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Histology Department

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WITHOUT HISTOLOGY
DEPARTMENT’S PERMITION

Prepared by: LokDonLub


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CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS
Heart: Pump
Cardiovascular
system  2 way of
transport Arteries: deliver blood from heart
2 systems:

to organs

Capillaries: for metabolic


exchange

Venous: return blood back to


heart

Lymphovascular Collect excess extracellular fluid


system
One way transport: from tissue
to cardiovascular system 2
H EA RT

• 4 chambers :
– R/L atriums
– R/L ventricles

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• 4 Valves :
– Mitral valve
– Tricuspid valve
– Aortic valve
– Pulmonary semilunar valve

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• Heart Wall : 1, 2
– Endocardium
– Myocardium
– Epicardium

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I. Endocardium
• Inner layer of atriums & ventricles2
• Homologous with tunica intima of
blood vessels
• Consist of : 1, 2
1.Endothelium :
• Simple squamous epithelium
• Junctions :
– Tight/occluding junctions
– Gap junctions
2. Subendocardial layer :
• Loose connective tissue
• Contain veins, nerves, Purkinje
cells (branches of impulse
conducting system of heart
• Connected to myocardium

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II. Myocardium

Thickest tunics
cardiac muscle cells

Speciallized muscle cells in atrium


produce atriopeptin, ANF(Atrial Natriuretic
Thinnest
Factor), cardiodilatin, cardionatrin  Smaller cardiac
help in maintain fluid & electrolyte balance3 muscle cells 7
Type Of Cardiac
Muscle Fiber

1. Conducting Impluse
Fiber

2. Contractile
Fiber 8
1. Conducting Impulse Fiber
• Conduction system of
heart: 2, 3
– Modification of cardiac
muscle cells
– Generate a rythmic stimulus
– Consist of :
1. 2 node in atrium wall:
– Sinoatrial node/SA node
– Atrioventricular node/AV
node
2. AV bundle branches of
AV node
3. Purkinje fibers 
branches of AV bundle 9
• Purkinje fibers : 2, 3
– Branches of AV Bundle
– Located at subendocardial
– Distinctive appearance with
ordinary cardiac muscle :
• Larger & contain more
cytoplasm
• Less myofibril
• Rich in mitochondria &
glycogen
• 1 or 2 central nuclei

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2. Contractile Fiber
• Elongated, cylindrical & branching
fiber
• Each fiber contains only 1 or 2 nuclei,
centrally placed
• Cross striations similar to skeletal
muscle (A/I/H band & M/Z line)
• Sarcoplasm contain numerous large
mitochondria

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• Special junctions at the end
of two cardiac fiber
• 3 junctions :
1.Fascia adherens
2.Macula adherens
(desmosome)
3.Gap junctions

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Intercalated Disc with light microscope
dark lines crossed the cardiac fiber
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III. Epicardium
• Homologue to tunica
adventitia in blood vessels3
• Outermost layer of heart wall3
• Consist of : 1, 2
1. Pericardium viceral 
mesothelium (simple
squamous epithelium)
2. Subepicardial layer
loose connective tissue
with coronary vessels,
nerves & ganglia
3. Pericardium parietal:
mesothelium & conn.
tissue
• Space between pericardium
contain serous liquid for
lubricating
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BLOOD VESSELS

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BLOOD VESSELS
• Differ in size, distribution & function but have similarity in
several feature 2, 3
• Wall divided into : 1, 2, 3
1. Tunica Intima :
– Endothelium : simple squamous epthelium, rest on
basal lamina
» Provide smooth surface of blood vessel
» Secreting type I, IV & V collagen, lamin,
endothelin, nitric oxide, von Willebrand factor.
» Posses membrane bound enzyme such as
angiostensin converting enzyme (ACE)
– Subendothelium  loose conn. tissue, few scattered
smooth muscle
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2. Tunica Media:
– Equivalent to myocardium
– Most variable layer in size &
structure
– Contain variable amount of
smooth muscle & elastic
tissue  depend on blood
vessel function
3. Tunica Adventitia:
– Correspond to epicardium 
lack mesothelial cells
– Varies in thicknes
– Mostly composed of
fibroblast, type I collagen
fiber & elastic fiber
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Blood Vessel Wall Composition

