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Fabrication of Advanced Four in One Multipurpose

Agricultural Robotic Vehicle


Project Report Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Bachelor of Technology
In

Mechanical Engineering
Submitted by:

Anjali Dubey: (Roll No. 15ME02)


Ankita Kumari: (Roll No. 15ME03)
Komal Gupta: (Roll No. 15ME21)
Savita Verma: (Roll No. 15ME41)
Tabassum Khan: (Roll No. 15ME44)
Tamanna Paliwal: (Roll No. 15ME45)

Under the Supervision of


Dr. Jai Gopal Gupta Mr. Dharmanshu Singh Sodha
Head of Department Assistant Professor (NPIU, TEQIP III)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


GOVERNMENT WOMEN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, AJMER
May, 2019
CERTIFICATE

This is certified that the Project entitled, “Fabrication of advanced four in one multipurpose
agricultural robotic vehicle” by Anjali Dubey (Roll No. 15ME02), Ankita Kumari :(Roll
No. 15ME03), Komal Gupta: (Roll No. 15ME21), Savita Verma: (15ME41), Tabassum
Khan:(15ME44), Tamanna Paliwal:(15ME45) has been carried out under my supervision
in partial fulfillment of the requirement of B. Tech. in Mechanical Engineering.

Signature of the Supervisor


Name : Dr. Jai Gopal Gupta
Designation : Head of Department
Date : 22/10/2018

Signature of Co- Supervisor


Name : Mr. Dharmanshu Singh Sodha
Designation : Assistant Professor (NPIU, TEQIP III)
Date : 22/10/2018

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We take this opportunity to express my gratitude to all those people who have been directly
and indirectly with me during the completion of this Project Report.
We pay thank to “Mr. Dharmanshu Singh Sodha” who has given guidance and a light to
me during this minor project. His versatile knowledge about “Fabrication of advanced
four in one multipurpose agricultural robotic vehicle” has eased me in the critical times
during the span of this major Project. We acknowledge here out debt to those who
contributed significantly to one or more steps. We take full responsibility for any remaining
sins of omission and commission.

Anjali Dubey: (Roll No. 15ME02)

Ankita Kumari: (Roll No. 15ME03)

Komal Gupta: (Roll No. 15ME21)

Savita Verma: (Roll No. 15ME41)

Tabassum Khan: (Roll No. 15ME44)

Tamanna Paliwal: (Roll No. 15ME45)

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ABSTRACT

Project Title : Fabrication of advanced four in one multipurpose agricultural robotic


Vehicle.
Supervisor : Dharmanshu Singh Sodha

Semester : 7th

Name of Students : NAME ID No:

ANJALI DUBEY 15ME02

ANKITA KUMARI 15ME03

KOMAL GUPTA 15ME21

SAVITA VERMA 15ME41

TABASSUM KHAN 15ME44

TAMANNA PALIWAL. 15ME45

Aim of the project work:

The Aim of the project is to use multiple equipment’s in a single machine to perform various
operations of agriculture.

Background of work:

It is a new technology in which the machine used 4 different equipment for agricultural
process. In this the 4 different work done by the multipurpose machine are ploughing or to
dig a hole, sowing, watering and Cutting. It is the advanced technology in agriculture & it
reduces the cost of using 4 different-different equipment on a single machine alone.

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LIST OF CHAPTER

Table No. Table Name Page No.

1 Introduction 6

2 Literature review 12

3 Material and component 14

4 Working principle and advantage 21

5 Designing 25

6 Future outcome and scope 29

7 Conclusion 31

8 References 32

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No. Figure Name Page No.


1 Solar Panel 14
2 Water Tank 15
3 Wiper Motor 16
4 Battery 17
5 Box 18

6 Cutter and Cutting Motor 19


7 Spraying Motor and Nozzle 20
8 DC Pump 27
9 Electric Motor 27
10 Solar Panel 28
11 Water Tank 28

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Chapter-1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Agriculture
Agriculture has been the backbone of the Indian economy and it will continue to remain
so for a long time. A man without food for three days will quarrel, for a week will fight
and for a month or so will die‖. Agriculture is a branch of applied science. Agriculture is
the science and art of farming including cultivating the soil, producing crops and raising
livestock. It is the most important enterprise in the world. Over the years, agricultural
practices have been carried out by small-holders cultivating between 2 to 3 hectare, using
human labor and traditional tools such as wooden plough, yoke, leveler, harrow, spade,
big etc. These tools are used in land preparation, for sowing of seeds, weeding and
harvesting. Modem agricultural techniques and equipment’s are not used by small land
holders because this equipment’s are too expensive and difficult to acquire. Adopting
scientific farming methods, we can get maximum yield and good quality crops which can
save a farmer from going bankrupt but majority of farmers still uses primitive method of
farming techniques due to lack of knowledge or lack of investment for utilizing modern
equipment. The use of hand tools for land cultivation is still predominant in India because
tractors require resources that many Indian farmers do not have easy access to.

