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CHAPTER A9

PROI\OT]NS
I. WHA'T IS A PRONOUN
q?[6{ T-<6t <5-{l{
9I1--$ parts of speech ftqCo Fnq pronoun C11T 6giCTR I
q1i qlrtr$brqrqF{l s-{I qE r
Pronoun FI noun €< {k{Cd <t{qg word CT;FI 3 Rahim eats rice. {l6f,i
ql6fl
Rahim q< {c{ He Tfics flf<\5lT I qq He qE pronoun. Pronoun c?r{
q-fl Parts of Speech CHAPTER frc{ qls
"tRsl< {f<"fi 6fit<
I

II. TYPES OF PRONOUNS


(ersR@)
Pronoun q? e-s'R r frru qsrs-cal 6{er{I< qTq cq-fl EE I I
elc< qq

CHAPTER-q e&F stut fic< qx* ffis qf6l6Tl T-<?t I

Type of pronouns Example


1. Personal I, you, they, we he, she eic.
2. Interrogative who? what? which? etc.
3. Distributive each, neither, either etc.
4. Demonstrative this, such, that etc.
5. Relative who, what, which, that eic.
6. Reciprocal each other, one anoiher etc.
7. Reflexive and Emphatic myself, yourself, herself etc.
8. Indefinite Pronoun one, any, some etc.
III. DISCUSSION IN DETAILS (<fi"reqrflE-{I)
PERSONAL PRONOUN
cs.l-{ <l& <t Tq< Tl6s< "rfu 6{ pronoun {J<-qs qT vffi personal
pronoun TCq I C{tFl 3

afu-a a163 qfu s I did it. You can do everything. They are
students.
{q{ 4ft:r< {Ri6 s He did it.
Personal Pronoun qt<'F &-{ef$l-< I
74 A Passage to the English Language
(a) Personal pronoun of the first person :
First person <l g-g\ T+T{ c{ l?[ pronoun 14i{lq; {t{qis qT \d$ q?
e-SK{{ pronoun. Cr[:l;[ I, we, my, me, our,.us, ours. etc.
(b) Personal pronoun of the second person :
Second person <1 I{t{ T+TS< C{ *l pronoun {j.fd\5 E{ s|[q-{f$ qq
q-slr{ slcf 4<l ET I CT5l{ s You, your, yours, thou, they, thine, thee, etc.
(c) Personal pronoun of the third person : Third person { {l{
tffi{ C{ ifil pronoun <jtfqs q{ q-{l .CR e[$.|[T< pronoun. C{:Fi 3 He, she,
him, his, they, their, them etc.
ln.l Characteristics of personal pronouns G<F{bKft)
3.
Number, person, I case-€K "iR^<-6F< {fc{ cf({ personal pronoun
1ffis Ell r 6$Ft, singular number q< I {R<ffs {6{ plural number-4 we
ql <'l-<61 ?FGt I qlEl3t, first person-€ I, we ffi Tf{d\5 qffi€ second person-
€ you, your ffi q<( third person-€ he, she, they ffi TJ-{qs qs I

qftf,q nominative case-€R he objective case € him 4i( possessive case-€


his {'l {l-<ct O6{ I {wfl1 number, person, € case-qi "iRR6IT< CtCq qtal
personal pronoun-4i {'c"f< "fk<\r-{ q{ I frc5-< qr$-{ {.1{f6q ffi qt<e
E{ST13lslr< Cq"|]-{qE 3

case First )erson Second oerson Third Person


sinsular nlrrral ,l nlrrrel plural
nominative I we you you he, she, they

thou it
obiective me US vou. thee vou him. her. them
it.
possessive my, our, thine, your, his, her, their,
mine ours thy, your yours hers, theirs
vours its
Word-notes. thou.= E?, thee = cslm,
Thine-Flitr, Thy-Cv13,
EXERCISE I E"tm< table m{ q<( frc5-{ t{RF qrEI t{ct T-{ r

(1) Possessive case-q, second person €, singular number-€( 5-ffi


pronoun {fl ---, ----, ---, qtR ,
(2) Nominative case -4, third person
A-
-{, plural number -€i personal
pronoun lu qq
(a) Possessive pronoun-€K TfD q{ qfcq r qsF{ ql€sl{ T(p my, thy,
-. 'q<l 6Of{ noun
her, its, our, their. €i qf[si <C{ adjective q< Ffq T-K I C{rFt 3
My
A6 ffi$mr<n-tll
Their
TAf \:e fvrrn-<<rOl
Grammar : Pronouns 75

q-{I TtF< qlsvl{ 'lQ mine, thine, hers, ours' yours' theirs. €{[ Kl{ds
{T pronoun frG'l (adjective KI"t T{) q<c. q!fi? "l-C< C$f{ noun TC{ 4l I
qch-{
qfC:f of {cq I c{:F{ 3 He is a friend of mine.

EXERCISEI Correct the following.


(1) It is a book of my.
(2) The man who came here is a friend of her.
(3) The girl is a sister of him.
Ans. (1) mine (2) hers (3) his.

b)frrD-{{T]F flV s
His table is heavier 1vtfr) than my table'
<ritrcs table'RF qt{< <r<qs EGTq | ft-q table ffitr frFfu 't{vrqr<
gS frcx my 6{ mine-€ 1frqs +-g6s Ec<
q-{t my table €3 table I

His table is heavier than mine.


qE Tfqfr
'Table' noun fr q+Q sentence-4 qtc{ q<i<f< <I{qs qcT'A<6{t
qs<ER'cq I

EXERCISEI Correct the following.


(1) Her room is wider than mY.
(2) His son is more intelligent than mine son
Ans. (1) mine (2) son clf<F-r< TI I

The gender of personal pronoun : gender cgrh first person € second


person-€i personal pronoun -q< 6s.l{ flR-<\t{ q{ 4l I GI;i s
uender First Person Second Person
Mas. I, we, us, our etc. You, your, yours
Fem. I, we, us, our etc. You, your, yours

frq Gender Fffi third person -4 personal pronoun -q< Tei "iffie-
q{ r Rrl{ 3

Person Mas tsem. Neuter


Jro ne she it
3rd him her it
3rd nls her, hers its

fuq they, their, theirs-€:tr cs.l;t effuq Es 4 |

EXERCISE I Correct the following


(1) Rima has taken his meal.
(2) Kamrul will go to her uncle's house.
Ans. (1) her (2) his
76 A Passage to the English Language
iv. USE OF "IT"
n ffiFlg cFrE <rEq-s Er s

(i) Inanimate object lt W "|fi{f<|lCs' a


I have written a letter and I want to send it to my father.
(ii) Inferierr animals al Qw qtft 1<tco e
We have a dog and we love it very much.
(iii) ESTRCfT baby {l trte $tlcg s The child (or baby) is crying for
its (his Rl her TS) mother.
(iv) Preparatory 1t provisional (E-tft) subject fr.C'i sentence-4d
i,i.s
Qrl6q 3

It is good to take exercise regularly.


It is bad to tell a lie.
NOTE : G"lr<-< s.|Tqts It <]-{q\o EcE q< 'K c'l$<qs Infinitive phrase 4
that clause <fq I CTIF{ 3
It is wrong to say sb
inf ph-rase
It is true that he will come"

€fi sentence-€< qffi It <j:tr.{I-< s-fcs 4'l


-thafEause Etfq infinitive phrase {l that
clause 9lCd <-q'ICs E{ I C{:i\ S
To say so is rvrong.
That he will come is true.
(v) It s"tI€ F{{s r$l{ object-qi 1R-<i6 provisional (q-{Sl) object {Cel
Ec{3
I find it unscrupulous (qfrfErs {l9) to tell him every thing.
He thinks it fine to sacrifice. (\r-115f T-{l)
NOTE : elqAlftch-< o.lcS Elr<< sentence ernf< e$q nfrq s'c{ qcg
'llt'{ |

fr-qsr'l-{cE q mRti qftq q{ r Sqr<< \T sentencefr ft qr<'tffs qq q foit


64{l{EE S

He thinks that it is fine to sacrifice (&fr l,rq Rlifi' 6q ufi'f s-$ 9q) r

q? qffi< that €{( is gcE frdE elfrs s


He thinks it fine to sacrifice.
{lK qdq-ctk sentenceF{ qcd< xs I EI<tr$F rt'aq-*"|ftd r

(vi) qfct{ E(gfiE 6sFr <E?nrs q-fi ftrd-ls-<-cs s He called me but


I did not know it. (qqlf,{ it= his calling me, \tl{ \5lsl).
(vii) For emphasis (cqtl cq-{R q-{i) s You have done it. (qF efiq
F(aS)
ft-q Rfr <fr yfri qrlq +r<q-sqrE fr?ke {c< s It is you who have
done it. q?i].r{ It sm "l<-{ef pronoun 'you' €K S"r< mf< e3J qc{'cq r qsfr< s
It is Biva who has (have T{) won the prize.
Grammar : Pronouns 77

(viii) Frme TrF[s cognate object K'C'l 8


We will have to walk the waY.
rrfrc{sfrfrFl
We will have to walk it.
ER(q it qRt the way-6s T<lF q<( C{cQ-g the way q+F cognate object
cqfqrc* it-s qsF cognate object {.'C't sfq scsfq I €sfC{ 3
They will have to fight it (=the fight) to the end.
He dreamt it (=this dream) long before.
(ix) Sentence-€ 6€Ft subjeclt 4t {FnraT, Vfr <t <qrs lt lRrc*
f{ffu-fsti (impersonally) :
It rains. qBcce r)
It is very cold today. (Ws {< }M r)
It is twelve O'clock now.
EXERCISEI 1. Use the appropriate pronoun in the gap'
(a) The baby looked at father. (hislts/her)
(b) The dog loves
-- master. (his/herllt's/its)
(c) This is rny table; I bought from the nearby (1i+bq)
market. (him/itslit,/that)
' 2. Re-write the following sentences using the preparatory "lt"' (fr'6u-<
<fSlarFfi preparatoty "it" <]:|{R F6{ 49i-glC{ C{{ l)
(a) To rise early in the morning is good to health.
(b)To hate people is inhuman (c:Il=tft{).
(c) To do it this way (€qf<) is wrong.
3. Give emphasis to the noun/pronoun in the subject in each
sentence by using "1t". (fr-cr< TlslerqN subjeci Rcqr< <rrlqs
noun/pronoun.c< Bel{ It<KQ"{ s'f{ GK qlr{I"t T-< l)
(a) You made it.
(b)They told it.
(c) Shahana broke the glass'
ft;:-t. i;ilt-ii g6od td health to rise earlv in the morning' (b) It is
inhuman to hate people. (c) It is wrong to do it this way'
3. {a) It is you who made it. (b) It is (are d-rl) they who told it' (c) It is
Shahana who broke the glass.

