgile the elevation of Gujjo
headworks is 53 m (173.88 ft) above sea level. The total head estimated by KW & SB is 43
m (141.076ft).

19
 Storage of Water:
As mentioned previously, Gharo is receiving water through canals, by means of gravity
flow, therefore there is no storage facility built in between Gujjo and Gharo.

 Construction & Type of Land:


On consulting the local constructors and KW & SB Bulk Division, it has been found that
the type of land at Gharo is marshy with water level approximately 10 ft close to the
surface. Therefore it is not a suitable place for heavy construction as the bearing capacity of
soil is very low.

 Transportation facilities:
Transportation facilities at Gharo are very poor. Although this place is located along the
National highway but its broke condition and zero maintenance has made it unfeasible for
heavy traffic. That is the reason why it would be difficult to approach and the transportation
of our heavy equipment from the sea port to this site would result in severe inconvenience
and hassle.

 Transmission Facilities:
The nearest grid line near Gharo is located at Dhabeji which is approximately 8 km away.
This makes it a slightly considerable location with respect to transmission facilities. But
even then we would be required to include the initial cost and maintenance cost of setting
up this facility and taking it to Dhabeji in order to feed it in the already existing grid, if
required.

20
21
22
23
2.2 Dhabeji:

Dhabeji Pumping Station is situated on the National Highway, approximately 60 km from


Karachi. This mega project is the heart of the entire water supply system to Karachi. It is a
mega project which helps KW & SB to pump nearly 550 MGD of water to Karachi.

Water coming from Gharo enters the premises of Dhabeji Pumping Station. Here fifteen
(15) mega pumping units are used to pump the incoming water to the next location Forebay,
which is an elevated spot, 210 feet high above the sea level. At Forebay the incoming water
from Dhabeji is released which then flows by the action of gravity to Karachi. This
pumping station is one of the largest water pumping station of the world.

The pumps installed at Dhabeji Pumping Station consume a huge amount of electricity. As
KW & SB buys electricity from KESC, it has to pay about Rs.33 Crore monthly for running
its water pumps working round the clock at Dhabeji. As stated earlier, this pumping station
is of immense importance and failure of these pumps would result in ultimate disaster as
there is no method of containing the bulk water coming from Gharo.

2.2.1 Criteria Evaluation:

 Availability Of water:

On daily basis, Dhabeji receives nearly 550 million gallons of water. This is a huge quantity
and can be of immense importance when it comes to micro hydro power plants.
5 Pumps at Dhabeji pumps nearly 550 MGD of water to Forebay. Forebay is n elevated
spot, about 210 feet above the sea level. from here water flows by the action of gravity up
to Karachi. There are currently three phases of Dhabeji Pumping Station. One is used feed
the old water supply system, the Greater Karachi Project, whereas the other two are used to
supply water to the K-II and K-III projects. Another phase is being developed for the K-IV
project.

 Availabilty of Head:

24
As there is no storage facility between Gharo and Dhabeji aswell, therefore the required
head is again estimated on the basis of elevation differene between Gujjo Headwork and
Dhabeji. The elevation of Dhabeji is 15m (49 ft) above sea level. The total head difference
is 38 m (124.67 ft).

 Storage Facility:

Water from Gujjo to gharo, and then Gharo to Dhabeji flows under the action of gravity and
momentum of water, therefore athere is o storage facility built in between.

 Construction and Type of Land:

The Land at Dhabeji is usuitable for heavy construstion as it is a hilly area. But the major
dificulty is the existing infrastucture i.e the pump setups and the water transmission lines
which cannot be disturbed. Therefore, limitation of space and danger of hindrance in water
supply makes it unsuitable for any type of water turbine installation.

 Transportation facility:

This site has a developed infrastructure, mainly due to the presence of an important
pumping station. It is connected through the National Highway (N5) and the main Karachi-
Lahore Railway track. Port Qasim is also easily accessible.

 Transmission Facility:

Dhabeji has a developed transmission facility, as it has the heart of the entire water
distribution system of KW & SB, making it a suitable site with respect to this particular
facility, because the already developed system will cut down our cost in setting up a brand
new infrastructure of electricity distribution.

