Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 32

Boiler

B il
Emergencies

1
Various Emergency situations during operation

1. Drum level low and low-low


2. Drum level high and high high
3
3. Furnace Draft high and high high
4. Bed Temperature High
5. Bed Temperature Low
6. Water wall / screen tube / evaporator tube
failure
7. Super
p heater tube failure
8. High super heater temperature
9. Low Super heater temperature
10
10. Flame Failure
11. Furnace Explosion
12. Boiler pressure high
13. Coal feeder failure
14. PAH / SAH tube failure
15
15. Boiler feed pump failure
16. Fan Failure 2
1. DRUM LEVEL LOW AND LOW-LOW:-

(A) CAUSE :-
1. Failure of boiler feed pump.
p p
2. Failure of drum level controller.
3. Inadvertent opening of C.B.D.
4
4. Extraordinary change in load.
load (Sudden reduction in
load)
5. Water tube failure.

(B) EFFECT ::-


1. Overheating of water wall tubes due to starvation

3
1. DRUM LEVEL LOW AND LOW-LOW:-

(C) ACTION :-
1. Run the boiler if drum level is within safe limit (Lo
alarm and lo-lo alarm came). If it goes beyond safe
limit allow boiler to trip.
1a Attempt to control with feed valve.
1a. valve
1b. If feed valve is stuck up open parallel line valve or
bypass valve.
1
1c. T k care while
Take hil increasing
i i f d flow
feed fl th t running
that i
B.F.P. do not trip on feed flow high.
1d. If low level is due to tripping of feed pump start
stand
t d by
b pump, if it is
i on manual.l
2. If water level is below safe level, allow to trip the
boiler on drum level lo-lo to protect the boiler drum
and tubes.

4
2. DRUM LEVEL HIGH AND HIGH HIGH :-

(A) CAUSE
1. Failure of drum level controller
2. Extra ordinary increase in load
3 Sudden increase in firing rate
3.

(B) EFFECT:-
1 Carry over with sharp fall in super heater temperature
1.
2. Water may enter turbine and serious damages to
turbine may occur.
3. Super Heater deposit and fouling
4. Turbine Deposit and increase in sp. Steam consumption

5
2. DRUM LEVEL HIGH AND HIGH HIGH :-

(C) ACTION :-
1 Run the boiler if drum level is within safe limit (drum
1.
level high and high high alarm came). If goes beyond
limit allow boiler to trip.
• Attempt to control with feed valve.
valve
• If feed valve is stuck up close isolating valve.
• Attempt to control drum level by opening E.B.D.
• Close Economizer inlet valve and allow feed pump to
run in recirculation.
• If above measures fail trip the feed pump.
2. If level is due to sudden rise in load. If high level rises
above normal level allow boiler to trip on drum level
high high.
high
• If main steam temperature drop takes place open
steam pipe drains.
• T i the
Trip th turbine
t bi / prime
i mover when
h steam
t
temperature falls. 6
3. FURNACE DRAFT HIGH AND HIGH HIGH
(A) CAUSE :-
1. Due to faulty operation of fan control.
2. Disturbed combustion
3. Un-controlled fuel entry

(B) EFFECT:-
1 Boiler may damage due to high furnace pressure.
1. pressure
2. Weak parts of furnace (ductings and enclosures) may
explode due to high furnace pressure.

(C) ACTION :-
1 If it is due to faulty operation of I.D./P.A./S.A.
1. I D /P A /S A fan
control, take it on manual and maintain the furnace in
negative.
2. If furnace pressure has increased beyond limit allow
boiler to trip on furnace draught high high. 7
4. BED TEMP. HIGH ::-

(A) CAUSE :-
:
1. High CV and low ash coal used.
2. Low P.A. flow / S.A. flow
3. Sudden change in load
4. Faulty bed temp thermocouple
5. Ash recirculating system trouble
6. Faulty Bed Ash Draining

(B) EFFECT :-
1. Chances of clinker formation
2. Chances of refractory failure
3. Chances of screen tube failure

8
4. BED TEMP. HIGH ::-

(C) ACTION ::-


1. Control bed temp by recirculation ash through
recirculation feeder.
2. Start sand feeder if bed height permits.
3. Increase P.A. flow up and increase S.A. flow.
4
4. Reduce the load by cutting coal feeder.
feeder
5. Coal feeders trip, if temp rises above limit and allow
boiler to trip, if temp exceeds beyond safe limit to save
bed from clinkerisation.
6. Check the bed temp thermocouple.