USE OF PERSONAI-
V. SOME RULES REGARDING THE .SEoQfEt
I'RONOUNS (persoiral pronoun'{R <t{{1{
q(6lq' fiTs)
.{l
ll a) 1Q vla c<FFTt.tlIs singular noun ?l pronoun and frca {$ Q3E
gKEK qt<r{i3 pronounft plural q6{ I 6S:lE 3
"iRq$d ffi-$trcg
Rabu ancl Babu rvent to their (her "W) class-teacher'
He and his friend will do their hometasks (<ffiF< slq) together'
r b)fuq and ElKl S singular npun-QrEl lfr q$Q <ifu <l {qc-{ g<itl
gl"{Cq glfi-{ cBl4-ff pronor-rnF singular Q.f{ :
78 A Passage to the English Language
The secretary and lawyer (q-st ilfr, €gc{i the-€E-{I< <IEqe qcTrR)
is walking to his (their T{) office.
f (c) qqg' 6qC{R RE (I q-{ c{ft singular noun 'and'-El3rl W CcE
\ilffi< "ffi pronounfr plural {d' | ft-q & noun-eldtlit qtcrl sfr each lI every
qff$ sl{fq sffi-< 'ff< singular pronoun (C{ I

Every student and every teacher should do his,/her (their--{T) duties


properly.
Each worker and each supervisor will get fifty taka for his,/her (their
lli) one-hour overtime work.
f (d)Ei <l El-qR-$ singular noun either-or gclEl neither-nor SRil {G
clfs6q q(E,-{
"tfu<i-Eqs pronounfr singular RF{ I
Either he or his brother will bring his (their--4) dog (q{ 6q 41-q* 9:t
stE vt< gg<F W*< r)
Neither Shuva nor Biva'has (have 4II) done her (their T{t) duty (tsvl {l
fu c$€Q Ek e-6<i "n-q{'Fc<fi r)
frq noun {'F{ {c<l slt6s qsF {ft plural R{ vlqcq ekm "l-<-{q
pronounF plural {6{ t

Either he or his brothers will bring their (his T{) dogs.


rt"S. -jl-rL
I (e) First person, second person, third person-(i pronoun { noun
T< {fr qet <lrfJ {t{q'rl- E{ vRTE qclC{ second person e) qcq third person
(3), .c<( q-{rfiT first person (1) {c{ I qdtq c(rs[ef s.r{ <T?I-r{ %l="td;;]
qqrssB r

Inc. : He, I, and you went there.


Cor. : You (2), he (3), and I (1) went there.
Inc. : Rahim and you did it.
Cor. : You (2), and Rahim (3) did it.
Inc. : I and his brother heard it.
Cor. : His brother (3) and I(1) heard it.
frq mF fi-€L<< <iT'Fd c(E vfi
<rEqt-{ s-{c'- E[<

Inc. : You (2), he (3), and I are to t'lame (Cfifr).


Cor. : I(1), you (2), and he(3) are to blame.
Inc" : Ram and you are guilty.
Cor. : You (2) and Ram (3) are guilty.
Inc. : Chandan and I are responsible for the fault.
Cor. : I (1) and Chandan (3) are responsible for the fault.
(0 frrF{ c(rss arEt Tcq'<l"t
(1) +and+(2)/(3) + (1) plural.
Elf{, first person (1) €n pronoun (F ElCql 9;{i 6q C$l{ person (2 il
s]-<
3) 4i pronoun "and" EI-fi n-s qfs6 str6r
"ffu First person (1)-€K plural
pronoun <I{q\5 qfd I
Grammar : Pronouns 79

Inc. : You (2) and I(1) have prepared your home task.
Cor. : You and I have prepared our {1-plural) hometask.
Inc. : You, Ram, and I started their work.
Cor. : You, Ram, and I started our work.
\'R[-{ cq{t ctld C{ second person <[ third person {t-t {f{ 41 6s;1, first
person qfscE 'r<-{€fts first person-4i plural pronoun-t Tt{qE qr< I

qRI<[ t
(2)+and+(3) -+ (2) plural. (q{fc{ (1)<t first person€R pronoun Tlt t

ql$rq ftqqlc'K firrt TFffi w)


Inc. He (3) and you (2) are doing their work'
Cor. He (3) and you (2) are doing your (2-plu.) work'
Inc. Shuva and you went to see our garden.
Cor. Shuva and you went to see your (2-Plu.) garden'

EXERCISEI CorrecL the following.


(1) He, you, and I saw the bird.
(2)You, Kamal, and I made the mistake (Y{).
(3) Neither he nor his friends have paid his dues (6q-{t).
(4) Either Munir or Samir will sell their books.
(5) You, Rajab, and I have done your duties.
(6) Srimon and I willl say their prayers.
(7) You and Morphe were given their salaries.
Ans. (1) 237-order (2) 123-order (3) their (a) hls (5) our (6) our (7)
r

Possessive of Interest
frcE-{ Sentence-q6{l'i9 e

I love my country. Our homeland is, as it were (6$l), the


heaven(tuf). I want to see my captain.
Elr<r< my, our, possessive pronoun elf,t tlfr{ q'{iltK-iu s <1 q&1RF&
<TlE s <Ii['qq EIRIq I qlq-<-'64 possessive of interest TCE I

Emphatic Possessive
Own Etc{ frcsr{ r frcF< <T-{iF "iV
This is my brother. 4rltC{ my Tf6{ qqR-possessive pronoun.
9f{l{, This is my own brother.
<r{]"ffirc own flc-{ RtqS r my T16{ sttql{ I 'q.ifi<" TrE {t T<Iim qq
'.opn fu" irffis ,q<q neII qqfc{ sE r sT{64 own.lqB <r{qR F-{l{ Ecrfqi
ftl qHrE €Q word-F possessive pronoun (my, his, her etc.) .{< elc< <Kq\5
ST Bfl-q fQ'R (emphasis)v1-631c1 s-{R q-{t I "qNf{ eE"-.c< cEC.{ "qTR f{rs3
_\'li"
statement-Fcs cq'K rg qgfi-fi\O-l c<Ft r ent 6s-Gl own-GF {rE
emphatic possessive.
80 A Passage to the English Language

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS
FE6-{ Tffi re
He is thedoctor we met.
€rllC{ noun R{ doctor. ql-{f ElR pronoun GFFI noun q* "tk{(d<I{qs
Eq I gRC{ interrogative pronoun-s 6oF[ noun ,s< {R'{c6 aqr< r R-q .sfr
q6 qge stq sr< r v[ €, qE qsF q{ $s +'c< r q{F qfr qr{ q{ r

Is he the doctor we met?


(frfr ft oE wst< ffi qnt qn-d qqn sr<&ar?)
* j'to E[CC{ fiFq 4.[€ interrogative pronounKiTds {E 4 r fit doctor nounF
<rnt cun q<( q].{lrq slrFq frft? s'6 T<nT1.t sE r fre interrogative
eFeS{
pronoun "who"-€-:T qrtr <s ?<FEi cE qE 6s]-q frRrs ftffi n'm {<t|g ql r s1-{
4F-[{i interrogative pronoun {Fl{l-3 A-g6df $"f6fi Tk-SI "doctor" noun$ ensf<
qlt
FtF{ 3 who is he?
vlqrdl, 6tl pronoun E]-<l C{1-{ Et &E.lrfl s-{t qs El6$ interrogative
pronoun T6{ I

Interrogative pronouns and the case : Interrogative pronoun


fr6qc<:fl{,r{qs who, which, whalqR ffi vaqo q{ I qrq'{ TC{i case cerQ
a{ who €-< KCaK "tffi C{ | trfi 3
Nom.Case Obj.Case _ Poss.Case _
who (rs) whom(firo) whose (T1-{r)
Examples : Who are you? (nominative)
Whom do you love? (objective)
Whose pen is this? (possessive)

Uses of who, which, what


(a) Who : (i) Subject Rrqcq e

Singular number Rctc<*who is he?


Plural number Rffi[-{-Wtto are they?
(ii)ObjectRccr< s
Singular : Who (whom) do you want?
Plural : Who (whom) are you looking for?
NOTE : ql{k+ Ecz<G-[s object R[cr{ whom €R "fR<r.t who-{lgt
<J-{qsq{ I

{b)Which :
Singular-€ s Which of these pens do you';rant? (csnft)
Plural-€ s Which of these books Co you want? ({sn f$nF)
NOTE. qr{-S'sf,Er-< q{t c{r$ ,{Fffi <T qTtl(rs riq{f$ c{(q 6{3il {<{TCE
which{i{Qs TI I

cq{-4 3 Which of these pens do you want?