25
26
27
28
2.3 C.O.D

C.O.D Filtration plant is located at COD Hills, Gulshan-e-Iqbal area of Karachi. This Plant

supplies 120 million gallons a day (MGD). Water from Dhabeji is pumped to COD

filtration plant with the help of three 72 inch diameter pipes from where it flows under the

action of gravity. This plant has the capacity of treating 120 MGD of raw water. After the

complete treatment of the incoming raw water, it is supplied to various parts of the city.

This water is ready to drink and has been found free of diseases and other harmful

microorganisms.

2.3.1 Criteria Evaluation:

 Availability Of Water:

Approximately 120 MGD of water is pumped from Dhabeji Pumping station to COD Hills
from where it flows to various areas of Karachi under the action of gravity. This huge
availability of water makes this site a feasible one for the installation of micro hydro
system. Three 72 inch diameter pipes with the flows of 35 MGD, 35 MGD and 45 MGD
respectively supply water to COD Filter Plants. It is to be noted here that currently there are
two separate divisions working at COD. On is supplied with 45 MGD of water with only
one pipe line while the other is supplied with two separate pipes each carrying 35 MGD of
water.

 Availability of Head:

The elevation of COD is 21.336m (70 ft) above sea level. The available head is
approximated by calculating the elevation difference from Forebay (elevated spot at
Dhabeji) to COD which is found to be 42.67 m (140ft). Also there will be no hindrance to
the water supply in the filter plants as COD is only able to filter ________ of water while
the rest is supplied unfiltered.

29
 Storage of Water:

As mentioned earlier, Dhabeji Pumps Water to Forebay from where it flows under the
action of gravity to Karachi, therefore there is no storage facility built in between by KW &
SB.

 Construction and Type of Land:

COD is located at a hilly area in Karachi and it is also the highest spot in Karachi as it was
designed in such a way that the water would be able to flow to the rest of the city under the
action of gravity but now with the expansion of the city, several booster pumps have been
installed to keep the flow up to requirements. Its suitable for civil construction as the
bearing capacity of the soils is also high, which can be easily seen by the already installed
large filter plants at COD.

 Transportation Facilities:

Excellent transportation facilities are available at COD as it is located in the city.


Transportation by means of road is the most suitable mode of transportation while Karachi
port will also facilitate the import of heavy equipments if required. As COD is located
inside the city so the transportation cost will also be considerably low.

 Transmission Facilities:

If this location is selected then we need to only fulfill the load requirements of the COD
offices, which in turn will considerably reduce our transmission lines cost as the turbine
itself will be installed in the premises of the filter plant.

30
31
2.4 Final Site Selection By factor Rating:
For selecting the final site on the basis of the evaluation criteria discussed in Section 2.1,
factor rating method is used. Each of the factors is rated. The range of the rating values is in
between 0 to 5. On summation, the site with the highest ratings is selected.

Factor Rating:

Constru

Availab Availabi Storage ction Transpo Transmi

Sites ility of lity of of and rtation ssion Total

Head Water Water Type of facilities facilities

Land

Gharo 5 5 0 2 2 2 16

Dhabeji 5 2 0 0 3 5 15

COD 3 5 2 5 5 5 25

It can be seen from the above factor rating that COD is the most suitable site for installation

of hydro turbine.

32
CHAPTER # 4

3. Methods of determining head, velocity and flow used


by KW & SB:
During our visits to these three locations, we have studied and inquired the methods used
by KW & SB to obtain the values of head, velocity and flow at various locations. These
methods are described below.

3.1 Velocity
Pick a representative segment of river or stream close to the expected water diversion point.

Place two stakes 50 feet apart along the bank, marking the upper and lower limits of this

segment. Drop a ping-pong ball (or other lightweight, floating object) into the current

opposite the upper stake. Time (a wrist watch with a second hand works great!) how long it

takes for the ping-pong ball to travel the 50 feet.

