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For Introductory Astronomy

Jessica Smay
Table of Contents

1. Introduction; The Celestial Sphere......………………………….....….…….. 1


2. Constellations, Earths Daily Sky Motions…... ………………….….………… 2
3. Earth’s Surface……………..………………………………………….……….. 4
4. The Moon’s Surface…………………………………….…………….………… 6
5. Exam 1
6. Seasonal Stars and Seasons……….. …………………………….…………. 8
7. Moon Phases and Eclipses………......………………………….....….…….. 10
8. Solar System Formation and Motions of Planets……………….….………… 12
9. Gravity …………………..…..………………………………………….……….. 14
10. Terrestrial Planets Surface Features...…………………………….………… 16
11. Mars, Other Moons………………………………………………….…………. 18
12. Exam 2
13. Jovian Planets and Space Objects......………………………….....….…….. 20
14. Pluto and Missions……………………………. ………………….….……….. 22
15. The Sun……………………..………………………………………….……….. 24
16. Light and Spectra…………………………………………………….………… 26
17. Telescopes……………………………..…………………………….…………. 28
18. Doppler Effect and Star Distances............…..………………….....….…….. 30
19. Distances to Stars and Other Star Information...……………….….……….. 32
20. Exam 3
21. Lives of Stars, Star Births..………………………………………….……….. 34
22. Deaths of Stars, Black Holes……………………………………….………… 36
23. The Milky Way and Types of Galaxies..………………………….…………. 38
24. Distant Objects……………………........………………………….....….…….. 40
25. The Big Bang………………………………….. ………………….….……….. 42
26. Exam 4
27. Extraterrestrial Life..………..………………………………………….………..43

Project Celestial Sphere...……………………………………………………… 44


Exam 3 Questions………………………………………………………….…… 45
Final Exam Questions………………………………………………………….. 46
Understanding Plagiarism……………………………………………………… 47
UNDERSTANDING PLAGIARISM:
For part of one of your exams, be prepared to write a short essay about what plagiarism is, and
why plagiarism is not tolerated in the sciences. You may also be asked to:
1) discuss three elements that belong in a correctly cited reference
2) determine what circumstances require a person to cite a reference
3) determine when someone needs to use quotation marks

Please read the following example:

Original:
Nearly two years after landing, NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers still dazzle the public. The pair of
tracks featured on the cover of the October, 2005 issue of the scientific journal Geology are just one
example.

May not be rewritten as:


NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers still dazzle the public nearly two years after landing. The October,
2005 issue of the scientific journal Geology showed a pair of tracks which are just one example.

You need to rewrite it in your own words. For example:


Many people have been interested in the exploration of the two rovers NASA landed on Mars over 2
years ago. The large number of pictures on magazine covers is one indicator of this interest.

If you decide you need to quote a portion word-for-word, it may look like this:
Blah, blah, blah, previous sentence phrased in your own words. As stated on NASA’s website,
“NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers still dazzle the public nearly two years after landing.” (NASA, 2005)
Next sentence, blah, blah, blah.

Only 10% (preferably less) of an essay should be directly quoted material – most of an essay
needs to be in your own words.

Bibliography Section: References are at the end of a paper, and follow a specific format for a
book or article or website (see below). Include the author, date (or “no date” if there is none)
title and specific details.

References:
McDermott, L. C., and P. S. Shaffer, 2002, Tutorials in Introductory Physics, First Edition.
Prentice Hall, New Jersey Details for book
Author Date Title Details for website
NASA, JPL (Oct 4, 2005) Journals of the Rovers Journeys Retrieved October 30, 2005, from
http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/spotlight/20051004.html

Do not plagiarize on any of your work!


The majority should be in your own words. If you use information word for word, you must put
quotes around that part. If you use any portion of a reference, whether it is just the ideas or you
quote them word for word, you must include the source in your references.
Plagiarizing even five words in a row is still plagiarizing!!
1

Introduction; The Celestial Sphere

I. Introduction to Astronomy

A. Go over syllabus (plagiarism)

B. What is Astronomy? =

C. The Scientific Method

1. Question/Hypothesis=

2. Experiment/collect data=
North Pole = 90º
3. Results=
80º 60º

4. Conclusions= 40º

4 20º
h h
18
h
D. Why do we study Astronomy? 20 h
h 2
22 0
h
0º = equator

II. Celestial Sphere

A. N and S Hemisphere

B. Declination and Right Ascension

1. degrees

C. Dome over our heads

1. horizon

2. zenith

3. North, South, East, West

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Constellations, Earth’s Daily Sky Motions