ELASTIC TISSUE
LARGE ARTERIES MUSCLE

SMALL ARTERIES

ARTERIOLES

CAPILLARIES
VENULES &VEINS

LARGE SMALL LARGE


INSIDE DIAMETER 18
• Membrana Elastica :
Interna :
– Separating T. Intima
& T. Media
– Composed of
perforated elastin
tissue
– Function: permits
diffusion of
substances
Eksterna :
– Separating T. Media
& T. Adventitia
– More delicate than
interna
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• Vasa Vasorum :
– Found in large vessels
– Small arteries  branching to
serve nutrition to cells in t.
media & t. adventitia
– More prevalent in veins than
arteries coz venous blood
contain less oxygen & nutients
than arterial blood 20
Nerve Supply Of Blood Vessel 3
• A network of vasomotor nerve of sympathetic
component of autonomic nervous system
supplies smooth muscle cells of vessels 
release norepinephrine  diffuse to smooth
muscle cells nearby  impulses propagated to
entire smooth muscle via gap junction
• Arteries supply the skeletal muscle also receive
parasympathetic nerves  vasodilatation

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Large/Elastic/Conducting arteries

Arteries Medium/Muscular & Small Arteries


Classification Of Blood Vessels

Arteriole

Large Veins

Veins Medium & Small Veins

Venule

Continous Capillaries

Capillaries Fenestrated Capillaries

Sinusoidal capillaries
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ARTERIE

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A. ELASTIC ARTERIE
• Aorta, Iliaca Communis,
Pulmonaris, Brachiocephalic,
Subclavia, Carotid Comm. 2
• Yellow wall coz abundance of
elastin in T. media
• Tunica Intima : (1, 2)
– Thick  thicker than T.
intima A. Muscularis
– Endothelial cells 
Tunika Intima Weibel-Palade bodies 
von Willebrand factor
(stored only in arteries)
– Membran elastica interna
incomplete
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•Thickest layer from 2 other tunica
•40-70 layer of elastic membran
•Smooth muscle (+)

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– T. Adventitia :

In elastic arteries, the tunica adventitia consists mostly


of connective tissue & the vasa vasorum

•Thin layer of fibroelastic connective


•Vasa Vasorum (+) reach into T. Media
•Lymphatic vessel & nerve fibers

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B. MEDIUM & SMALL ARTERIE
• Endothelial cells  Weibel-Palade bodies
 von Willebrand factor
• Membran elastica interna(+)

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Smooth muscle layer:
• Muscular A. : thick  up to 40 layers
• Small A.  thin

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• Muscular A.  as thick as T. media
consist of colagen & elastin fiber
• Membrana elastica eksterna(+)

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Thin T. Adventitia

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C. ARTERIOLE
• Generally diameter < 0,5 mm & narrow lumen
• T. Intima :
– Sub endothelial layer very thin
– M. Elastica Interna (-)
• T. Media : Smooth Muscle 1-2 layer
• T. Adventitia :
– Very thin
– M. elastica eksterna (-)

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• Metaarteriole :
– Branching of arteriole into capillaries 2
– Constriction help in regulate blood flow in
capillaries 1, 2
– Discontinue smooth muscle 1
– Smooth muscle as pre capillary sphincter 
control blood flow into capillary bed 3

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Specialized Sensory Structure in Arteries

• 3 types: carotid sinus,


carotid body, aortic body 
monitor blood pressure &
blood composition 
essential input to brain for
controlling heart beat,
respiration & BP
• Carotid sinus :
– Baroreceptor  wall of carotid
internal A.
– T. adventitia  thinner &
heavily endowed with sensory
nerve from cranial nerve IX
– T. Media relatively thinner
permit to be distended 35
• Carotid body:
– Chemoreceptor in bifurcation of common A.
– Composed of small pale staining cells in conn.
Tissue  2 type : glomus (type I) cells & sheath
(type II) cells
– Glomus cells : large nucleus, dense cored vesicles,
cell process  contact with other glomus cell &
capillary endothelial cell
– Sheath cells : more long & complex process,
irregular nuclei
• Aortic body: structure similar to carotid body