9
5. BED TEMP LOW :-
(A) CAUSE :-
1. High PA with respect to load / high SA flow w.r.t. load.
2. Low CV high
hi h ashh coall used.
d
3. Coal interruption or coal feeder trips or overfeeding of
bed material into furnace.
4. Recirculation ash feeder speed may increase.
5. Faulty bed temp. thermocouple.
6. Water tube / screen tube / evaporator tube failure.

(B) EFFECT :-
:
1. Boiler steam flow will reduce.
2. Super
p heater tempp drops.
p
3. Furnace draft will fluctuate.

10
5. BED TEMP LOW :-

(C) ACTION :-
1
1. Reduce P.A.
P A Fan flow,
flow if excessive / reduce S.A.
S A flow,
flow if
excessive.
2. Reduce speed of recirculation ash feeder.
3. Stop bed material supply, if running.
4. Check bed temp thermocouple.
5. Check
Ch k any leakage
l k soundd from
f ffurnace.
6. Check coal feeder and coal supply.

11
6. WATER WALL / SCREEN TUBE /
EVAPORATOR TUBE FAILURE

(A) CAUSE :-
1. Starved water wall due to low drum level
2. Block tube, eroded tube, pitted tube, salt deposits
3
3. Circulation affected due to open low point drains

(B) EFFECT :-
1. Hissing steam leakage noise from boiler.
2. Drop on Boiler Water Conductivity
3. Unstable flame fluctuating draught.
4. Bed temperature drops sharply.
5
5. Hi h feed
High f d water flow
fl f
for given
i steam generation
i /
increase in make up water.

12
6. WATER WALL / SCREEN TUBE /
EVAPORATOR TUBE FAILURE

(C) ACTION ::-


1. Every shift check low point drain valve are fully closed.
2. Every shift check the furnace to detect steam noise.
3
3. At first
fi t diagnostics
di ti off tube
t b failure,
f il start
t t load
l d reduction;
d ti
trip out unit before damage become serious. Quicker
shutdown reduces extensive damage.
4.
4 T to
Try t locate
l t tube
t b att low
l l
level.
l
5. Don’t allow the drum level to go beyond a danger level.
6. Start another BFP,, if drum level is not maintained by y
running BFP.

13
7. SUPER HEATER TUBE FAILURE :-

(A) CAUSE :-
1
1. S
Sustaining
i i hi h metall temp due
high d to water wall
ll slagging
l i or
inadequate steam flow and high gas temp during hot
start.
2. Erosion on tubes due to high excess air.
3. Blocked tubes.
4. Starvation of tubes.
5. Salt deposition due to high water level in drum. Poor
quality of spray water.

(B) EFFECT :-
• Hissing noise
• Flue gas temp drops.
• High feed water consumption compared to steam flow.
• Over loading on I.D.
I D Fan.
Fan
• Erosion of other tubes and damages to other SH tubes.
14
7. SUPER HEATER TUBE FAILURE :-

(C) ACTION :-
1. As soon as leakages noticed start reducing the load and
trip the boiler.
2. Listen the SH region for steam leakage.
3. Try to locate leakage through manholes before the boiler
is depressurized.

15
8. HIGH SUPER HEATER TEMP

(A) CAUSE :-
1. Delayed combustion
2. Burner tilt positive
3. Low feed water temp HP Heater not in service at
constant firing / load.
4. Sudden increase in firing rate to increase steam
pressure.
5. In adequate spray.
6. Lodging of soot on the water walls considerably.
7 Delayed Combustion
7.
(B) EFFECT :-
Rise in (
(+ve)
)ppositive turbine expansion.
p
1. Creep rate increase in tube metal, turbine parts, steam
piping
2 Increase
2. I off heat
h t lload
d on condenser
d
16
8. HIGH SUPER HEATER TEMP