Take this measurement several times and calculate the average time (add all times and

divide by the number of trials). This is the speed of the water through the segment at the

surface. Not all water moves as fast as the surface because there is friction at the bottom

and along the banks. To calculate the overall average speed of the water, multiply the

surface speed with 0.83.

0.83 is multiplied to obtain the actual velocity due to the friction produced by the particles

in the bed of the river.

3.2 Cross-Sectional Area:


Now we can measure and calculate the cross-sectional area of a ‘slice’ of the water. In the

segment used above for determining water speed, select a spot that will provide a

representative water depth and width for the 50 ft segment. Measure and record the water

33
depth at one foot increments along a cross section (water-edge to water-edge) of the river or

stream at this spot.

Laying a log or plank across the river or stream from which you can take these

measurements is convenient. You can also wade (or boat) across but take care that you are

measuring the actual water depth and not the depth of water affected by your presence in

the water. Calculate the average depth of the water (as explained above during water

speed).

Measure and record the width of the river or stream (in feet and from water-edge to water-

edge). Multiply the average depth X the width. You now have the cross-sectional area (in

square feet) of that ‘slice’ of the river or stream

The cross sectional areas at Dhabeji and COD were determined with the help of the

diameters of the pipes transporting water.

3.3 Flow Rate:


The term ‘Flow’ as used in conjunction with micro hydro represents volume, not speed. It is

the volume of water, stated as Cubic Feet per Second (ft3/s) or gallons per minute (GPM),

that flows past a specific point in a specific amount of time.

3.3.1 Method of Flow Measurement:


The simplest way to measure flow is via a four-step process:

a) Measure the speed of the water (in feet per second).

b) Determine the cross-sectional area of the water source (in square feet) by measuring

and multiplying the average water depth (in feet) X the average water width (in feet).

c) Calculate the flow (in cubic feet per second) by multiplying the water speed X the

cross- sectional area.

34
d) Convert the flow in cubic feet per second to flow in gallons per minute by multiplying

by the flow in ft3/s X 450.

Following equation is used to calculate flow:

 Water Speed (ft/sec) X Cross Sectional Area (sqft) = Flow (cu ft per second)

 Flow (cubic feet per second) X 450 = Flow (gallons per minute)

Calculate the flow in cubic feet/second first by multiplying the average speed (in feet per

second) X the cross-sectional area (in square feet). Then convert the flow from cubic feet

per second to gallons per minute (GPM) by multiplying the cubic feet per second with 450.

3.4 Head Measurement:


There are two accurate methods for measuring HEAD: direct distance measurement, and
water pressure.

3.4.1 Direct Distance Measurement


You can use a surveyor’s transit, a contractor's level on a tripod, or a level taped to a
straight board to measure head. You will also require a pole with graduated measurements.
(A measuring tape affixed to a 20' section of PVC pipe works well.) Direct measurement
requires an assistant.
As shown in the diagram, make a series of vertical measurements using the transit level and
the vertical measuring pole. Make sure each transit setup is exactly level, and ensure the
measuring pole is vertical. Keep detailed notes at each step, and then add up the series of
measurements (A,B,C,D,etc.) to find total HEAD.

35
36
3.5 Further Improvement
To measure the velocity more accurately, KW & SB has recently bought electronic

transducers which will be put into practical use in the near future.

37
CHAPTER # 4

4. Types of Hydraulic Turbines:

4.1 Reaction turbines


Reaction turbines are acted on by water, which changes pressure as it moves through the

turbine and gives up its energy. They must be encased to contain the water pressure (or

suction), or they must be fully submerged in the water flow. Most water turbines in use are

reaction turbines. They are used in low and medium head applications. In reaction turbine

pressure drop occurs in both fixed and moving blades.

4.2 Impulse turbines


Impulse turbines change the velocity of a water jet. The jet impinges on the turbine's curved

blades which change the direction of the flow. The resulting change in momentum

(impulse) causes forces on the turbine blades. Since the turbine is spinning, the force acts

through a distance (work) and the diverted water flow is left with diminished energy.