The need for agricultural mechanization in India must therefore be assessed with a deeper
understanding of the small holder farmer’s activities. Sustainable improvement in the
livelihoods of poor farmers in developing countries depends largely on the adoption of
improved resource conserving cropping systems. While most of the necessary
components already exist, information on the availability and performance of equipment

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is lacking and effective communication between farmers and agricultural research and
development department is unsuccessful.

1.1.1 Main Features of Indian Agriculture

i. Source of livelihood: Agriculture is the main occupation. It provides employment


to nearly 61% persons of total population. It contributes 25% to national income.

ii. Dependence on monsoon: Agriculture in India mainly depends on monsoon. If


monsoon is good, the production will be more and if monsoon is less than
average then the crops fail. As irrigation facilities are quite inadequate, the
agriculture depends on monsoon.

iii. Labour intensive cultivation: Due to increase in population the pressure on land
holding increased. Land holdings get fragmented and subdivided and become
uneconomical. Machinery and equipment cannot be used on such farms.

iv. Under employment: Due to inadequate irrigation facilities and uncertain


rainfall, the production of agriculture is less; farmers find work a few months in
the year. Their capacity of work cannot be properly utilized. In agriculture there
is under employment as well as disguised unemployment.

v. Small size of holdings: Due to large scale sub-division and fragmentation of


holdings, land holding size is quite small. Average size of land holding was 2 to 3
hectares in India while in Australia it was 1993 hectares and in USA it was 158
hectares.

vi. Traditional methods of production: In India methods of production of crops


along with equipment are traditional. It is due to poverty and illiteracy of people.
Traditional technology is the main cause of low production.

vii. Low Agricultural production: Agricultural production is low in India. India


produces 27 Qtrs. Wheat per hectare. France produces 71.2 Qtrs. per hectare and

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Britain 80 Qtrs. per hectare. Average annual productivity of an agricultural


labour is 162 dollars in India, 973 dollars in Norway and 2408 dollars in USA.

viii. Dominance of food crops: 75% of the cultivated area is under food crops like
Wheat, Rice and Bajra, while 25% of cultivated area is under commercial crops.
This pattern is cause of backward agriculture.

1.1.2 Major Challenges Faced by Indian Agriculture


i. Stagnation in Production of Major Crops: Production of some of the major
staple food crops like rice and wheat has been stagnating for quite some time. This
is a situation which is worrying our agricultural scientists, planners and policy
makers. If this trend continues, there would be a huge gap between the demand of
ever growing population and the production.

ii. High cost of Farm Inputs: Over the year’s rates of farm inputs have increased.
Farm inputs include fertilizer, insecticide, pesticides, HYV seeds, farm labor cost
etc. Such an increase puts low and medium land holding farmers at a disadvantage.

iii. Soil Exhaustion: Soil exhaustion means loss of nutrients in the soil from farming
the same crop over and over again. This usually happens in the rain forest.

iv. Depletion of Fresh Ground Water: Most of the irrigation in dry areas of Punjab,
Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh was carried out by excessive use of ground
water. Today fresh ground water situation in these states is alarming. In the
coming few years if this type of farming practice continues, these states are going
to face water famine.
v. Adverse impact of Global Climatic Change: Among various challenges, global
climatic change is the recent one. It is predicted that due to climate change,
temperature would increase from 2°C to 3°C, there would be increase in sea level,
more intense cyclones, unpredictable rainfall etc. These changes would adversely
affect the production of crops.

vi. Impact of Globalization: You can see the effect of globalization on the farm
sector in India. All developing countries have been affected by it. The most
evident effect is the squeeze on farmer ‘s income and the threat to the viability of
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cultivation in India. This is due to the rising input costs and falling output prices.
This reflects the combination of reduced subsidy and protection to farmers.