(: Which pen do you want? = T)dl{eIEf< rfCqi C€nF s-fr flel)
Grammar : Pronouns
81
(c) Whar : (il {qT c<"Tt{ s
Singular-€ S What will you eat?
Plural-€ s What are the factors that should
be considered? (fr
ft RRn frc<r*t s-trF <.T?)
(ii) 6"r.F CF.@ s

What is he? (frRftor<qr = ol< c"l.tlftr)


NOTE. Who is he? (vt{ IRDT ftr n ffi r+4
What is he? (vl{ Cfl.fi ft?)
Which is he? (c{ Crn q{?_q.ffiFF;r :{-C$)
(iii) what ts which €R adjective Rffic{ ilirqBr
s
Which pen is yours? (adjective RTqG)
Which of these pens is yours? (pronoun
Rrc.R)
What factors should be considered? (adjective
RCCtr{)
(iv) Exclamation it ytC{lt el-flA5g q-$ g
What! Has he failed? (ft FrFT! cc coa +c<.rer)
What a foolyou are! (qfr fi mf+f r)
qstrfi-sq s frwtrftpsrt<q{rcq
ffi{t<ts r

I am looking for him. (qTfr stcs


{siR)
€rllC{ him qR 1R-<1d whom T{lFt <t+i.F qr<
r

^ I am looking for whom? (wlfr ctcn rlsiQr)


ft-q sQ stylefr Fcclt"f+clcT <rrqs RT r Grammar
qrq qr{-
{fi c{ <tnifrr+ firc1
VJho (Whom)arn I looking for? nR-+ (ffi :ffir)
$3tr, Preposition 41T who,/whom{<
"fC{ <F-qE EBTR, qflrl T{
ft-qqct<qqrtrrs. . . crqqrcqs?
I

qqr{_
I have come from that city_Ceff$
Which city have I come from?
He went there for duty,s call.
qca +-c?41a .s,r/.'T fi?lln iffiq r)
cqrs {lR- What did he go there for? (6i.rfi{ fqqrq jWqrl
you are v,,aiting for the
train.
(?,ts {q_- }Vhar are you waiting for? (efr c$T qlef$.l e_{q?)
He gave the pen to him.
cefiT 4q- Who did he give the pen to? (C{ pqTF s,fr$
ffiqa
ftq Wno-.t< VlTri to <-ryfi ft-q *f,o
"ffr"fs {s whom Ce- | R:FI a
To whom did he give the pen?
ftq qd.{st {too,
A.PTEL-5
eX
'rhftdiJ;"rrJ **= -qr*6, r
82 A Passage to the English Language

EXERCISEI 1. Fill in the blanks.


(a)fi csl . . . is he? (who/what)
b) fr ft Tcr? . . . is he? (who/what)
(c) efr sltrs fiC{? . . . will you give it? ('.r'hom/what)
(4 qfr ol< T-ffi? . . . pen is this? (who,/whom/whose)
2. Correcl the following.
(a)o1$ olKI qcqREl = Who and who came?
(b) cs qlcRq? = Who did came?
(e) Which pen is yours?-q"[c{ which {fl qsF ptonou.,.
(d) Which of these pens is yours?-4ell6{ which {{ adjective.
(e) Whatl You lie? (A! 9R fte51qa5q'7) €1116{ what €Kl Ei SlIm t

3. Correct the followi4g.


(a)Who to are you calling? (qF TIr$ \tloq?)
(b) What for is he looking? (cc ft {qcSr)
(c)Which chair on willyou sit? ($ r€FT cu-{lc< <T6<?)
Ans. 1. (a) Who (b) What (c) WhomAVho (d) Whose
2. (a) Who (b) Who came? (c) Adjective (d) Pronoun (e)

exclamation (fr{*)
3. (a) Who are you calling to? (b) What is he looking for? (c)
Which chair will vou sit on?

What not-4?<I{qR s What not{lf{\qf{€ se fi";


m:l;I e
Noun $flm s They have a co\t/' a dog. a goat, two cats' four
sheep and what not.
Verb T{ll(s e The children playeC danced, laughed, swam,
jumped and what not:

DISTRIBUTruE PRONOUN
Distribute ITc{ vFi F'6 cmil, <t-q o'm fr'St t Distributive pronounqGll
q6{-s sffil noun i'[ pronoun-€i E{t cclf$ c<re Rr< ftr'tq slr< <t-q of< r fr
cq"[ Tls r

Distributive Pronoun eIfl qfq 3 each; either . ' or; neither ' nor;
everybodyr everyone ffi r

distributive pronoun srqf{ <l-{{F ql{f{ qfttl EK c(EI


qtcfl €"lrfi qW<
q3\EGfi-{ <I{qr<-{ ciccts|< q(ERr {afid{I5lt s-fi r

Definition : The pronoun that separates one person or thing from a


population o{ persons or things is called ihe distributive pronoun'
((s, pronoun q[{?FerEI <]fu <l <E c{rf qsF <E <l <lfurs $ffiffi16'55
E<{{ stf$ disiributive pronoun {FI l)
Grammar : Pronouns 83
l) Each : Each $r{ qrerc (E&+qs). qfr qfu q+ q!-sq-{ T'6{ c-{fts
T<l1T, frq
q< t<fi?i qq qR m .{F sinsular <E <l <jfurs
1<lll r crl+ :
All of them went there. (ETffi-{ Tfi cc"flrq filsR{)
Each of them went there. (vffi1
qrcK-$R m?nTT FPc{Fq)
Er€I F<r, q-{e (All) qr{ €ICE]GF (Each) €s oefl {3 I Each naff{ All 6s
$'rc <|fr cllrs nl, E{ {lEt qs-q-{ sF-sfl a'6{ 1<tl{ 1 t{-{R frrD-{ BqR<qecqT qsj
F-{ 3
Inc. Each of the students have applied for the football match.
Cor. Each of the students has applied for the football match.
Inc. Each of the men and women are bound (<lV) to obey (qI{I
4-dl) the law.
Cor. Each of the men and women is bound to obey the law.
I Either : €t pronounfr:{tE E'F gfu A {q{ CqFrE TJTqe qC{ Cq mF
qslb cs Frcft +r< I q< fi q.i q-w singular verb KFtds qs I R'{{ s
Inc. Either of the two boys are taient. (Cl'fift)
Cor- Either of the two boys is talent.
Inc. The two brothers went to the town;
either of them have been to town before.
Cor. The two brothers went to the town; either of them has been
to town before.
Inc. There are two pens; either are good. (EtF TFIq qICq; 6{ 6{.F
e+frQqq s;
Cor. There are two pens; either is good.
<) Neither , qfr\e qlq Et Tq <l E-wq $fr-< {c<l "rst{Fl +s" qsl
T<[l t .{<"f<€ singular verb rK{ I C{5FI g

Inc. There are two pens; neither are good. (EtF s-{T qtCQ; rsf{frt
v't-o +* r)
Cor. There are two pens; neither is good.
NOTE I : Each of + noun,/pronoun (plural)-qs.|'c< <I{qE {fE Each C$
{6{ distributive pronoun, fr$ Eacfr + singular noun-€El6{ <Ii-qE qC{
each-Cs T6{ adjective. 6{5ld S

Each_of them has said this. (pronoun)


Each boy has said this. (adjective)
$Kci, qe|{ Rlrf,t( each E]-dl {f|qR ,s-sq-{ <lfurT ffit o-<t e3q" frE ffiT
ilc-$l each.fqfr boy as ffiE T-dtR;-q{ER <fdrs-rs d<ltcq boy "ffi, each
lRt
€916{ Neither+noun/pronoun- + nor+noun,/pronoun €:t( Either +
noun,/pronoun- + or+noun/pronoun €glf< <I{qg Qf{ neither € either 6$
16{ conjunction; vfi-Oq, neither/either+noun-ts{. L{glr< {f{q\5 qfEs qil
adjective {-{ I
84 A Passage to the English Language

neither/either+of+plural noun TI pronoun-€6r4 <}tl.qg qCE vfi


ft-{
neither 4l( either fs <ffi distributive pronoun. qRf{ sq either (l neither
subject Rcw< <f+qo qrEs sl<t pronoun qa Tffi s-r{ I CT5F{ 3 Neither he
nor his brother has done it. (cc <l ET< qt c+€i qTlq offi) (conlunction).
Either this pen or that pen was bought from England. (ET qt s-flF
dl q{ ,bF Erqfs cclr$ c$-{ qc-sRq) (conjunction).
There are two pens here; either pen will do. (adjective)
There are two pens here; either is good. (pronoun)
There are two ways io do this; you can use either. (pronoun)
NOTE : 2. either 4<( neither{JTQs q[e- 9llr< {?t{ ts{ERT{ <]fu < <qg
Sa[ {lc{ I E'f{ CR {6{ anyone {i none <f<{< O-<re E{ | C{'{-{ 3
Inc. I have three dogs; neither of them ls ferocious (ft(E).
Cor. I have three dogs; none of them is ferocious.
Inc. There are many people here; either of them can do it'
Cor. There are many people here; anyone of them can do it.

EXERCISEI 1. Fill in the gaps.


(a) Each of them present. (were,/was)
(b) Neither of the pens will do (two,/three)
-
(c) Neither of the two books (qt{ffi'll) (are/is)
2. Correct the Iollowing.
-readable
(a) Each man must die-€{lC{ each € distributive pronoun.

h) Either he or his sister has gone-€<llC{ either {fl distributive


pfonoun.
(c) She gave me two pens; neither is costly-€rlfC-{ neither qq qsF
adjective.
Ans. 1. {a) was (b) two (c) is 2. (a) adjective (b) conjunction (c)
distributive pronoun.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN
<lfu <l Tqrs {fr dF, cfr, qefr, sfufr W
+q qK Roillo<l q{'EFrcq
q?.fEerflrs {F demonstrative pronoun. frrF< EqR<q el-{l el-g s
This is my home" That is your suitcase.
These are bad pencils but those are good.
eE this, that, these, those-wordafr {q@cq home, suitcase, penciis-'9K
{fu<rc cq'a[Elrs firilt <<rg I q srEf € Demonsirative pronourl. qqH
q*fq-<lTqro {tR--
Definition :
Words such as this, that, tliese, l_ho.te, sllch, gg., tl,s
same, used instead o{ some noun to point to it or ihern. are called
demonstrative pronouns.