I. How to find stars:

A. Celestial Sphere

B. Constellations/Star Chart

1. hand for scale


http://www.skymaps.com/downloads.html
C. Factors influence stars we see

1. = Clouds, light pollution… etc North

2. =

3. =

4. =

II. Important constellations and stars South

A. North:

Big Dipper

Little Dipper

Cassiopeia

B. South:

Best season Sagittarius


South
to view =
Scorpius

Best season Orion


to view =
Taurus

C. Stars: Polaris, Betelgeuse

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III. Earth’s rotation causes star motion (looking East, West, North, South)

A. In San Jose, stars

1. rise in the ________ at an angle

looking East looking West


2. set in the ________ at an angle

3. Looking North or South?

looking North looking South


circumpolar stars
B. Star motion in other locations looking South from San Jose
rising and setting stars
1. equator or pole? Why?

C. Looking North and South from San Jose

East West
south
http://astro.unl.edu/naap/motion2/animations/ce_hc.html
Guide for answering questions about star motions:
Stars rise in the ____________ at an angle like this: and set in the ____________ at an angle like this:
6 hours after a star rises directly in the East it will be high in the _______________ sky.
12 hours after a star rises directly in the East, it will be setting in the _____________.
Stars that rise South of East will be visible for _____________ than 12 hours.
Stars that rise North of East will be visible for _____________ than12 hours.
3
All _____________________ stars never rise or set, they are always above the horizon.
All circumpolar stars move in a _______________________ direction around the North Star.
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Earths Surface

I. Earth’s Formation

A. Heated and differentiated into layers:

B. liquid metal core causes magnetic field

1. deflects solar wind to poles

2. solar wind hits the atmosphere light

3. causes:

C. The Moon’s Formation

1. Formed when:

2. The Moon is large enough

a.

b.

c. but the Moon is small, so:

d. atmosphere?

II. Earth’s Surface Features

A. Divergent boundary:

B. Convergent boundary:

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C. Dunes D. Streams

E. Volcanoes F. Impact craters

1. Formation and Characteristics of Impact Craters

2. Order of Events

In what order did these impacts form?

3. Factors that affect crater size

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4

The Moons Surface

I. The Moon’s Surface

A. ________________ B. ________________

1. lighter 1. darker

2. rock type: 2. rock type:

3. age: 3. age:

B. Visits to the Moon

1. What we learned about the Moon’s surface

a. rocks:

b. surface covered by __________________

c.

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C. Rate of Crater Formation

1. most formed at beginning

2. impact rate has slowed down Basalt lava flows

4.5 4 3 2 1 0
Time before present (billions of years)

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6

Seasonal Stars and Seasons

I. Seasonal Stars
Aquarius Capricornus
A. ecliptic: Pisces
Aries
B. constellations on ecliptic
Sagittarius
1. can be hidden by the Sun
Scorpius
2. are the signs of the zodiac Winter Summer
Taurus

Gemini Libra
Cancer Leo Virgo

C. Monthly changes

1. Each day a constellation will rise a tiny bit __________________

a. not noticeable day to day

b. noticeable month to month


North Star Aquarius
Pisces Capricornus
Aries
1 day
Sagittarius
Scorpius
Taurus 365 days

Gemini Libra
Cancer Leo Virgo 8
II. Seasons

A. Causes – tilt of Earth’s axis of rotation compared to the ecliptic, which causes…

1. Not caused by nearness to the Sun

2. hours of sunlight

-summer?

-winter?

3. directness of sunlight

-summer?

-winter?

B. Other planets?

1. more tilt would mean:

2. no tilt would mean:

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7

Moon Phases and Eclipses

I. Lunar Phases caused by:

A. Moon orbiting Earth

1. shade in the side of the Moon seen from space that does not have any sunlight

View from _____________

6pm

mid
noon Sun
night

6am

B. Sunlight on Moon as seen from Earth

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C. Time of day, Phase of moon, and Location in sky are all related

D. Space for sketch:

II. Eclipses – when the ecliptic lines up with the Moon’s orbit

A. Lunar eclipses

1. when Earth’s shadow is on the Moon

a. only as _________moon because:

Moon

Earth

Not to scale

B. Solar eclipses

1. When we see the Moon blocking the Sun

a. only as _________ moon because:

Moon

Earth

Not to scale

C. Not every Full or New Moon because:


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8

Solar System Formation and Motions of Planets

I. The Solar System

A. Planet definition:
https://spaceplace.nasa.gov/solar-system-formation/en/
1. Terrestrial planets:

a. _______density (composition = _________)

b. _______ size (diameter)

c. _______ orbit (distance from Sun)

2. Jovian planets:

a. _______ density (composition = _________)

b. _______ size

c. _______ orbit

B. Solar System formation

1.