vii. Providing Food Security: Before the introduction of green revolution in India,
we were not self-sufficient in terms of our food grain production. With the
introduction of green revolution, production of food grains increased substantially
and India became self-sufficient. However, during the last one decade the total
production has become stagnant. On the other hand, we have added another 16 to
18 million populations over this period. Although India has become self-sufficient
in good it is yet to ensure food security which is dependent upon accessibility,
affordability as well nutritional value of the food available. One of the biggest
challenges facing India is Providing Food Security to its population.

viii. Farmers Suicide: Every suicide has a multiple of causes but when you have
nearly 200,000 of them, it makes sense to seek broad common factors within that
group. The suicides appear concentrated in regions of high commercialization of
agriculture and very high peasant debt. Cash crop farmers seemed far more
vulnerable to suicide than those growing food crops. Yet the basic underlying
causes of the crisis remained untouched. Commercialization of the countryside
along with massive decline in investment in agriculture was the beginning of the
decline. Withdrawal of bank credit at a time of soaring input prices and the crash
in farm incomes compounded the problems. Shifting of millions from food crop
to cash crop cultivation had its own risks. Privatization of many resources has also
compounded the problems. The devastation lies in the big 5 States of Maharashtra,
Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. These states
accounted for two-thirds of all farm suicides during 2003-08. Some of the major
factors responsible are indebtedness, crop failure and deterioration in economic
status. Decline in social position, exorbitant charges by local money lenders for
the vulnerable farmers, chronic illness in the family, addiction etc. have made life
of farmers difficult.

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1.2 Introduction of Agribot:


Now a day’s most of the countries do not have sufficient human factor in agricultural
sector and it affects the growth of developing countries. So it’s time to automate the
sector to overcome this problem. In India, 70% people depends on agriculture. So we
need to study the agriculture. Innovative idea of our Project is to automate the process
of sowing crops such as groundnut, baby corn, sunflower and so on. The farming
system like plugging, cultivating, weeding, harvesting, etc. is the different process. All
the processes are advance to modifying the mechanism in farming which works
automatically without the man power requirement. Manually seed plantation method
suffers from various problems. The tendency of manual work is going on reducing.
The man power shortage is one of the biggest problems faced continuously to all
farmers. Due to labour shortage the plantation cost should be increased. So it is not
economically beneficial for all farmers. Now a day’s instrumentation and control
system plays an important role.

So we develop a system for “seed plantation robot” using microcontroller which is


very economical and beneficial. Due to automation the work become easiest, Errorless
and it saves money also. Our system is nothing but the four tyre vehicle which is driven
by geared DC motor. According to microcontroller program, after some distance or
some time instant the seed should be dropped through the nozzle, which is operated by
relay. Nozzle size is depending on the diameter of the seed. Same operation is repeated
after some time delay. So there is no more labour work. It gives information about
weather conditions for seed plantation. Hence all the problems of conventional method
are overcome by using this system.

In the current scenario most of us have come across the atomization in various fields
as the advancement of technology has to a lead tremendous development in the
industrial products that have made our lives a lot easier and helpful than what our
ancestors faced. The advancements especially in the field of agriculture have helped
evolve a new era of development and growth of different developing countries. The
atomization in this field has been a trademark for the people who are completely
dependent on agriculture for their survival and other needs.

Accordingly, a report made says that most of the agriculture equipment’s that are been
projected in various fields, that is either by researchers or by the engineers are
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practically very difficult to implement. This equipment’s made are mostly very
complex in terms of field operation or are either less efficient as they are implemented
based upon on the basic concept from the design point of view. Many of the other
devices developed based upon the concept of seed sowing and fertilizing are either a
single application devices or they are very less efficient.
As these devices are developed taking in point the present scenario in the field of
agriculture these devices are hence forth based upon the basic concept model and are
practically inefficient to implement as these are designed to work in single rows which
can be done more efficiently using manpower. Thus in order to overcome these issues
we are making an effort to develop a model which could be more efficient when being
implanted on the practical basis.

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Chapter-2

Literature Review

2.1 V.K. Tiwari, A. Ashok Kumar, Satya Prakash Kumar, Brajesh Nare
[2012]
 In this research papers author have done case study on farm mechanization in west
Bengal as being part of India it gives clear status about availability and progress in
India.
 This ensured us to take right steps compared to current steps .