Use of this, these, that, those as Pronouns :


€rqI{ flRu{ frru< qrs-{ llqKq:Tccqq rERtl 4'16{ s
G"lcT< Pronoun
Grammar : Pronouns 85
Singular Plural
this(ffi; these (qtsrtl)
that (.hF) those (&errl)
qefq, 6$tft criFf 6{, {$ pronoun € this re ihat 4{( <Tfr EtA q[h-:t plural
form.
r (i)ffi c{t{ ftR-rs ffit
o-<ro this (pturat-these) 4i( qr{ff c+1{
frRIA frri-l that (plural-those)<r{as qT I c{'iFI 3
T?rCs
This is my book and that is yours. These are my books and those are
yours.
',ii, NOTE: This/that/these,/those+noun <i<-qs {cq efi q'cq-{rs
:1!,,
-qelr{
{6{ demonstrative adjective (pronoun ilI) I CS'{'{ S
This man is good. (Adj)
This is a good man. (Pron)
I (ii) tf<-6 clause {I seritence-€ ffi noun q< &g{ cll<F-c{, q<( 1r<
sRqK qrsrsfr?T ffit o-+oe CrE, qq{tr{ E-{i this s<( qc{rF{ sT{t that <i{qs
qT I 6T5l;{ 3

Men (ll Noun) and money (\{ Noun) are both needed; this (Men)
gives us strength (-tfu) and that (Money) gives us wealth (Cetq).
I (iiil qf({ 6s^F[ noun Kl clause <i<qs {C-{ Wo frcf"t s-{F 6-{i this {l
that KC{ s

He went to market on foot and that/this made him tired (F1E).


(rllca, that/th15 = El3t <IqC<
<ts$ = his going to market.
This book is more costly than that (:that book).
I (iv) Emphasis {1 (ek qql-{ F-{f< H-{i this € that Sltlds R3 |

He went there on foot. (fi "lTcT 6qcb fr"nr{ li?T&n)


ft-q H" went there and that on foot. (cl clrllr+ lffiq q<( ftfrIs
"flIT Rr?i)
They must repay the loan within two days.
(qrq<r+ qftr+< xv
<tq efi{ +-<l"e- Ec-d t)
They must repay the loan and that within two days. (ufCq-fiT
l{s-Q
qftn-{m$t $q 6{t{s-<Tsqr< r)
q{-d FIT$D r{eF.l{ Eq'rq{q c
I requested much but he would not help me. I addressed him as my
brother and then he helped me. (ffi qrqs q-{r<l{ o<cF frq c{ qlTlrs
qRlql R-<E ql r qlfr EfcT sR <[q vifsq|l q<(s?F 6q q]llrs {Rfi$ T-{E t)
4rllC{ and then he helped me (€R( s{4 cc qTlrs {RFi R-<-E)-qUFr+
6qf< frtT <l(Et{ <Fit sl-{ €ir( eq vrr*Q c{ q|{tcs qRRl s-rE-q<( qE <|-slfr
qEre 1fu"ffi Ccs €d r Rsr{GiIE Tl-s]-I$tf, {6{ and it was only then that
he helped me.
86 A Passage to the English Language
qsfr<,
Then I understood the problem. (s<l vtft clrAil gqQ<.nl
<f$ifts ffik q-C$"i <sci Cq{t Rl{-It was only then that I understood
the problem. (qr{q E"Fi qfr qrcifi {<EF l)
gFtR[, For this reason he could not pass.
(q+.Kccl cc '[rls-{F tmR r)

*si <f$TFr-+ 6q'K qB-{l'l a6q frq6s "ttR-lt is for this reason that he

could not pass. (eleErc"lQ cc 'tl't


q+re "fiffi l)
le]
isf{6q 16ui rerr< qr.<l'tT<l{ eT-{j fiF-mcq 3iqqs {t".9 ffi
onlv then that +
(q-€rEsffi)
Ii is for this reaion that + . . .
,ssKcqQ...
r (v) q-<'tr noun-GF <r<-{F €]F{ ql <5-{K gi-{i singular-€ that €{( plural-

4 those <I{qs q{ I C{II{ 3


The rice of Barishal is finer than the rice of Khulna. (<R"ttfq-< Wq
?l-4{R 5rcffi CEC{ {tr r)
<f$lFto fr6r-{R the rice (Iil-{l3t4l Tr< ffi?fi csE 3
The rice of Barishal is finer than that of Khulna' €s'[(lt,
qI Frc"l
The streets of Khulna are not wider than the streets of Dhaka.
6q"ll Rs 3

The streets o{ Khulna are not wider than those of Dhaka'


s<(frft{ cq-rq<rciF c<Ftepfu5 €.tfu"ftftw I

NoTE , fro<<f+lF qV
The climate (qS-{O of Dhaka is better than Khulna'
<<5lfr ftE Incorrect, <'Kct Khulna € than-qK l]-<flTrRI the climate
qlI<-<'-{F ft-q wqfl Cgl qEr the climate fr-fu-{i R{< qt,
I
qll-{l sK
<-C-C{

tfuft"r< that. sslm


Inc . the itatio.t of Kamalapur is not as big as Khulna'
of Khulna'
Cor. The station of Kamalapur is not as big as thatDhaka'
Inc. The buildings of New York are bigger than those of- Dhaka'
^,
Cor. The buildinls of New York are bigger than
I Such-q< qr.rqR I
Such (ot<1, fit9R<) {tl{ demonstrative pronoun {-C'l T[q 4-r< \5?F
\ol Tf{-q 6iFFt nounCiF Gnft+r< I s{ qIc't sfi as TC{ I

He was a doctor and we believed him to be as such. (frfi eou-*


\5tsl< q<(q'l{-<tslcrqq Fr<Rq]q t)
Grammar : Pronouns 87

You are gentle persons and should act as such. (691'rKI W q<(
fi\5Ir<a FFIICq-< qr{cl T-{l sFs r)
He laughed at the poet and such was his behaviour.
NOTE : such 9I{Rt adjective € adverb arels TF-qs'E{ | {qdt( such sfi
pronoun, sfi adjective, ql-< s{q adverb-qBl '-otts s'6< et"[ ER I Adjective
4(( adverb foqf,{ such €K <t€K ql{{t "lCT adjective 4K( adverb ftlT
qirfiE-{lT-<I{w-qFtrR r

t The same-q< <:-{qEt 8

" Jta The same Sfis F?Ft€ demonstrative pronoun KI"l K]-<-dE ECs '116{ I

:ir
E?Ft €< olCT asdI{Qs {T I The same as = 6-o qqR <-Oq r

They did the same as we (=i.r,'s i16;.


Ram will do the same as Sham (=35 sham will do).
t So-€T <I{{ir 3 "
So-demonstrative pronoun RCqf< <1-+qro q6s elt6{ I s?F
qF {D-ilTE3[ say,
think, hope, desire, want, demand ffi vst6 €< 'lf< Tc{ I

Babu : Will it rain?


Tara : I don't think so. (9TTF Csl-l uT;{ {{ at)
Shitu : I take exercise every morning'
Bithi : So do I. 1ffis vtl).
Karim : How do you know this?
Shuman : People say so (64I6s q-{e{ <'CE l)

EXERCISEI 1. Fill in the blanks.


(d fne paper of India is not so good as . of Bangladesh. .
(b) The builditrgt of this city are more beautiful than . . . of that city'
2. Translate into English.
(a)qr.K rcr-{Q (qE) xr{ q-s I (b)ffis sR (nR) r

(c)qtft q? qFtl oR r (d qtfr q-q1<rq&4r I

Ans. 1(a) that (b) those 2. (a) I think so (b) So do I. (c) I hope so. (d) I
said so.

RELATIVE PRONOUN
fro<<r+iE€ flv
I know the man. (efi c+loBrc trfi)
He lost his bag. (frfr sl< <I'tsfkcrkE{)
ntr+ {s
<roi st-< <t(qH 6E"fi TH-qIfr mrsFrs fifr frfr s-t< <11't
qtffirqd rl(r*ft'co-
I know ihe man who lost his bag. qslr< qK€ nrfi <foi-
I have lost the book. You gave me the book-
T6S1-< flls<l{l{
I have lost the book that you gave me.
88 A Passage to the English Language
E"tc<-< EqR<"isrEkE who €tr( that TlE{l3t r'6 EtFl {l-$jrs {B s-{l qE I

q<1 EE relative pronoun. Relative pronoun-[t <;51-64 {@ sKre e<q (3t


ftet "tffi {f,iF-JR noun c$ R"c6t sctcq I crr{ frft{ RltrsFt that fir,ftt +-<-cq
bookCs q<( qT? clcq <ml qtlRT {s sr{6q' r sT<E €{3t relative pronoun
q{ c(Ef 6TSl SltF 3

Definition : The relative pronoun is that pronoun which refers to


some noun or pronoun previously mentioned and at the same time joins
two sentences.
(6{ pronoun "e{B€filu cQF[ noun il pronoun 6 ffi| t{s EF <fsirs
"u* {S Sfn El[-rF relative pronoun {6{ t)
t,
Who, which, that, what, but, as-€e6{l relative pronoun {'cal <t{qE
ETI

t Who-q? <IEqt3t s
Who"-s{flq {Jfum frifl or<; cst{ {qrs ;r{ I 6{51{ s
The boy who came yesterday is my brother. (crltr+ who EKI boy (a
ffito-<t<e r)
This is a man. I saw him yesterday.
a61@ropfficE ells{l{l{
This isthe man whom I saw yesterday.
q{lr{ {F <fr+l qI{ 'a'"fRqs ECTCR the-cs I qft+q wiro KI{-Q$ rIRLT
whom {l{Q\5 q[T-cq r sl3l"l, whom EKI C{ manciF frrfl nA qrq s] {q
TralBcg object-€ {RqE qc{'cS r

<} Which-q< <lTqlir g

ts-< $ft, qrb-q{ Tq, € Ffars ffito-+cs which <-t<qs q{ r Rq{ s FN<
6Fr6
This is a baby. The baby cried for its mother.
<fsikfts which {l-fl {s oK 4l
This is the baby which cried for its mother.
a qrssT qT cs6q 8
This is my table. i bcught it last month.
<fE nFr+{s$ir "iE
This is my table which I bought last month.
a Qw alft* cqm e

They have a cow. It gives a calf (ffi) every year.