11 22
2.

a. collapse caused by:


3
b. flatness caused by: 3

3.
Temperature

4 3

a. Inner Terrestrial planets form where:

b. Outer Jovian planets form where:


Distance from Sun

4. Our Solar System

a. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune 4

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II. Positions of the Planets

A. Mercury and Venus Earth

1. where visible from Earth?

why?

2. where not visible from Earth?

why?
Sun
B. Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

1. where visible from Earth?

why?

2. where not visible from Earth?

why?

III. Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion

A. 1st Law: Planetary orbits are _________________ shaped

1. Draw an example with the Sun at one focus:

B. 2nd Law: A planet moves faster when it is ____________ to the Sun in its ellipse-shaped orbit.

1. On your drawing above, label where the planet moves faster and where it moves slower.

C. 3rd Law: The larger the average distance a planet is from the Sun, the ____________ the planet moves.
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1. a3 = p2 9
8 h
7
Orbital Period (years)

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
Orbital Distance (AU)

2. Mass of planet is not related to its orbital distance or its orbital period

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9

Gravity and Impact Craters

I. Gravity

A. Force of gravity = (mass1 x mass2)÷ distance2


M1 x M2
2
B. Fg = M*m/d
2
d

1. Role of distance:

a. If distance is farther, the gravitational force between the two objects is ________________

2. Role of mass:

a. If an objects mass is larger, the gravitational force between the two objects is__________________

3. Which has a greater effect? Distance or Mass? Why?

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A
d=8 m=3
m=5
B
d =5 m=3
m=5

C
d=5

m = 10 m = 10

C. Earth-Moon force

1. spaceship-Earth and spaceship-Moon forces

a. can only take two objects into consideration at a time.

2. F=ma (Force equals mass time acceleration)

a. The force between the two objects is equal, so the object with the smaller mass will have

___________________ acceleration

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Terrestrial Planet Surface Features

I. Terrestrial Planets: Composition of Outer Layers

A. Development of Earth’s Atmosphere

1st. Hydrogen and Helium (H and He)

a. From:

b. What happened to it:

2nd. Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

a. From:

b. What happened to it:

3rd. Nitrogen and Oxygen (N and O) = current atmosphere

a. From:

B. Rock types

1. Igneous:

2. Sedimentary:

3. Metamorphic:

II. Terrestrial Planets: Surface features

A. Factors that influence the surface features

1. Planet size

a. interior temperature

b. presence of an atmosphere

2. Distance from Sun

a. surface temperature

B. Predictable surface features

1. Mercury size: distance from Sun:

Rock Types:

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Features:

2. Venus

Rock Types:

Features:

3. Mars

Rock Types:

Features:

C. Unique surface features

1. Mercury

a. Caloris Basin:

VIS VIS
IR IR
2. Venus

a. Greenhouse effect

3. Mars

a. Olympus Mons:

b. Valles Marineras:

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Mars, other moons

I. Mars Climate Change

A. Observations:
1
1. Mars is medium sized

2. Volcanoes

3. carbon dioxide atmosphere 2

B. Theory:

C. Supporting evidence of liquid water:

II. Distances within our Solar System

A. Earth-Moon system

1. Moon is _____ diameter of Earth

2. Moon distance is _____ Earth diameters away from Earth

B. Earth-Sun system

1. Sun’s diameter is _______ Earth diameters

2. Sun’s distance is ________ Sun diameters away

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III. Moons in our Solar System A moon is an object that:

A. Features

1. Interior heat: planet size or _____________

2. Streambeds: liquid water or ______________


Moon
B. Mercury and Venus have no moons

C. Earth

1. Moon with recognizable features

D. Mars

1. Two Moons

Formed when:

E. Jupiter Io

1. ________________

a. unique:

2. _______________
Europa
a. unique:

b. unique:

3. Ganymede and Callisto

F. Saturn
Titan
1. _______________

a. unique:

b. unique:

2. Iapetus, Enceladus, Mimas

G. Uranus and Neptune have many moons


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