2.2 D.A. Mada, Sunday Mahai, [2013]


 In this research paper author has mentioned importance of mechanization in
agricultural by giving examples.
 The conclusion from the paper was need of multifunctional single axel vehicle for
pre and Post harvesting. We have taken this as base for our research and further
production of multifunctional agricultural vehicle.

2.3 F.A. Adamu, B. G. Jahun and B. Babangida [2014]


 In this paper authors draws our attention towards the performance factor of a power
tiller.
 Among those demand for light weight power tiller was sought out most. Fuel
efficiency and field capacity such parameters are also discussed.
 We take those points in consideration while designing a sustainable multifunctional
agricultural vehicle.

2.4P. Sarec, O. Sarec [2015]


 The lowest values of soil penetration resistance below the cultivated profile were
determined with the cultivators equipped with chisel shaped shares i.e. in the case of
Fermet. This results have taken for our research basis.
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2.5 Charansingh A. Patil, Sunil U. Nyati [2016]


 This paper proposes Multifunctional mechanical vehicle for agriculture application.
In the past agriculture was accepted out using furnish seized tools and as the
civilization progressed people started using animal driven tools, after that self-
governing age robots for agriculture.
 In the developed countries the automatic agriculture has reached to a complete state
but in the increasing countries like India is still developing. The mechanized
agriculture autonomous agrirobots for improving agriculture efficiency must increase
to meet the expectations demand of the ever grooving human being population to rise
above it we were developed robotic vehicle.
 Agriculture robotic are machines programmed to do agricultural task and form
assignments. Such as harvesting or picking, weeding, spraying, cutting. The
challenge is designing and developing robots to work in synchronization with the
nature

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Chapter-3
Component Material & Specification

3.1 Solar Panel:


 A solar panel works by allowing photons, or particles of light, to knock electrons free
from atoms, generating a flow of electricity.
 Solar panels actually comprise many, smaller units called photovoltaic cells
(Photovoltaic simply means they convert sunlight into electricity). Each photovoltaic
cell is basically a sandwich made up of two slices of semi-conducting material,
usually silicon.
 Maximum Power : 10W
 Maximum power voltage : 17.83V
 Maximum current : 0.57 A
 Open circuit voltage : 21.75V
 Short circuit current : 0.61A
 Production Tolerance : +3

Fig: 3.1 Solar panel

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3.2 Water Tank:


 It is used to store a water in watering process.
 Water is essential because germination of seeds does not take place under dry
condition. Water also protects the crop from both frost and hot air currents. To
maintain the moisture of the soil for healthy crop growth, fields have to be watered
regularly.

 Capacity of Water Tank =3.5L

Fig: 3.2 Water tank

3.3 PUMP:
 It is used for increase the pressure of Water.
 A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), by mechanical action.

 DC power: 120V

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3.4 WIPER MOTOR:


 The output of the gear reduction operates a linkage that moves the wipers back and
forth.
 The circuit maintains power to the wipers until they are parked at the bottom of the
windshield, then cuts the power to the motor.
 This circuit also parks the wipers between wipes when they are on their intermittent
setting.

 2 motor = (attach with wheel)

Fig: 3.3 Wiper motor

3.5 WIRE MATERIAL:


 Wire wrapping technology was developed to give electricians a safe and efficient
means to connect wires to terminals while still providing a high level of reliability.
 The method of wire wrapping is to coil the exposed wire around the sharp corners of
a terminal under mechanical tension.

 PVC (for insulation).

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3.6 BATTERY:
 We use lead acid battery. It is connected to solar panel to store the power so that we
can use it in when no solar energy is available
 Ampere hours: 8AH
 Voltage: 12V
VOLTAGE REGULATION:
 Cycle used: 14.4 to 15.0 V  Standby: 13.6 to 13.8

Fig: 3.4 Battery

3.7 CONTROLLER:
 It is used to control the processes of agriculture robotic vehicle such as sowing,
ploughing, watering & cutting.

 Red switch : ON /OFF for watering & cutting


 Black switch : ON/OFF & LEFT / RIGHT

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3.8 BOX:
 It is a container which is used to store the seeds.
 We used wood material in this.
 The sowing mechanism is installed in this box.