Prior to hitting the turbine blades, the water's pressure (potential energy) is converted to

kinetic energy by a nozzle and focused on the turbine. No pressure change occurs at the

turbine blades, and the turbine doesn't require housing for operation. Impulse turbines are

most often used in very high head applications.

38
4.3 Classification of Turbines:

4.3.1 According to the head and quantity of water available


a) Impulse turbine. requires high head and small quantity of flow.

b) Reaction turbine. requires low head and high rate of flow, medium head and

medium flow.

4.3.2 According to power transmission system:

4.3.2.1 Impulse turbine-Pelton turbine


The pressure of liquid does not change while flowing through the rotor of the machine. In
Impulse Turbines pressure change occur only in the nozzles of the machine. One such
example of impulse turbine is Pelton Wheel.

4.3.2.2 Reaction turbine- Francis Turbine, Kaplan and Propeller


turbines
The pressure of liquid changes as it flows through the rotor of the machine. The change in
fluid velocity and reduction in its pressure causes a reaction on the turbine blades; this is
where from the name Reaction Turbine may have been derived. Francis and Kaplan
Turbines fall in the category of Reaction Turbines.

4.3.3 According to direction of flow of water in the runner:


 Tangential flow turbines (Pelton turbine) the water strikes the runner tangential to the

path of rotation.
 Radial flow turbine (no more used)
 Axial flow turbine (Kaplan turbine) water flows parallel to the axis of the turbine shaft.

39
 Mixed (radial and axial) flow turbine (Francis turbine) the water enters the blades

radially and comes out axially, parallel to the turbine shaft. Modem Francis turbines

have mixed flow runners.

4.3.4 According to the orientation of the turbine shaft:


Turbine shaft may be either vertical or horizontal. In modern practice, Pelton turbines

usually have horizontal shafts whereas the rest, especially the large units, have vertical

shafts.

4.3.5 According to specific speed:


The specific speed of a turbine is defined as the speed of a geometrically similar turbine

that would develop1kW under 1m head. All geometrically similar turbines (irrespective of

the sizes)will have the same specific speeds when operating under the same head

Where

N = the normal working speed,

P = power output of the turbine,

H = the net or effective head in meters.

Turbines with low specific speed turbines works under high head and low discharge

conditions, while high specific speed turbines works under low head and high discharge

conditions.

40
4.4 Comparison of turbines

PELTON FRANCIS KAPLAN

Operating Head

(m) 500 up to 2000 30 to 1500 Up to 400

Maximum Power

Output (MW) 55 40 30

Best Efficiency 93 94 94

Regulation

Mechanism Spear Nozzle and Guide Vanes, Guide Vanes,

deflector Plate Surge Tank Surge Tank

4.5 Comparison of Turbine according to Head

S.No Type Of Head H Specific Speed Max Remarks

Turbine (m) Speed (Ns) Ratio (Ku) Hydraulic

Efficiency %
1 Pelton 0.43 to 0.48 89 Employed for

high heads
1 Jet Up to 12 to 30

2000
2 Jet Up to 17 to 50

1500
4 Jet Up to 24 to 70

500

41
2 Francis:
High Upto 80 to 150 0.6 to 0.9 93 Full load

Head 1500 efficiency

high,
Medium 150 to 250 part load

Head 50 to efficiency

150
Low Head 250 to 400 lower than

30 to 60 Pelton
3 Propeller Up to 300 to 1.4 to 2 93 High part

and 400 1000 load

Kaplan efficiency;
high

discharge

with low head

42
CHAPTER # 5

5. Criteria of Turbine Selection:


The type, geometry and dimensions of the turbine will be fundamentally conditioned by the

following criteria:

5.1 Net Head


As mentioned in section 3.4, the selected site is COD. The available head is measured on
the basis of elevation difference between Forebay and COD.
 Elevation of Forebay from sea level: 64.008 m (210 ft)
 Elevation of Forebay from sea level: 21.336 m (70 ft)
 Elevation Difference: 64.008m – 21.336. = 42.672 m
 Available Head: 42.672 m