(C) ACTION ::-


1. Check feed water temp. If HP heaters are available, put
in service and if not, reduce the load.
2. Slow down firing rate.
3. Reduce excess air, if more.
4
4. Check Spray control
5. Use tilting or cut down upper level burner

17
9. LOW SUPER HEATER TEMP. :

(A) CAUSE :-
1 Dirty
1. Di super heater
h
2. Inadequate air flow.
3 High Spray
3.
4. Too high feed water temp.
5. Sharp increase in load and pressure drop.
6. High Drum level
7. Faulty Separators

(B) EFFECT :-
1. Turbine expansion may be negative.
2. May induce thermal stresses in S.H.
3. Chance of turbine LP blade damage due to water hammer

18
9. LOW SUPER HEATER TEMP. :-

(C) ACTION :-
1. Check air flow – increase, if necessary.
2
2. Reduce spray,
spray if more.
more
3. Check feed water temp.
4. Avoid sharp p rise in load to boiler p
pressure drop.
p
5. If, it is due to high drum level – allow unit to trip and
open main steam drains
6
6. Ch k health
Check h lth off separators
t att the
th nextt possible
ibl
opportunity

19
10. FLAME FAILURE :-
(A) CAUSE :-
1. Dirty Oil / Gas Burner
2. improper atomization
3. Faulty Flame Scanner
4 Failure
4. F il off Blower
Bl
5. Furnace Pressure High
6. Low Combustion Air

(B) EFFECT :-
1 Boiler
1. Boile will
ill ttrip
ip on flame failure
fail e
2. Chances of furnace explosion, if un-burnt oil / gas / coal
mixture entered in furnace.
3. Steam pressure fall.
4. Super Heater Steam Temp. drop sharply.
5. Variation observed in drum level.
20
10. FLAME FAILURE :-

(C) ACTION :-
1 Purge
1. P the
h bboiler
il before
b f putting
i burner
b back
b k and d purge
burner as per cycle time given by supplier.
2. Check the flame scanner and clean the photocell, if found
dirty.
3. Check the sparking circuit and high voltage transformer
supply.
pp y
4. Check spark plug, if found dirty, clean it and set the gap.
5. Clean the burner tip, if nozzles (holes) are found chocked.
6 Check the air blower and maintain air fuel ratio.
6. ratio
7. Check the explosion doors, close it if opened.

21
11. FURNACE EXPLOSION
(A) CAUSE :-
1. Accumulation of un-burnt fuel during lit up / start up
of boiler.
2. Improper burning.
3 Inadequate air.
3. air
4. Secondary combustion.
5. Over riding g Purge
g p
permissive during
g restart after flame
failure

(B) EFFECT :-
1. Furnace explosion can cause extensive damage.

(C) ACTION :-
1. Always purge the boiler with 40% full load air for
about five minutes. No cut short in purging allowed.
22
2. Adjust fuel air ratio.
12. BOILER PRESSURE HIGH
(A) CAUSE :-
1. Sudden drop in load / steam flow.
2. Un-controlled fuel entry.
3. Turbine / prime mover trips.
(B) EFFECT :-
1
1. Disturbance in drum water level.
level
2. Safety valves may life if pressure rise is up to that extent.
3. Boiler may trip on high pressure.
(C) ACTION :-
1. Open start up vent valve.
2. Control fuel input and drum level.
3. Check coal feeder feeding rate.
4. Adjust the load on unit, if it has dropped.
5
5. If TG / prime
i mover has
h t i
tripped
d first,
fi t allow
ll b il
boiler t trip
to t i
but safety valve may lift.

23
13. COAL FEEDER FAILURE :-
(A) CAUSE :-
1. Electrical supply failed
2
2. V F D ffault
V.F.D. lt
3. Bed temperature high
4. Furnace draft high
5. Furnace draft low
6. Drum level high
7. Drum level low

(B) EFFECT :-
1. Boiler pressure may fall down
2. SH steam temp fall sharply.
3. Bed temp. will decrease.
4. Variation in furnace pressure (LOW)
5. Variation in drum level (Low)
24
13. COAL FEEDER FAILURE :-
(C) ACTION :-
1. Control boiler pressure by reducing load on turbine /
prime mover or process.
process
2. Control super heater steam temp by closing spray
valve.
3. Reduce PA / SA flow to control bed temp.
4. Control furnace draft and drum level.
5
5. Ch k electrical
Check l t i l fault
f lt or emergency stop
t pushh button
b tt &
restart coal feeder.
6. Check VFD fault,, if any.
y
7. Restart coal feeder after checking cause of failure.