 Length : 35 cm
 Width : 17.5 -18 cm
 Height : 25.5 cm

Fig:3.5 Box

3.9 Wheels:
 Wheels reduce friction. Instead of simply sliding over the ground, the wheels dig in
and rotate, turning around sturdy rods called axles.
 Wheels provide leverage (in other words, they are examples of force multipliers or
simple machines)
 Width : 40.9 mm
 Dia. : 25 cm

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3.10 SEED SOWING /CUTTING MOTOR:


 This motor is use as a time interruption purpose because one by one side wills
down to earth side and vehicle move forward direction at same time.
 Knowing the position and severity of the weeds there are many methods that can
kill, remove or retard these unwanted plants. Different physical methods can be
used that rely on physical interaction with the weeds.
 A classic example is to break the soil and root interface by tillage and promote
wilting of the weed plants. This can be achieved in the inter row area easily by
using classical spring or duck foot tines.
 Within the close-to-crop area, tillage cannot be used as any disturbance to the soil
is likely to damage the interface between the crop and the soil.
 Intra row weeding is more difficult as it requires the position of the crop plant to
be known so that the end effectors can be steered away.

Fig: 3.6 Cutter and cutting motor

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3.11 SPRAYING MOTOR:


 This motor is used for water spraying on soil.
 After sowing process, the seeds need water for their growth and irrigation is done
by the sprayer using sprayer motor.

Fig: 3.7 Spray motor and nozzle

3.12 CHASSIS of the VECHILE:


 The choice of material for the vehicle is the first and most important factor for
automotive design.
 There is variety of materials that can be used in automotive body and chassis. The
most important criteria that a material should meet are lightweight, economic
effectiveness, safety, recyclability, and life cycle consideration.
 The material for the frame and chassis is steel.
 The main factors for selecting material specially for body is wide variety of
characteristics such as thermal, chemical and mechanical resistant which are ease
for manufacturing and durability.
 In the frame all components are mounted or fixed.
 It supports the tool static and dynamic load of the vehicle.
 The design is made which is suitable supporting all the operations.
 The frame is made for a compact size vehicle.

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Chapter-4
Working Principle & Advantages

4.1 Working Principle:


The basic aim of this project is to develop a multipurpose machine, which is used for
digging the soil, seed sowing, water sprayer and cutting with least changes in
accessories with minimum cost. This whole system of the robot works with the battery
and the solar power.

 The base frame is made for the robot with 3 wheels connected and driven the rear
wheel is dc motor.

 One end of the frame, cultivator is fitted which is also driven by dc motor and design
is made to dig the soil.

 Cylindrical piping arrangement is made by the sheet metal, to store the seeds and the
seeds flow through the drilled path holes on the digged soil.

 Water pump sprayer to spray the water on the soil after sowing so that seeds receive
proper irrigation.

 At the end cutter blade is attached which is used for harvesting.

 Solar is placed on top of the robot and is connected to the battery for charging the
battery.

 Thus the max efficiency is utilized from the sun by the solar panel and to the battery.
The solar panel system is operated by solar tracker.

 It is not wireless process it uses wires for functioning of the vehicle which is
controlled by the controller board.

 The whole robot requires the 12v battery to operate the system.

 Toggle switches are used to control the operation of the vehicle.

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4.2 OPERATIONS
4.2.1 Steering mechanism

 The wheel is coupled with the DC Motor.


 The power for motor is supplied by a Battery.
 The direction of motor rotation can be controlled by toggle switches for
steering the vehicle to either left or right side direction.

4.2.2 Ploughing

 The power for motor is supplied by a Battery.


 The Ploughing tool is designed in the way that it wouldn’t break due to the
sudden encounter of rocks and roots present in the soil. The faults in the current
tool is changed and modified. The designed new tool is durable and affordable
and can be used in all kinds of geographical region.
 The life of the tool is increased by replacing the only the tip of the tool. The
sharpness of the tool is remains constant for significantly longer period of time.
The efficiency and the effectiveness of the tool is increased. The optimum
weight of the tool is obtained. The breakage of the tool is reduced by using
high speed steel in the tip. The material used for plough tool is High Speed
Steel.

4.2.3 Seed sowing

 A box is used for Seed storage.


 Funnel is present at the bottom of box which receives seeds due to gear motion.
 The DC motor is powered by a battery which is controlled using a toggle
switch, As the motor is switched on, the gears tend to rotate which makes the
seeds fall on the cultivated field making consistent gap between seeds

4.2.4 Leveling

 A Sheet Metal Plate is used as mud closer and Leveller.