5.1.1 Head losses:

5.1.1.1 When Q =70 MGD


L = 58.5 km
Q = 70 MGD = 3.6831 m³/s

V = Q/A= = 0.7011 m/s

Re = =

Re = > 2300

So we have turbulent flow

43
ε = 0.3 to 3.0 mm

Using ε= 3.0 mm

Then ε/D =

f = 0.02238

hL=

Putting the values

hL = 17.94 m

Head Losses in the upcoming pipes: 2 * 17.94 m = 34.88 m

Net Head: 42.67 – 34.88 = 6.79 m

Power Available (without losses) = ρgHQ = 1.54 MW

Power Available (with losses) = ρgQ(ha-hL) = 0.25 MW

44
 When Q = 45 MGD

45 MGD = 2.3677 m³/s

D = 1.8288m

V = Q/A = 0.901 m/s

= 1.8514x10⁶

f = 0.02235

hL= = 29.358 m

Head Losses: 29.358 m

Net Head: 42.67 – 34.88 = 13.312 m

Power Available (without losses) = ρghaQ = 0.991 MW

Power Available (with losses) = ρgQ(ha-hL) = 0.309 MW

45
5.2 Specific Speed:
In general turbine manufacturers denote the specific speed of their turbines. A large number

of statistical studies on a large number of schemes have established a correlation of the

specific speed and the net head for each type of turbine.

Pelton

(Siervo and Lugaresi)

Francis

(Lugaresi and Massa)

Kaplan

(Schweiger and Gregory)

46
`

Using the above correlations, we calculated the specific spends of different turbines.

According to the range given, only the calculated specific speeds of Francis and Kaplan

turbine falls into their respective ranges.

Pelton

(Siervo and Lugaresi)

At net head of 6.79 m

0.0539

At net head of 13.312 m

nQE = 0.0457

Francis

(Lugaresi and Massa)

At net head of 6.79 m

47
0.7214

At net head of 13.312 m

nQE = 0.5112

Kaplan

(Schweiger and Gregory)

At net head of 6.79 m

At net head of 13.312 m

nQE = 0.651

Using the above correlations, we calculated the specific speeds of different turbines.

According to the range given, only the calculated specific speed of Kaplan turbine falls into

their respective ranges.

48
5.3 Range Of Discharge:

According to the above graph, the net head of 6.79 m and the discharge of 3.6831 ,

satisfies the selection of Kaplan turbine.

Kaplan Turbine fulfills all three criteria of selection. Hence it is our selected turbine.

49
CHAPTER #7

6. Kaplan Turbine Components


Performance and reliability related components of a Propeller/Kaplan turbine consist of a

reaction type axial-flow runner with adjustable-blade mechanism, wicket gates and

controlling mechanism, spiral case, stay ring/stay vanes, and draft tube.

6.1 Spiral Case:


The function of the spiral case (or scroll case) is to supply water from the intake to the stay

vanes, directly to the upstream portion of the turbine, and through a unique shape of

continual cross sectional area reduction to the downstream portion of the turbine;

maintaining a near uniform velocity of water around the stay vanes and wicket gates.

6.2 Stay Ring/Vanes:


The function of the stay vanes (and stay ring) is to align the flow of water from the spiral

casing to the wicket gates. They also function as support columns in vertical units for

supporting the static weight of the unit’s stationary components and hydraulic thrust during

turbine operation.

6.3 Wicket Gates:


The function of the wicket gates is primarily to control the quantity of water entering the

turbine runner, thereby controlling power output. Secondarily, the gates control the angle of

the high tangential velocity water striking the runner blades. The optimum angle of attack

will be at peak efficiency. In an adjustable-blade unit, the tilt of the blades and opening of

the gates are synchronized to maximize efficiency over as much of the operating range as

50
possible. The wicket gates also function as a closure valve to minimize leakage through the

turbine while it is shut down.

6.4 Runner:
The function of the runner is to convert the potential energy of pressure (head) and flow of

water into mechanical energy or rotational horsepower. The Kaplan runner is comprised of

a hub, nosecone, blades, and an internal blade tilting mechanism - typically a hydraulically-

driven piston with linkage and seals. Oil pressure is provided by the governor hydraulic

system.