<fsrEfi{Itr{1qc{
They have a cow which gives a calf every gear.
9 That-4n <F{Rt s
that Tifu s <-q Esr$<l (srq <1-{.'qE q-s r qfr singular r3 plural B'n_.{ noun-
.qa flkfid<rq I
Grammar : Pronouns 89

qifuq mm a

This is a patient (dft).


He was taken to the hospital (glrs El'ifllsllq c;r<l SC{EE r)

<r+i qftT {s {"r< {€<l Tl{ 3

This is the patient that (who) was taken to the hospital'


<q{ csGi t
This is a table. I bought it yesterday.
a1-a15;';n+{.sr(.< {t
This is the table that I bought yesterday'
-ia-t Plural Number-4;
$:.
These are books.
I borrowed (qF FK{&ET{) them from my friend Lira'
<16l EFr+Ts rc< "ilt Lira'
in"t! utn Books that I borrowed from my friend
<} What-q< <I{ql<t 3
Eq-r<qF qsl q{
what (=qt) Rlx<-qrs frnr"to-<cs <I{qs E{ r ficu-< s

I understood. (sTfr {<nto c"n<Qry)


ftq <zqfrq r)
He said something. (cc
<lT'rEtrrs €w<{sq<lsl-<
qtfr vt W<tRel{l
I understood that which he said. (fr {t <r{RE
{TlEF.u: thai which : '!1 . . . sl" fr,u {"; ffilEca-cq I frF relative
pronoun €<5q6S <t<.qs EcT'rq I qrftI <qcq sfr
qTfr-flq relative pronoun
<f<+< n-<tql{ sf{.C{ sIrS TEI {16{ compound relative' *O'q?F relative
qdlq G"tcr<
prcnoun-4K ls \il $Iq +r< r ccq relative pronoun fr Q4 what'
sf{C4 what = that
{9 <f$ffr qsfc{ cE"lt 6qo; I understood what he said'
which.
q[Ks qt r fu9 ftsfmr qlT"<T \51 cq"R 3
What €K 6€14 antecedent
He made it. I bought it.
<lTlqrfir${\9_Tr< {R
I bought what he made.
frE ibought it what he made {.u ql I qdlq what $rS fir{1 u;-u-rq
qq$ 6sl4".t
what €K qR{ <cC{ 11 r q? it {4 antecedent <l $ffi I what-€K
antecedent Ot r qvl[-< Listen to that he says' 41 {CE <qTs {6{
Listen to
qr< <Kqs
what he says. gdls what \ttr$ Fnf{ +-aq (that) 6cT antecedent
QE4I I

i But-q3 il-|{qf{ 3
qF tr{qs s?t{€
But-f$ qT<l qF-<Im conjrrnction Rcq"c< <I<{1-< oR r Rq'
relative pronoun Rqr< <r<<t- qm $r$ r fi-6r< <rcIfr flg
a

(€Xl C+t+ lt 6q? m


There is no mother who does not love her child.
ER i{sr{r$ sl{-{tcqqt)
90 A passage to the English Language
€rll.{ who does not: but T{kats <T-*'F? qd q€ qllc+ r sfi ts{ ,,love ,,
verb (itr l.lrela6$q-{rft{ s,/es Gtrt S-{l-{ E{ efll-s r Et{6q <IsItrt-s mqf siT_
There is no mother but loves her child. €sff<
There is no man but wishes to be happy. (eT{ cs.l-{
{ET c{E 6T {ft
{cs uT{ dl r)

. But-(<llf{
GFa[ pronoun slwho q< fir$ Effi G1-411 {1.r1 I who (TF
relative pronoun. But El:t qfiRt6<mcq I qsnT( but_e ql$tq qsfii'rltutiun
pronoun.
O As-ea <Frqir s

Relative pronoun Rffr< u, ffi{e sLRqR <j{qg qT I

F;h=+noun+asl
the same+noun+as

[@qr-c{r{sqrdr
l#Aje.ti"srasl Tf-mttrc qcd r

He needs such a boy as (who CT) will be honest. (dt< .lXl. C+-si-*
<Frs q.{sf-< cc qr< cs r)
We need such people as will vote for us.
This book is the same as that. (eE <tF qn & <tF q$
r)
He is as tall as I. (Cc \flTf{ T\9- E?l t)
She is not so beautiful as her sister. (6{ Ef{ C{lCi< qE
{-q-A IT r)
<) Who q<( Which q< <F[qEr
Restrictive Use (frqf<q'<I+{R) a

The man is good.


L!?llr{ @Isfrrs v]E <EI {cR I man <l @.ffi q?if6
fim I ft-E qr{. cst1
word {r{ql{ s-{l ETfr {l Elirl manc{ s]-<s frc-lTglr{ (specifically)
d<< qcr6.
T[<frri'tT-<t{lm r $<I{fro<<toffi tV
The man who came here is good.
€{rc{ €fi qk c{-csF man6iF good T{r Tr6qqr; ts{TfE cr-@rcB qqrc{
<rqfr{ 164ns here)srr+l {qre- {cEir q{rq *h;--rh}"r"
Tcfi 6tr6{ €f{ (came here) man qi frq-C$ c(Tfis sr<
ffi
--+*rsl
frIT,A I qsfr{ who
<I<l-d-s {fE \e-l6$ <C{ who 4;tr restrictive use. qsif,{
The pen which I bought is missing ({frtT (rle)
<ffirswhich €i restrictive <r+{a {sjfu ,

€E Restrictive "who " {r "which " a-TI r$]=t crause sF


EcE sr cr
adjective clause. E"tc<< who came here (i( which I bought-claus"
adjective clause. E'[bl

O Continuative Use.
I went to Rahim. Rahim told me a story. The story was fine.
Slr-a< ffi <toit flft-q I qcq-{rs ana frm gs +r+Rru-<
amofu Aq*
"fiR;
91
Grammar : Pronouns
and it was fine' fuq e9{r<
I went to Rahim and he told me a story
TIS1.< <ts] ffirre who which
re frcs {w s-d cq\5 l
{s
storv which (=and it) vras
m; a. Rahim who (=and he) told me a
tttn'** " noun-€K qdr+ qsT'Gs * Yg""
frg who €=ti "which
#';+ ffi qdR<rsj continuitv <1 qKrflffi
qrfi, <l+i'r+ E?l43Fr 'qe wf+< <lTSKr$ {6{ continuative
<F]3t q-fl <Kqs EC{rq t who, which-q<
use.
.cA {'fci-< who (I which frc< C{ clause \3+ E-{ sl-s <'cq coordinate

(principal) clause 4{({lsiF {T compound sentence'


I Adverbial use'
cqTl {E t)
The thief was punished' (cFKc$'nft
He stole the money' (fi
blotqR sl.<tr{ t)
qq +mq (cause) qR qaF{F Eq F{lsq I {e-{l(
<r$i EraK l..c{l' c; fr
qcq-{6s fu5< Swqrx {s r<l RF {rK q'f(<43"
he stole the money'
The thief *us punished because Ff<q)
qR<Gs+r<
money was punished'
The thief because he stole the
€rl4 because n"=*n. <-t[E ell€{1 {l{ The thief who stole the money
(cause) Tffiq l
qslr<
was punished' 6l{cE who EKI 4{lc{ Fl{"i
"""" out'
which (=because ii) was old was sold
Til ;ttk
q-<KR[5-<<Fiq@l l-s
He will do the work'
I will appoint (Fqs 4-{1) a man'
qq ffil (purpose)' +tsF o<r<
a;q qF< rc<r s:;ffi * i*, ftmF {fs 3
ffi qfF ..l" fi{s T-<< 1 q<l< sl-{q als], qtro {6 +R
""* that (41 ffi C{) he will do
I will appoint a man for the purpose
the work. qc<-
Fnq fo, the purpose that he = who
nftc{ <fsiF
work' (9lfr qrB cElsr$ fi{s
I will appoint a man who will do the
6;K C{OrqFs-{c< t)
sRcE qi who Elfl purpose 4 Ers"f $tlm t qsfr<-
for the exam'
I have bought a pen which I will use <F-{-{ q'fi
tsrq-B (purpose){E {as.l<
a;a1fr 6q6a {*r.ffi.ffi c+-+r<
gcs-fi
p-g I ul{c{ Goim< who 4{( which frL{ putpo'e { {<tliF t

$5 cause (+l<"1) {t purpose (B64.ii)


who €t( which Eotr+< E!.R-{c"i< ({ clause-€(
<FSs q[E sl6q-< adverbial use R{ t 4{fl who {l which
$fiF $463 4-4fq6411s adverbial clause {CQ
4alr{ allcs qr$ <rq "a"*O,J.t"t'"'
c<-?tr 4-?l I
92 A passage to the
English Language
O That-4t <Fl-qR s
that el restrictive sense-€ <I{d-s ER I

O (i) Superlative degree-i {lCrl

6TIFI B He is the most intelligent boy


orot& w qc{r c{t T{.CE(R
- thai I have ever seen. (vtTfr w
tfrqF-a1q r)
It was the biggest bird that was ever caught. (Ts
flTfil <<l <grq sf<
:rc{r qFtRqTw{ r)
O (ii) a.

b"

d.