 The 1long bolt and nut is used for leveller up & down movement.
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 The Leveller is not powered, instead it is fixed to required level initially.


 The leveller closes the soil in the sowed soil & levels the land.

4.2.5 WATER SPRAYING OPERATION

 A water container is used for water storage.


 A submersible pump is used for pumping water to the water sprayer. The water
flows to the sprayer through pipe.
 The power for pump is supplied by an on and off switch.
 After sowing and levelling irrigation of land is done using the sprayer system.

4.2.6 Toggle switch

 The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical


device with one or more sets of electrical contacts, which are connected to
external circuits.
 Each set of contacts can be in one of two states: either "closed" meaning the
contacts are touching and electricity can flow between them, or "open",
meaning the contacts are separated and the switch is non-conducting.
 The mechanism actuating the transition between these two states (open or
closed) can be either a "toggle" (flip switch for continuous "on" or "off") or
“momentary” (push-for "on" or push-for "off") type.
 A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a
system, such as a computer keyboard button, or to control power flow in a
circuit, such as a light switch.
 Switches may be operated by process variables such as pressure, temperature,
flow, current, voltage, and force, acting as sensors in a process and used to
automatically control a system. For example, a thermostat is a temperature-
operated switch used to control a heating process.
 A switch that is operated by another electrical circuit is called a relay.

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4.3 Advantages

Different applications of autonomous vehicles in agriculture have been examined and


compared with conventional systems and are proved as efficient and effective.

 To reduce human effort in the agricultural field with the use of small robot.
 To perform all 4 operations at single time, hence increases production and saves time.
 To complete large amount of work in less time.
 Farmer can operate this robot through remote by sitting at one side and he can operate
easily.
 The usage of solar can be utilized for Battery charging. As the Robot works in the
field, the rays of the sun can be used for solar power generation.
 To increase the efficiency, the solar power is used and the Power output can be
increased.
Moreover, we will give examples of the economic potential of applying autonomous
robotic vehicles compared to conventional systems. Focus will be put on potential labor
cost savings, farm structure implications and sizes for operation, daily working hours,
potential environmental impact, energy costs and safety issues.

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Chapter-5
Designing of Parts

AUTOCAD
AutoCAD is a commercial computer aided design and drafting software application.
Developed and marketed by Autodesk, AutoCAD was first released in December 1982 as a
desktop app running on microcomputers with internal graphics controllers. Before
AutoCAD was introduced, most commercial CAD program ran on mainframe computers or
minicomputers, with each cad operator working at separate graphic terminal. Since 2010,
AutoCAD released as a mobile and web app as well, marketed as AutoCAD 360.

AutoCAD is used in the industry, by architects, project managers, engineers, graphic


designers, city planner and other professionals. It was supported by 750 training center
worldwide in 1994.

SOLIDWORKS
Solid works is a solid modeling computer aided design and computer aided engineering
computer program that runs on Microsoft window. Solid works is published by Dassault
Systemes.

Solid works corporation was founded in December 1993 by Massachusetts institute of


technology graduate Jon Hirschtick. Solid works currently markets several version of the
solid works CAD software in addition to eDrawing, a collaboration tool, and Draft sight, a
2D CAD product.

MODELING TECHNOLOGY

Building a model in solid works usually starts with a 2D sketch (although 3D sketches are
available for power users). The sketch consists of geometry such as point, lines, arcs, conics
(except the hyperbola), and splines. Dimensions are added to the sketch to define the size
and location of the geometry. Relations are used to define attributes such as tangency,
parallelism, perpendicularity, and concentricity. The parametric nature of solid works

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means that the dimension and relations drive the geometry, not the other way around. The
dimensions in the sketch can be controlled independently, or by relationships to other
parameter inside or outside of the sketch.

ASSEMBLY

In an assembly, the analog to sketch relation are mates. Just as sketch relation define
conditions such as tangency, parallelism, and concentricity with respect to sketch geometry,
assembly mates define equivalent relations with respect to the individual parts or
component, allowing the easy construction of assemblies. Solid works also includes
additional advanced mating features such as gear and cam follower mates, which allow
modeled gear assemblies to accurately reproduce the rotational movement of an actual gear
train.

Finally, drawing can be created either from parts or assemblies. Views are automatically
generated from the solid model, and notes, dimensions and tolerances can then be easily
added to the drawing as needed. The drawing module includes most paper size and standards
(ANSI, ISO, DIN, GOST, JIS, BSI and SAC).