6.5 Draft Tube


The function of the draft tube, which is initially conically shaped and attached to the turbine

discharge, is to gradually slow down the high discharge velocity water, capturing kinetic

energy from the water, which is usually below atmospheric pressure. In most cases, it has

an elbow in order to minimize excavation for the unit. The head recovery from the draft

tube is the difference between the velocity head at the runner discharge and draft tube

discharge, overall increasing the head across the turbine. The larger the head differential is

across the turbine, the higher the turbine power output. The throat ring of the draft tube

should be steel lined from the discharge ring to the point where the water velocity reduces

to about 20 ft/s, which is considered below concrete scouring velocity.

Non-performance but reliability related components of a Propeller/Kaplan turbine include

the wicket gate mechanism/servomotors, head cover, bottom ring, turbine shaft, guide

bearing, mechanical seals/packing and discharge/throat ring.

6.6 Turbine Shaft


The function of the turbine shaft is to transfer the torque from the turbine runner to the

generator shaft and generator rotor. The shaft typically has a bearing journal for oil

51
lubricated hydrodynamic guide bearings on the turbine runner end or wearing sleeve for

water lubricated guide bearings. Shafts are usually manufactured from forged steel, but

some of the largest shafts can be fabricated.

6.7 Guide Bearing:


The function of the turbine guide bearing is to resist the mechanical imbalance and

hydraulic side loads from the turbine runner thereby maintaining the turbine runner in its

centered position in the runner seals. It is typically mounted as close as practical to the

turbine runner and supported by the head cover. Turbine guide bearings are usually either

oil lubricated hydrodynamic (babbitted) bearings or water lubricated (plastic, wood, or

composite) bearings.

6.8 Mechanical Seals / Packing:


Water retaining sealing components in the turbine includes the seal for the turbine shaft and
the wicket gate stem seals. Shaft seals are typically either packing boxes with square
braided packing or for high speed units a mechanical seal is required. Wicket gate stem
packing is usually either a square braided compression packing, a V type or Chevron
packing, or some type of hydraulic elastomer seal. Although in the truest sense any sealing
components on a turbine could be a performance issue, since any leakage that by-passes the
turbine runner is a loss of energy, the leakage into the wheel pit is considered insignificant
to the overall flow through the turbine. Oil filled Kaplan hubs have seals around the blade
trunnions to prevent oil leakage and to prevent water leakage into the oil. These trunnions
seals are usually either double opposing or chevron packing type

6.9 Head Cover / Bottom Ring:


The head cover is a pressurized structural member covering the turbine runner chamber that

functions as a water barrier to seal the turbine. It also serves as a carrier for the upper

wicket gate bushings, upper seal surface for the wicket gate vanes, support for the gate

operating ring, carrier for the runner stationary seal rings, and support for the turbine guide

bearing. The bottom ring serves as a carrier for the bottom wicket gate bushings, bottom

52
seal surface for the wicket gate vanes, and a carrier for the bottom runner stationary seal

ring.

6.10 Discharge / Throat Ring:

The discharge ring serves as the steel housing of the runner which is the
transitional piece to the expanding draft tube.

53
REFERENCES

[1] Author M. (Year). “Book name” (More authors). New York: Basic
Books. Example is pt. 2
[2] Adler, A. (1956). “The individual psychology of Alfred Adler: A
systematic presentation of selections from his writings” (H. L.
Ansbacher & R. R. Ansbacher, Eds.). New York: Basic Books.
[3] Author R., Author S., (Year). “Research paper title”, Journal
name, Vol. XX, No. YY, pp. ABC-DEF Example is pt. 4
[4] Cai Y., Xiao J., Zhao W., Tang X., Zhang Q. (2011), “A General
Model for the Electric Power and Energy Efficiency of a Solar
Thermoelectric Generator”, Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol.
40, No. 5, pp. 140-150
[5] Author N., (Year). Title of web page. Retrieved from
http://www.somewebsite.com/thatpage.htm Example is pt. 6
[6] Harris, R. (2010, November 22). Evaluating Internet research
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APPENDIX
(section for appendix material)