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Vitamins and Minerals

Name: Mahajan, Deepika Sardar


Student no: 16-2-21988
Section : B

1.Make a tabulation of different minerals


Name of Active form Inactive Comm-on Importanc Water Recom Signs&S Signs Wher Kinds of
the form names e to solubi mended ymptom &symtom e can food in
vitamin biological lity daily s of s of be which it is
processes allowan toxicity deficienc found found
ce y
Vitamin A Retinol Beta- Retinol, Vision, Fat 700-900 Bone Night Liver Retinols(liv
carotene Beta- reproductio ug fractures, blindness, er, dairy,
carotene n and liver xerophtal fish)
growth damage, mia. Carotenoid
birth s (sweet
defects potatoes,ca
rrots,
spinach)

Vitamin Thiamin Thamine Thiamin Energy Water 1.1-1.2 -N- Fatigue, Centr Cereal,
B1 diphosphate metabolism mg nerve & al and spirulina,po
(ThDP) brain periph rk, beans
damage, eral and lentils
leads to nervo nuts,beef,ri
beriberi us ce, wheat
syste
m
Vitamin Riboflavin-5- Flavin Riboflavin Energy water 1.1-1.3 -N- Cracks in Kidne Milk,dairy
B2 phosphate , moonucl metabolism mg the lips, y and products,eg
flavin eotide tongue liver gs, fish,
adenine (FMN) swelling, green leafy
mononucleo other skin veggies,
tide ( FAD) issues , whole grain
leads to
ariboflavin
osis
Vitamin Nicotinamid None Niacin Energy water 14-16 Niacin Muscular Nervo Yeast, fish,
B3 e adenine metabolism mg flush, weakness, us meat, milk
dinucleotide liver loss of syste and dairy,
(NAD) and damage,i appetite , m, beans,
phosphoryla mpaired leads to digesti green
ted form glucose pellagra ve vegetables,
(NADP) tolerance syste poultry.
m ,ski
n,
hair,
eyes
health
y.
Vitamin Pantetheine None Pantothen Protein, fat water 5 mg Mild Irritability,v Skin, Freah
B5 ic acid and intestinal omiting, hair, meat,
carbohydra distress stomach eyes vegetables
te pains, and and
metabolism burning liver unprocesse
feet, d grains
upper
respiratory
infections.
Vitamin Pyridoxal 5- Pyroxidine Protein and water 1.3 mg Nerve Muscle Heart, Liver, meat,
B6 phosphate( fat degenera weakness, digesti fish poultry,
PLP) metabolism tion anxiety, ve wheat,
depressio tract, bananas,
n musc beans and
ular legumes,ce
functi reals
on .
Vitamin D-biotin Biotin Biotin Protein and Water 30 mcg Unlikely Loss of Nervo Eggs,
B7 fat appetite , us nuts,fish,nu
metabolism vomiting, syste t butter,
, beneficial depressio m and beans,
to hair, skin n liver cauliflower,
&nails metab bananas,
olism mushrooms
Vitamin Folate Folic acid Folic acid Helps Water 400 mg Masks a GI pain , Red Grains
B9 ( levmefolic make DNA B12 anemia blood bread,
acid or 5- for new deficienc cells cereals,
methyltetrah cells, y vegetables,
ydrofolate) activate oranges,
B12 asparagus
Vitamin Methylcobal Cynocob Cobalami Helps Water 2.4 mcg -N- Nerve DNA Fish,clams,
B12 amin and alamin n make DNA damage, synth salmon,
adenosylcob and for new fatigue, esis , sardine,non
alamin hydroxyc cells,activat anemia nurolo fat dey
obalamin es folate, gical milk,
protects functi liver ,oyster
nerve cells ons, s, yogurt.
red
blood
cell
Vitamin C Ascorbic Dehydro Ascorbic Antioxidant Water 75-90 Diarrhea Scurvy, Huma Oranges,
acid ascorbic acid ,collagen mg Painful n Guavas,
acid synthesis, swollen tissue Kiwifruit,
(DHA) immune joints, s, liver tomatoesb
function Rough Broccoli &
bumpy Brussels
skin, sprouts.
corkscrew
shaped
body hair.
Vitamin D 1,25 Cholecal Cholecalci Bone Fat 5ug Calcium Rickets, Huma Sunlight,
dihydroxych ciferol ferol (D3), growth imbalanc Osteomal n skin fish oil, milk
olecalciferol Ergocalcif &maintena e acia
erol (D4) nce,
absorption
of Ca
Vitamin E Alpha- Tocopher Tocophero Protects Fat 15mg Interfers Serious Vit E Sunflower
tocopherol ol ls, cell with neurologic provid seeds,
quinone Tocotrieno membrane, blood- dysfunctio ed to wheat
ls antioxidant clotting n the germ,
s drugs skin almonds
throug
h
serum
Vitamin K Quinol Phylloquin Blood Fat 90- N Impaired Usuall Leafy
one, clotting, 120mcg blood y in greens,
Menaquin bone clotting, Bones soybeans,
ones health hemorrha pumpkins.
gic
disease