25
14. PAH / SAH TUBE FAILURE
(A) CAUSE :-
1. Erosion of tube.
2
2. Corrosion of tube
tube.
(B) EFFECT :-
1. Flue ggas tempp after APH will fall down.
2. Increases in O2 percentage at ESP inlet.
3. PA / SA Fan overloaded.
4. Bedd temp may b be iincreased.
d
(C) ACTION :-
1
1. Control flue gas temp by passes PAH.
PAH
2. Reduce coal feeding to maintain O2 percentage.
3. Control bed temp.
4. If leakage of tubes are more stop the boiler
and plug / replaced.

26
15. BOILER FEED PUMP FAILURE :-
(A) CAUSE :-
1. Motor protection relay operates
2
2. Lube oil temperature high
3. Discharge flow high
4. Motor bearingg temperature
p high
g
5. Deaerator level low
6. BFP suction pressure low

(B) EFFECT :-
1
1. If standby pump is available,
available it will start on auto or start
it manually.
2. If standby pump does not start on auto & manual, drum
level may go very low, which may trip the boiler.

27
15. BOILER FEED PUMP FAILURE :-
(C) ACTION :-
1. Start the stand by pump, if it does not start on auto.
Adjust the load to maintain the drum level as well as to
prevent the tripping of this pump on high feed water flow.
2. See the proper operation of recirculation valve and C.W.
V l
Valve.
3. Analyze and rectify the fault in the main feed pump. Put it
on auto.
4. Restore the bus supply, if it has lost and make the pump
available.
5
5. Ch k the
Check th deaerator
d t l
levell and
d if it falls
f ll below
b l safe
f limit,
li it
stop the feed pump, immediately.
6. Check the BFP suction strainer and clean it,, if found
chocked.

28
16. LOSS OF ID FANS
(A) CAUSE :-
1. Electrical motor protection
2. Fan bearing temp becomes high high
3. Motor bearing temp becomes very high
4. Drive fault (MCC fault)
5
5. Boiler trip

(B) EFFECT :-
1. Furnace may get pressurized
2. Boiler will trip on boiler furnace pressure high.

(C) ACTION :-
1. Check emergency or field stop.
2
2. R tif electrical
Rectify l t i l fault,
f lt if any.
3. Check cause for boiler trip & normalize it.
4. Check fan / motor-bearing g temp.
p
5. Restart I.D. Fan after checking cause of tripping and
29
taking corrective actions.
(2) P.A. FAN FAILURE :-

(A) CAUSE :-
1. Electrical motor protection.
p
2. Fan bearing temp. becomes high high.
3. Motor bearing temp. becomes very high.
4
4. MCC fault.
fault
5. Boiler trip.
6. Run feed back off.
7. ID Fan trip.
8. SA trip.

(B) EFFECT :-
1. Boiler will trip on
a. Furnace draft low
b. P.A. flow low.
30
(2) P.A. FAN FAILURE :-

(C) ACTION :-
1. Rectify
y electrical fault,, if any.
y
2. Check cause for boiler trip and normalize it.
3. Check fan / motor-bearing temp.
4
4. Restart the P.A.
P A Fan after checking the cause of tripping
and taking corrective actions.

31
(3) S.A. FAN FAILURE:-
(A) CAUSE :-
1. Electrical motor protection.
2
2. Fan bearing temp becomes high high.
high
3. Motor bearing temp becomes very high.
4. MCC fault.
5. Boiler trip.
6. Run feed back off.
7. I.D. Fan trip.
(B) EFFECT :-
1. Boiler will trip on low furnace draft.
(C) ACTIONS :-
1. Rectify electrical fault, if any.
2. Check cause for boiler,, tripp & normalize it.
3. Check fan / motor-bearing temp.
4. Restart the S.A. Fan after checking the cause of tripping
and taking corrective actions.
actions
32