File format

Solid works files (previous to version 2015) use the Microsoft structured storage file format.
This means that there are various files embedded within each SLDDRW (drawing files),
SLDPRT (part files), SLDASM (assembly files) file, including preview bitmaps and
metadata sub files.

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Fig: 5.1 DC pump

Fig: 5.2 Electric motor

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Fig: 5.3 Solar panel

Fig: 5.4 Water tank

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Chapter-6
Scope & Future outcome
6.1 Scope:
 The Present project aims at designing an intelligent robotic vehicle which can be
controlled by toggle switch.
 The main aim of our project has been to develop a solar operated digging machine,
which is solar powered.
 In this machine we used a solar panel to capture and convert solar energy into
electrical energy which in turn is used to charge a battery, which then gives the
necessary power to a shunt wound DC motor. This power is then transmitted to the
rear wheel through gear drives.
 In this project an attempt is made to make the electric and mechanical systems share
their powers in an efficient way.

6.2 Future outcome:


Today’s agriculture has transformed into a high-tech enterprise that most 20th century
farmers might barely recognize. After all, it was only around 100 years ago that
farming in the US transitioned from animal power to robotic power. Over the past 20
years the global positioning system (GPS), electronic sensors and other new tools
have moved farming even further into a technological wonderland.

Automatic guidance, whereby a GPS-based system steers the tractor in a much


more precise pattern than the driver is capable of is a tremendous success story. Safety
concerns currently limit completely driverless capability to smaller machines. Fully
autonomous or robotic field machines have begun to be employed in small-scale high
profit-margin agriculture such as wine grapes, nursery plants and some fruits and
vegetables.

High-throughput plant phenotyping (HTPP) is an up-and-coming precision


agriculture technology at the intersection of genetics, sensors and robotics. It is used

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to develop new varieties or “lines” of a crop to improve characteristics such as


nutritive content and drought and pest tolerance. HTPP employs multiple sensors to
measure important physical characteristics of plants, such as height; leaf number,
size, shape, angle, color, wilting; stalk thickness; number of fruiting positions. These
are examples of phenotypic traits, the physical expression of what a plant’s genes
code for. Scientists can compare these measurements to already-known genetic
markers for a particular plant variety.

Our project focuses on these outcomes:

 The vehicle can be easily assembled and disassembled so that ease in handling
and carrying it.

 Will be operated by the mobile so that no need of controller.


 Installation of components for fertilization and pesticides.
 Safety equipment’s for person using it so that they will not harm themselves.
 More efficient vehicle hence increases output.
 Less cost and easy to handle technology.

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Chapter-7
Conclusion
After the manufacturing and trail on the “Multipurpose Agricultural Automobile (Farm
Machine)” conclusion made are as follows:

 Based on the overall performance of the machine we can definitely say that the project
will satisfy the need of small scale farmer, because they are not able to purchase
costly agricultural equipment.

 The machine required less man power and less time compared to traditional methods,
so if we manufacture it on a large scale its cost gets significantly reduce and we hope
this will satisfy the partial thrust of Indian agriculture.

 So in this way we can overcome the labour problem that is the need of today’s farming
in India.

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Chapter-8
References

1. https://www.google.com/search?q=agricultural+robotics+seminar+report+pdf

2. https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.ijareeie.com/upload/2016/ncrte/33_EIE
33.pdf&usg=AFQjCNGo_ZCV9f-iWZuFtuoe41ogdGj5KQ

3. https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.scribd.com/doc/307033390/agriculture
-robot-seminar-report&usg=AFQjCNE0RFnphFGODie3i1yXfOGDP9nVbg

4. https://www.google.com/url?q=https://nevonprojects.com/automatic-seed-sowing-
robot/&usg=AFQjCNFk9DgfpK55AlFMLQKr6hJvGCOCS

5. https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.onlinejournal.in/IJIRV3I6/024.pdf&us
g=AFQjCNHYPuYCDdRE9lpta_xK-Z_cXvWPZw

6. https://www.google.com/search?q=fabrication+of+multi+utility+agricultural+vehicl
e+pdf

7. https://www.google.com/url?q=https://arxiv.org/pdf/1806.06762&usg=AFQjCNHQ
c3tSNQd8SbG3GuELiF-jM0xzSg

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