rqJr vYaI' \qre


<t&F sIqxfs ffi <qiRfu sdeffi";j'-"
'ls
b. He is the only teacher that can ieach us English. (ffi qsq|E
FN-s frfr qrqliq< qsr<e A#,ir.doll
c. I will give it to any boy^that can sing well. (C{ cfFT <lcl?F, 6q slcr
qH{Rcs fllm, EIr$qrfr qmft-{
. i)-"'-
d. He did^not get all the rnoney- that he needed. (El3tr nE
qC{rq-{ &q of< T{ h_sTT
fi "n.fi r)
e. The one book that can^be used for this topic is this one. (€E
topic_{si q-ll qrrE c <qfr <r<qln s_fl Trc{ st
o (iii) who, what, which-4{=t interrogative _E _iE t^" i,
. pronoun q<
'l[{3 q{s-
a. who............... ".......that.. "............ ..........?
b. which..................that.................. ...... ..t
c. what.....................that. ............... ........2
a. Who is the man that says so?
b. Which is the pen that you like most?
c. What is it that you conceal ((tfTfi S-{l) from
^
O (iv)
me?

everything- that
anY-_- that
that
ro__- that
nothing- that
nobody- that
much- that
Iittle- that
All that glitters i.@a
1;
Grammar : Pronouns 93

There is no possibility that the patient will come round (CdftF< mC<
\e}t{ r$rq c€l-fiI 6i ts]lfr t) |

O (v) Men q" q-$ Tf<fq\5 RT who r{{( materiab (q-{ttft)-c<


q{t
{rrq\5 {T which. ftq fuT-d qlrs't c<FnE r'{{R €rcs Etr{? who {tft
which?
Men and materials who/which were affected (ttteefg) during the
flood were taken away to a safer place.
gGs, gtEli materials
<fsiFr.s men {Ft-es, qrsrR {rE who {I{-{l{ T-$
*:ia qlqqo RCS'CQ <[E which ffi{t-{ €1 BGs I fuqEtF pronoun al{{l{ s-fl C6{ l]I
i.,

<Cq L!?n-C{ that qr{ I qdR


$T{l-d S-{Ce
Men and materials that were affected........'....."'etc'
{\9=-$(
qs ccq v{tF noun rtl[E-?l .coF< q-fl who € q{tm"d H-{i which
{t{qs EF "[K gl-mq elfS({ cqffir€ thati].{ds R I

O (vi) Ordinal numeral adjective q? {[{ 3 First, second, ihird


ffi qfqifqU+ Rf.Fqf$ {6{ ordinal numeral adjeciive qItK 'lC< that {C{ t

c$F{ 3

Rina was the third girl that won the prize.

EXERCISEI Fill in the blanks.


(a) She is the mosi beautiful girl " . . ' . I have ever seen'
iU) You are the only man can do this.
(c) Everything . can be eaten has a value.

I As €{{ So 4{ <r{{f-{ 3

(1) u. L:: . t"ct!9:,"1991.:l


b@
B"lK{ Pattern-q <|{qg {{ asCs T6{ relative pronoun.
a. I want such boYs as are honest.
b. This is the same book as that'
c. This is the same book that/as you gave me.
(c) co ihat <r4(E. €Fcl .s< 1-s{6f verb,6 *ttstr< Brg{ils ql$6q I

iric. He wants such a wife who will love him.


cor. He wants such a wife as will love hirn.
Inc. This is the same pencii like that"
cor. This is the same pencil as that.
tzl a. T--"s+
I
Adi+as+NouVPt."t,./No*. pht*"l
b ---i=-

a" He is as strong as his brother.


b. You are not so friendly as your sister.
(3) Karirn : Do you think that he will pass!
Rahirn : Yes, I think so.
94 A Passage to the English Language
€rlft-{ so:that he will pass. vdR think-verbFd
"fa+ff g<f chuse Fl q-$
so {j?ldE {CRTQ t €fr-Cel hope, desire, suppose, expect, believe ffi y"r6
q{ q-<-{q
{6fl clause q'< q-{i so <iTds ET I C{c{ s
Shampa : Do you believe that she is a thief?
Rumpa : No, I don't believe so.
(elIC{, so = that she is a thief.
Mitul : Do you hope that she will be successful in life?
Titul : Yes, I hope so.
(1116{, so : that she will be successful in life.

EXERCISEI Fill in the gaps


(a) She is not-beauti{ul as Rumana.
(b) Mushfiq is-tall as Rafiq.
Ans" (a) so b) as

I Antecedents :
(2) Relative pronoun C{ noun Kl pronoun Ffs fdTf{ s-ri EfCs
antecedent Tfq I qfr relative pronoun q< 6-s qtCrt <C{ I 6{{;1 g
Inc. The farmers are poor who have applied for a loan.
41116{, who €K antecederrt € farmers {l who q< 6-S qket <ffi r i5F
F{c-Tcq t

cor. The farmers who are poor have applied for a loan.
qstr<tr,
He came here yesterday. He is my brother.
<ls Etrs{sT-{'F
He came here yesterday who is my brother.
q{ qr{ | Fl{cf €elIC{ who-eK antecedent € He {1< 6-$ who el(
<toiB
qlctt fi Bfru r qu-<tf qfts a131E qtr{ He who came
here yesterday is my
brother. qFlg|r{,
Inc. The pencil is missing ({frCT C:lrR) which I bought from the
market.
Cor.^ The pencil which I bought from the market is missinq.
ft) {fr who n} that €K antecedent "they" {11-$ EfqrE & ;ihnf; 'tnou""
EC{ SIS I C1FFI 3
They came here. They are my friends.
q3lIt{ {lsIT6R Tg S1 qfr qnt
" RT They who carne here are my
friends
sR.cE 9E qT I ol-<q who fil that) 4n antecedent "they,'q5q & theycn
those-q "fffi S$CE qr{ I g,lqr{ q8+ <]T.rE CE
Those who came here are my friends.
(c)frrFR <ts]qrqt flV'
I have heard the name of Shelley who was a great poet.
<f$Tmls W ft'q Gi r who q{
qktt antecedent "dnnU"y <wcl r f+-q
i have read Shelley's poems who was a great poet.
Grammar : Pronouns 95

<]Titr qftS T{ who 4-:t antecedent € Shelley {l €ell6{ possessive


I <5I<"l

{lel <I:l-qs qC{fq I relative pronoun €itr antecedent 4fi\9 possessive {[9
ql r
"il-c<
sf-scE ft q<-<-ffi< <fsr-s? Rcr<&-tg Translate s-fl sfc< {r ffi <lr<,
cTl{l-{ <TTrq I Possessive noun fr< (antecedent q<) ffi TW c{ nounf6
(poems) scryrq \5lrs qsl6{ fr'{[s qr{ I

the+ noun+of +antecedent


n, . . . the poems of Shellev . . . ERrE c6-$ ql$rtr qc<
I have read the poems of Shelley who was a great poet'
(d) Antecedent t{31 number € persong$ff{ relative pronoun-€K '|fifi
verb q< Tfl R,ftRs qr< I m:r+ s
Inc. It is I who is guilty (qlfrt cqt$)
cor. It is I who am guiltY'
Inc. It is you who hls said ihis.
cor. It is you who have said this.
Inc. The boys who is playing is students of this school'
cor. The boys who are piayi.tg are students of this school'
(e)frru-< <t+Iezql els
you failed in the exam which shocked your father 1g-fi "fftq;1T CTq
sc-{Rm {t Fl{l{ <r<Ir$ 4? fircqtrE r)
<fsrtr cfts T{ I <;t<61 relative pronoun (q?m{ which) €n antecedent
qcE 'll-r{ ErE qFtr'l-q r ft-q 41116{ which €31 antecedent qE q< qfttR cTs
q(.t-Tc<i qTF clause. s6.t which frcT ft FKft sil Ecq? Tt sK <l{1-$ s?
FirsRq Elrs I qA
.:{t'
ft qsF {]-E fir RI{ sm <|<tt-s T? ffiqr '\ofq 6-q
+-*m tffi" sl-< <Klr$ T? ftKRE r i5l{t-{ €serfl a{R which €K
q-{F,Tr{ F'{cs scR c
-- -;;;- fuq sf {sztr T{ | '{q-q] <l:plfr
antecedent.
You?ailed in the exam and it shocked your father.
qrllC-4 and :
this = and that and it Tcffi c{9 I

Et'qr{ qfjffl qFFIfq 6q 6€1q clause Trl{s relative pronoun €![


antecedent qc\o ellciT Tl I

EXERCISEi Correct the following.


The man is my uncle who came here.
(a)
People heard this who say so.
(b)
(c) It is I who were to blame.
(d) It is Rehena who have broken the plate.
(e) He told a lie which shocked me.
Ans. (a) man €3 ffi"f<t who Tqle r (b) People €K e[i who <qltg I (c)
were €K {cdt was <cl€ I (d) have €3 {6{ has <ql€ (e) which 4K {6{ and this
Eil\3 I
96 A passage to the English Language
OMISSION OF REI,ATIVE PRONOUNS
(Relative PronounGF EV <t<ty
fuT-{ al+ierqt 1g
I who have lost the money am here.
Er<ifr cqfr+ who Efrcs cqli {.1-T ql r o.f{{ €R relative pronoun fE
subject-l q< fi {ffi[q I ft-q
I have lost the money that you gave me.
<lStTD(g "lost " verb-9i object {fl money. (E
-on"y 9i elC{ that
nc{'CQ t e(4fufiI{14 (<t<lr}ls<lrr) ma-r e

I have lost the money you gave me. €Ie <lf$f-?f qIdT COF. {fr-{dq qE
;rl, <<q. <ffi {(ft€ s
{q-{ qE I q-{s sn-sF Eq-qfi ch-<t g
He is the man (whom) I saw then.
1frfr cci$fusn-{qtfi'rot* cqr{Rqn l)
This is the pen (that) you offered me.
(qt nE +-ErF qr gfr wrno E"rqn ffirq r)
I heard everything (that) she said.
(cc lt <rERE qtfr q< qae-aq 1;
r: T6l {t[Ce relative pronounCs B"S $.]'f {IT C{..{T,
I have a student whom I rnust teach.
(qql< qsE qq/Sffi qrq {R-s qT{|< w-tit ryno qcq r)
teach FT q6<j ,{l
I
"$ilqT ym frcq
€1116{ <lrsi.rr whom I must_€E
Ef< <q(E e{ to T'{l{ {tC{ r

I have a student to teach. qd fuq qs? <rcT clTq r

qgff,{, l have a lot of work which I must


do.
= I have a lot of work to do.
She has many.books which she has to read.
= She has many books to read.