2.Make a tabulation of different minerals


Name Activ Inact Other Imp to Recomme Signs Signs Where What kind Classify
of e ive know our nded daily and and it is of foods whether it is a
mineral form form n biochem allowance sympto sympto presen can it be macromineral
forms ical (> 19 ms of ms of t in the found or trace
or process years old) toxicity deficien body mineral
name es cy
s
Iron Hemo Ferriti ferrum Transfer 8-18 mg Vomiting/ This Mostly Corn,soyab Trace minerals
globin, n, of o2 to nausea, often in liver ean
myogl Hem cytochro stomach depend as oysters,spin
obin, oside me, cramps, s on the ferritin ach
transf rin involved diarrhea, severity or
errin in energy kidney of the hemosi
productio damage, anemia. derin
n, thyroid fragile Commo
hormone bones, n signs
s that death and
regulate sympto
metaboli ms
c include
process tirednes
include s, pale
iron in skin,
structure, noticeab
formation le
of heartbe
connectiv at,
e tissue headac
of he and
several dizzines
neurotra s,
nsmitters feeling
in brain short of
breath,
dry and
damage
d hair
and
skin,
sore or
swollen
tongue
and
mouth,
restless
legs and
brittle or
spoon-
shaped
nails.
Mangan Mn Mang Mn Support 1.8-2.3 mg Nausea,v Poor Primarl Pinepal,pec Trace minerals
ese (III) anes (IV), immune omiting,h bone y found ans,peanuts
e ( II) Mn ( system, eadache, growth in
VII) blood memory or bones,l
potass sugar loss, skeletal iver,kid
ium balance anxiety,c defects, ney,an
perma and in ompulsiv slow or d
ngana productio e impaire pancre
te n of laughing d as
cellular or crying growth,
energy low
fertility,
impaire
d
glucose
toleranc
e
Zinc Zinc Thym Zinc Essential 8-11 mg Fever, Skin,nail Found Oysters,cra Trace minerals
acetat ulin glucon for nausea,v s and in cells b,chick
e, zinc ate, normal omiting,d hair.It through peas
oratat zinc growth izziness, may tout the
e sulfate and uncoordi manifest body.N
, zinc reproduct nated,an as acne, eeded
acetat iof all emia,hea eczema, for
e higher rt xerosis( body
plants disease dry, immun
and scaling e
animals skin),se system
borrheic , also
dermatit plays a
is,or role in
alopecia cell
(thin division
and , cell
sparse growth,
hair) wound
healing
,
breakd
own of
carboh
ydrates
.nedde
d for
sense
of
smell
and
taste
Iodine T3 Iodid I2, Thyroid 150mcg Low Swelling Major Seaweed,c Trace minerals
e Iodate formation thyroid in the portion od,yogurt
comp , , thyroid activity,e neck, is
ound Iodide is nlarged unexpec concen
needed thyroid ted trated
for weight in
proper gain, thyroid
bone and fatigue gland.
brain and Non
develop weakne hormon
ment ss, hair al
during loss,dry iodine
pregnanc and in
y and flaky mamm
infancy skin,feel ary
ing glands,
colder eye,ga
than stric
normal, mucos
changes a,cervi
in heart x and
rate,trou salivary
ble in glands
learning
and
rememb
ering
Copper - - - Important 900mcg Chronic Fatigue Found Wheat,corn Trace mineral
in fatigue,h and in all
maintaini ypothyroi weakne body
ng the d,brain ss,frequ tissues
strength fog, ent and
of the headach sicknes plays a
skin, es or s,osteop role in
blood migranes orosis,p making
vessels, ,cold roblems red
and hands/fe with blood
epithelial ets, dry memory cells
connectiv skin, and and
e tissue chocolat learning maintai
e ,difficulti n nerve
cravings, es cells
arthirits,l walking, and the
ow blood sensitivi immun
pressure, ty to e
calcium cold,pal system
spurs, e .Also
constipati skin,pre helps
on,racing mature body to
heart,yea gray form
st hair collage
infections n and
,hypoglyc absorb
emia iron,an
d plays
a role
in
energy
product
ion.
Seliniu Selen Selen Selen Helps to 55mcg Nail and Body It is Brazil nuts, Trace minerals
m ometh ite ocysti make hair may not imp for sardines,
ionie ne antioxida brittlenes need a proper ham
nt s and lot of functio
enzymes loss,nerv seleniu ning of
, e,muscle m but it thyroid
prevents ,liver is key to gland.It
cell damage, immune fact,
damage nausea and thyroid
thyroid tissue
function contain
and has sa
antioxid higher
ant amount
benefits of
for seliniu
body.Fa mthan
ll short anyoth
and er
experie organ
nce in
fatigue, human
hair body.
loss,wei
ght
gain,
joint and
muscle
pain.
Calciu Ionize Calci Calciu Signal 2000-2500 Diarrhea, Numbne Teeth Milk Macro
m d um in m transduct mg interferen ss,tingli and products,lea minerals
calciu food carbo ion ce with ng bones fy
m,calc nate, pathway, absorptio fingers, contain greens,broc
itriol calciu contracti n of other muscle most coli
m on of all minerals cramps,l calcium
citrate, types of ethargy, .Nerve
calciu muscles poor cells,bo
m and appetitie dy
glucon important ,weak or tissues,
ate in brittle blood
fertilizatio fingerna and
n ils,diffic other
ulty body
swallowi fluids
ng,fainti contain
ng s rest
of
calcium
Phosph White Rock None Energy 700mg Low Weakne Bones All animal Macro
orus and s and productio blood ss, bone and tissues minerals
red soul n, pH calcium, pain teeth, (meat
phosp regulatio increase (defecie DNA, fish,poultry,
horus n and d calcium ncy phosph eggs,milk)
part of excretion rare- olipids(
genetic usually part of
material ( a side cell
DNA and effect of membr
RNA) medicati ane)
on)