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VEIN

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VEIN

•Vein wall thinner than arterie coz


muscular layer & elastin layer not
as well develop as arteries
Vein Colaps with irregular lumen2,3
• Same 3 layer as arteries

Classification: 1, 2
A. Large Vein
B. Medium & small veins
C. Venule

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A. LARGE VEINS
• Similar to medium vein
• Endotelium
• Subendotel layer thin

• Vena Cava, Renalis, Porta,


Splennic etc 2

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• Thickest and well develop
• Smooth muscle & conn. Tissue with
colagen & elastin fiber

High power view shows the vasa vasorum,


which supply blood for the wall of this large
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vein
B. MEDIUM & SMALL VEIN
• Diameter : 1 - 9 mm 1
• Usually have valve 2
• T. Intima: endothel continue
1, 2

• T. Media : Smooth muscle,


colagen & elastin fiber
• T. adventitia : (1, 2)
– Thickest than t. media
– Smooth muscle, elastin &
colagen fiber

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C. VENULE
• T. Intima : 1, 2
– Thin & continue endothelium
– Thin basal lamina with
pericytes
• T. Media : 3
– Sparse conn. Tissue & few
smooth muscle cell
• T. adventitia :(1, 2)
– Thin
– Colagen & fibroblast

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CAPILLARIES
• Smallest blood vessel 1, 3
• General structure : 2, 3
– T. Intima  single layer
of endothelium
– Pericytes located along
outside  contractile
function
• Classification:1, 2
A. Continue/somatic
capillaries
B. Fenestrated/perforat
ed capillaries
C. Sinusoid
• Slow blood flow (0,3
mm/detik, aorta = 320
mm/detik
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A. CONTINUE CAPILLARY
• Found in Conn. Tissue, muscle,
CNS 1, 2
• Endothelium continue  fasciae
occludentes 3  prevent
passage many molecules
• Form Blood Brain Barrier 
permeable only to certain
substances

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B. FENESTRATED CAPILLARY
• Similar to continue but have
pores1, 3
• Found in : kidney, intestine,
endocrine gland
• Fenestrae :
– Covered with a pore diaphragm1
– Pore diaphragm not found in
glomerulus1

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C. SINUSOID
Structure : 1, 2, 3
– Tortouos path, greatly enlarged diameter
 slows the circulation of blood
– Endothelium cells form discontinue layer
– Discontinue basal lamina
– Many fenestrae lack with diaphragm
• Found in liver & hematopoetic
organs1, 2

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ARTERIOLE, VENULE & CAPILLARIE

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LYMPH VASCULAR SYSTEM
• Return extracellular liquid
to bloodstream1, 2  One
direction
• Present in throughout body
except CNS & other few
area
• Blind end lymphatic
capillarieslymphatic
vessel  lymphatic ducts 1,
2, 3

A. Lymphatic capillaries :
single layer of attenuated
endothelial cells with
incomplete basal lamina 
blind end
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B. Lymphatic vessel :
– Closely spaced valves1
– Large lymphatic vessel
resemble small veins1
– Lumina larger, walls thinner
– Endothelium (+)
– Smooth muscle (+), collagen
& elastic fiber(+)

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C. 2 Lymphatic ducts :
– Consist of : 1, 2
Ductus Thoracicus
Ductus Limphaticus Dexter
– Similar to large veins 1, 2
– Vasa vasorum & rich in vascular network 1
– Walls : 2
• T. Intima : Endothel & subendothel (+), Lamina elastica
Interna (+)
• T. Media : smooth muscle > vein
• T. Adventitia : undevelop

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REFERENCES :

1. Histologi Dasar, Edisi 10, L. Carlos Junquira MD, Jose


Carneiro MD, Robert O. Kelley PhD, EGC, 1995. pp 215-
231
2. Essentials Of Human Histology, Second Edition, William J.
Krause PhD, Little Brown & Company (Inc), 1996. pp. 197-
228
3. Color Textbook of Histologi, 2nd edition, Gartner LP, Hiatt
JL, WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
2001. Pp 251-271

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