EXERCISE.I f{ ru.< Gfi' c$lI <Trsr rel ative p.on orn _ co-E-fi {Ei-G
B"egq sT r R. P.-B{ <t"fi cs-{ e3q ({)Fq q{R.csa T| Cfq (x) Fq <t*{q|.{ <r{ r

-\entences ({) (x)


1. I could not hear e.rerything that you told me
2. I know the man who'came here. ....,., "..,?
3. I know the man whom you called on. .... '. ', ".,?
4. Where is the toy that,/which she offered me? ............?
5. The book which I borrowed has been lost. ........., '?
6. Moiher who gave me ten taka tokl me to buy a pen. ..'...,. '.,?
Ans. V 2. x 3.d S. { S. .{ A. x
Grammar : Pronouns 97

RECIPROCAL PRONOUN
Reciprocall=sF l.lr+ qftffiq" I fi15-< fiqF cqrl s

F=--l eI
qdls A gfr ITrq B co r eb'f frq reciprocal qE {l I sl{ct q-{q-dE $tr
q]-<rE rftE
q-{i{ fiqF qrF sieffil (reciprocal)E?+lrs cq"[E I A \e{, B c$ {Krq
ql, B-s A-c$ TKCq I

{6{ S-< Aq{ 6{FF r$Cq rioftq< €fCqI{fS {<tlltr C'l6q gFlitl each ?il every
<t<cKsR I G5FT 3
Each boy said this (ECA <F-+q '{salt {EE l)
& "nu sr+-{ \c{i "€fcqtrs grcl-r${ ?Flrq <arq" qrl {rR
{fr qqm
ft-q
each other, one another T'{qt-d s-{cs qr I E"l;t ({ \t-{F rrt st GrE-< nqirq
fis-{t"f fi{l{sll s

A--B
| ./,.
| +"3
p--E
qqtrq q-{ <]fu r vdlsS!-e< ql{o r 4fi< sdsrsR EFrrs-d clcel Fc[
"fiu
<E-cq I ccr$-c@ mt cc{ilnR q< qks
qcE one unolhsl<Ffqtr qr{ I

elCoK-s-{
The five friends talked with one another ("ftu <{-< et9K-$q
qtel Tc[ <aFI l)
qRK cqr <fr EIE EE q-{ E{, ER(E fun] etffitqc< firql c

A_--> B
<-
iof* 1b.-* qfs q'Kfs glFr{l({-:They two love each other.
Qt on" another €T( each other-Cs {64 reciprocal pronoun.
Inc. The ten students love each other.
Cor" The ten students love one another.
Inc. The two sisters help one another.
Cor. The two sisters help each other-
NorE , qlXfr-$ lcr<"$F $lL<-{ fur qS rdl<-sR< llm€l q{ 4 r u1s
6arya ffi6 qtrq-fi elq-slc{t ft"lT r

EXERCISEI Use "one another" or "each other" in the gap


(a) Rahim and Ramjan looked at_-.
ib) Shurnun, Babu, Chaina, Shahina, Sheema and Tuhin all love-
live in a village named Bhanderkote in the district of Khulna.
-and
APTEL-7
98 A passage to the English
Language
REFLEXIVE AND EMPHATIC PRONOUNS
A. Reflexive pronoun :
frTu-a <r+rErqr rc
She killed herself. (cc qq'{rl +i:<Rq r)
You fan yourself. (yR fr-rsTc-s <l-slc s-{R t)
He hurt himself. (ct firwro qls-iE s-fi l)
God helps them who help themselves. (e! Ef6qT qRV
Ffs{ {KI
fimcq.<r+ qRsj str r)
b"tr+* gal:r Tlrs'l{ subject {e
she €R( objectfr herself. {fi
qT 6q{
object F fterserf) subject (she)-q< qs-F qR-fl.
object-.i rcll subject €RQ
qdelfu\r- qm r ta<ff-'sl*r-*s yourself,
himself, themselves_qerfl qq
object. T[s'e6{FI qd c{rs 6qRtt $-S C{, qG (TCAQ
6gls61vrir subject e<? qd
elffio TTce r qfi1 objects co <cq reflexive object.
Definition : A refrexive pronoun is one used in the objective
case in
which the meaning of the subject is refrected, indicating
that the action of
the sentence turns back to the subject.
(Reflexive pronoun {d objective case € <iTqs Cqi pronoun <F {.C{i
subject q< qd efffi{v- q{i {I Tlrsl subject csn
Flq s-{.rS.EI subject €i
ffi ft< sF qfi errn $r< t)
(rlt6{ "subject €< qCf< qfrF{T"
efgs ,,subject ,{< ftr$ ,,aciion_€R
frr< <tsrt"Ft s*g1{ r E"tm. effi EFR<Tfi, T3r, subject q-sB slq r.ra
q<( ercr cqqr Trcq R cc FME 'ru,
fi-+ fuecq frcni o<rq, sdtq Fffi firq< frco
ftr< stcus i
Reflexive Pronoun *a l}q c
Person Personal Pronoun Reflexive Reflexive
Pronoun Pronoun
(singu!a (plural)
First tr, we myself ourselves
Second thou (gR) thyself yourselves
vou (q )
yourself

you (mla*l;
l"hird he himself thernselves
she herself
they
it itself
Indefinite pronoun-onn s<
oneself
"tbq
o-atqs r
Grammar : Pronouns 99

EXERCISE E"rr<-< Table-mBl Fft5-{ .I{iql{arfl T<'t s-< s

(a)He looked in the mirror (qlT{l) at-_


(b)They burnt (t&lT R6m)--.
(c) We taughi-.
fanned-.
(d) Rita and Geeta

I Use of Reflexive Pronouns :


(Ref lexive pronoun-4-?l q<qK)
(i)Indirect object s''C'l s He gave himself a dose of the medicine'
,i" €tlt6{ himself : indirect object (Qlft<Tr+) dose- = direct object
*j;
({q-<lE-s)
(ii)Preposition €d objectRffiC{ s

He said to himself (=thought, \'..iTq), 'l can go now'"


She looked at herself- (fr firq< ftrs sfslE)
We did it by ourselves (=Frro.3l).
effi reflexive pronoun €R qlctl q$ft preposition KiTQs Ef{fq I

1ii1) +oeI{.t verb reflexive pronoun {'q Ti{qs q{, fi5Ft 3


. . . vail +ref. pron. +of + . .

He availed himself of the opportunity. (64 Et{ltitr <-fi l)


b. . absent +ref. pron. +from
She absented herself (:was absent) irom the meeting

no not pride yourself on (= do not be proud of = fr s'rfi {1,


ttffis sc$f 4l) your wealth (:r9n).
plume +ref. pron. +on
She plumes herself on her beauty. (Cc \tt< flcaf< E{-q(s'K
cnrtF r)

O Caution (wFt<Fwt) a

(i) Reflexive pronoun 6SF{ verb €3 subjeci 6T'l <K'q\5 E(9 '[I6d {l I

ffi:FT 3

Inc. You and myself went there.


Cor. You and I r,vent there.
Inc. His father and himself did it.
Cor" His father and he did it.
(ii) Feel (qls< $-fi) 4<R. keep (ellfl, <l?fi)-q< "i[-{ reflexive pronoun
Tfr{I I

Inc. I feel myself happy.


Cor. I feel happy.
lnc. He keeps hirnself away from bad companies (:11-tl4 {ut)'
Cor. He keeps away from bad companies. (f{ ?firil"i cs c{rs {f{
effrs l)
100 A Passage to the English Language

EXERCISEI Correct the following.


(a) Abu and himself was punished.
(b) Kader absented from the meeting.
(c) She prides on her beauty.
(dlSt" keeps herself away from school.

B. EMPHATIC PRONOUN
frcE. qr{'Ierql ry
He did it (cc tql ocafu r)
jJ:e He himself did it. (c{ FKq? n.MF +r-<Qq 1y

j.n qcF <l$j qfd frq'{ <f$itr{ qd q-$t, sq frqR <f$ifts subject (He) q<
Si< q-$q cqft mr< 6q€Rl Erq I q? cuftr cR€TR orqF o-scq himself. vtR <m
,SA ft-q reflexive pronoun ;Rl I S'lit6f, reflexive pronoun q< qT{ object fr'C'f
<I{qs {s I q?tff,{ himself q< t6{q pronoun (noun s ECs eff[<)-C{ ffito'Ct
vf{ b"K ffiK frcq' I qrs <cdt emphatic pronoun (qt ffi-?r \flr<l"ffifr c,fiffi).
9q6q{flrlT-
Definition : The pronoun that is used after a noun or pronoun to
add an emphasis on it is called the emphatic pronoun.
(Noun <} pronoun q<
'fK <r{ G pronoun E.K S"K CWR qfGilel s-r{ q-6s
emphatic pronoun T6{ t)
NOTE. (a) emphatic pronoun 6.tr noun-€K Eq< mn fti€ CC< q< S-s
tfitTm r

I met the president. 1Wfr cetffi< qlral qFFtq +r<R4T r)


I met the president himself. (qtft qfs, cAFwzB< ri'tc{ clsle,
Tr-{Rfl{ r)
frqT'<I-+IFF president.l{F{ E"f< cqf< ms{R q-{i sk S+ f.,i-rn1fta
"fr<t
Tt{qsEc3[6q r

(b) Reflexive pronoun 4T( emphatic pronoun-q?t ui'tq q<( fr1 qTl, sI
qwi-{ <I{qt'{ fre G{ r Reflexive pronoun TIC$i object
Rcm< <i-+qio qT q<(
emphatic pronoun <F{R EF noun,/pronoun e< S"R 6qt-< qrflq s-dl{ qTt I

(c)Srl{s S{{s emphatic pronoun C{ word qn G'K ffilR fr(g {6E frS
\5131 eIC< Tfi 41, <,T{fn TCC I q-qq 6SGI q-< ylCrl preposition
{l{ev eI I

(You) Take care of yourself.


I went to see it for myself. (qtfr vt frce" 6'l'c{ 6c"lm {lcgRqlq r)
She wanted a pen foi herself.
(d) Ownself ll ownselves <Kql--{ S'C{ S'{{s <tfis CQ.l-{ efOF{ <EIt ET I

IIF6T gender-C-Q C qlfi


pronoun <J<-qK S-dl RCE
'lfr{ I

Singular-Q ownself €i( plural-( ownselves <Ffqv E{


.|ffi,r
I

I bought it for my ownself. (qh qfr qEk firs-{ qcl r)


People should not always think of their ownselves.
q$l S-< 3 Possessive case+ownself,/ownselves-qsf<E <i:l-qs eR I
Grammar : Pronouns 101

lexenCtsel frrF-{ 6flbt


qEFGGT (bold) fier{l3r 6€RE reflexive
pronoun -4<( 6fi1F emphatic pronoun \d fiffi saf[I (column) ({)fiC frCT
ffito< re?FEEqtq<{R6TC< carrlqqE r

Sentences with Pronouns lleltextve Lmphatlc


1. She killed herself.
2. I myself went there. .,,,.,.,.,?
J. She wanted it for herself. ?
4. We should not always think
only of our ownselves.
5. She washed herself.
6. They themselves went there.
7. I talked to the king himself.
8. Man has desire to get things Ior
his ownself.
Ans. 2 emphatic 3. eSnphatic 4. emphatic 5. reflexive 6. emphatic
7. emphatic 8. emphatic

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
Indefinite {kq qfrffir q<t< frcu-{ <fsisrEl' 'iV
He says that Mr. Brown is a scientist (ffi).
qrlK{ He says*sdls 6{ Tcq I c{ sffl q-sqq <lfurr frffi +rn {ffiDs I

qrqft o Trr qlfi q-e n<Ifcq | frqfrcDR <toiF ru


Some say that Mr. Brown is a scientist.
€rJIc{ Some say-6+B coB <rq r c$ 6s {rE? Fql fr? fiffi s'c <qt q-{
fr rsome-€"nofrffis'c<ftRTr{ru{ql r qelr<
Mang saw the accident. (q1lqrsi Tffi cnr:lQq 1;

Any of them willgo. (q@-{ CI' 6sF Lcs-q-{ <tG{ t)


They say that God exists. (6{I6s <rq ?tr< qkS{ r)
None can do this. (c$EE q+'M T<ls "flr< qt)
<fsiq6{frs many, any, they, none-pronoun qC4I frfiE cffi $fuf{gm
{aTm ql I q efEI indefinite pronoun. €P[pl one, other, another, several,
few, all q-qB ind"finite pronoun Q6q6a at{{s q{ 1

O (a) Any : Interrogative sentence-4 3


Did any of them go? (\5m{ c+E ft lfficr)
qTjFCo "any " indefinite pronoun s,'Cfl <Flqs qC{'6R I

Negative Sentence-4 t
Kamal , Do you have a pen?
Karim : No, I haven't any. (qpl{ eeFs nQ;
NOTE. FnFnounl-qqm <l+qs qrt q {6{ adjective. cTiFi s Any
man can do it. fuQ any+of +noun(plural) <I{qE qrE El Er<
-qEIr<
indefinite pronoun. gFlEt subject iI object RCCC< e{ any 3ffi\5 qfE.q Cf<
indefinite pronoun. 6{:l{ 3
102 A Passage to the English Language

A : Have you solved the problems? (qfr ft ql-{ilerEk c{tqT or<E?)


B : No, I have not solved any. (qR eTfie c{t${ oRR r)
frSl Ar+i "any" object {cai <Frqs qrT[q I

"Any"-singular € plural Bs{ qfs 'lt6{


number-q <lTqE I

I (b) Some : \e{{f€ plural-€ <i:tqs qT I (singular-€ E{ adjective RC{c<


<FRtrC{ l)
$fuqfuc There are many students here; some are from class
* nine and the rest of them (<Tft) are from class ten.
,,i5:'
tii::
q< "tRr<ro'a There are many tables here; some are new and
some are old
NOTE. ome+nounl-€916{ qcq sorne-E?Fl adjective q{
TJTQ\5 I

c{:l;[ 3 sorne people (Noun) are dishonest (qqq).ft-q. F.-fi;b]-fts<l


object Rcq-f< some ?tFlds'q[E E{{ 9 Q.{ indefinite pronoun. c{:Ft 3 Many
people live in the village; some are happy, some unhappy. q?nf{
sorne+verb (are) _qq'c< <Kqs qc{rq I qt<Ftr,
Belal : Will you buy books today?
Helal : Oh yes, I will buy some.
€tllf,{ "buy"-verb €K oblect RCIC< some Tj=tQs qCTCq I

t (c) One : (i) q< Nominative r!R( objective case-rllK {fl {fl one
€R( possessive case 43 Rtf € one's.
<ll-{' ll<t<qsE< ffi-rftR {EI q-T, s.t6rs fiffi a' c< frR <EI q{ 4l E{{ @ o.'n
<]-<qE q{ | cTsFl 3

You should respect your mother. (collK EGs cst'fl< qfm qn'Is-fl 1)
El+ifrrs e1 You 4< ft BGs vtQ <"tt qruq r fr-E One should respect
one's mother. (qlrs qh-l+<t SGs r)
TECg {t{I<rqq-C<r {< {sl{cq-{ FMfiq $rs qnl 4-{r{ sclt <qt q@ |

c!9f6{ s One should not lose heart in danger.


(Rqzq-< q'rr qs c\3R1 EFv ll r)
ftq FR ESo r"{-st {EI q@.lt r qq {{<q em w+rir+l 1<flre r

Inc. One does not know when he will die. (csG qlr{ 4l s?l{ cc
TSr{ t)
Cor. One does not know when one will die.
Inc. One should do her duty.
Cor. One should do one's duty.
({16{ possessive case K'6{ one's Rai I

Inc. One should not waste away his time.


Cor One should not waste away one's time.
Note : one €K el6{ American Engiish-q his-s KI{ds qT I

(ii) Indefinite Numerical Pronoun Rql6{ one q< <JTqlT s T{<q


C:FF noun €< ll{qft €VRl<t Q-{I singular noun-{R 6FCdl one €(i plural
noun-€i 6F64 ones <f<'qg q{ I
Grammar : Pronouns 103

ffi5FI s Those mangoes are green (fu); these mangoes are ripe
(flrsr).
ilrltrF 6{c{ls mangoes ql<I{qK s-{cq sRrE vl{ 1fu ones (Grav*
plural) $:ldf{ arrcE q{ r c{5F{ 3

Those mangoes are green; these are the ripe ones. €9l-6<[,
This pencil is not good; I want a good pencil.
<IorFto 6{rslw pencil-*t flR.{d one (R6{l\ singular)<KqK s-{t TF-
This pencil is not good; I want a good one.
(iii) lNo/e"e.y/"".h;on4-4trcat<irq\5 ErE, vdlR, one q< ql-ctt Tfi
6SF{ word 46S qualify S?ffE €3I eK one's afq'd\e- il tC{ his, her, him, he
ffi<rqqsqr I cs{-{ s

Inc. No one should kjll away one's time.


Cor. No one should kill away his/her time.
Inc. There are sixty boys in the class; each one has (have i3l) done
one's hometask ({lffi +fo).
Cor. There are sixty boys in the class, each one has done his
hometask.
(iv) One of + plural noun {FF6{ possessive case-€ one's Rn 41,
-€{1
his, her R-{ I

Inc. One of the boys has done one's hometask.


Cor. One of the boys has done his hometask.
NOTE. One of q< 9|-< plural noun frQ singular verb TC{ I qdts s

One of+pl.noun+sing. verb


lnc. One of the five men have said this.
Cor. One of the five rrretr has said this.
Inc. One of the giris work in the factory.
Cor. One of the giris works in the factory.
Inc. She is one of my sister.
Cor. She is one of my sisters.
(6c qFr-< c<fdrrq-{:rc<l qsq{)
lnc" One of my friend said this.
Cor. One of my friends said this.
NOTE : No one :None. 4fr singular r3 plural St< CffE Tt{qs qS I €<s.
€fr countable € uncountabls Bs-?i noun qR (Sfq TJ{-ds q{ I

6{':{{ s They are five friends there, but none can play well. (counlable
noun, singular number.)
None but ihe honest(= all the honest persons) deserve (Cfltil E\gTI) the
prize. (countable noun, plural number.)
Can you give me some water? Oh, sorry, I have none' (uncountable
noun, singular number)
704 A Passage to the English Language
o (d) other : 6sF[ {q 1.<lTcs other ilrfQe {s I.| r C{6$-GI other
things, other places ffi <I?lqs q{ I ft-q Csl{ qfu {<l"|ro other RjTds {T I

\5I-{6E others =other persons c{5Ft 3

Sixty people went there; I met twenty of them in the room; others
were not present there. (€rllC{ others : other people)
Inc. He has bought a pen, a book, a pencil, and others.
Cor. He has bought a pen. a book, a pencil, and other things.
Inc. I have been (qTfi {}lC{R) to Calcutta, New York, London, and
-
,;o others.
:!i: Cor. I have been to Calcutta, New York, London, and other
places.
t (e) They : Indefinite pronoun-€ they RaKe ?t<l-<"f {En']]llT I
Cfi;l s They say I am dead. (6{I6s <rE qIfr ffi W ,)
They believe man becomes a ghost after death.
(6lr$ <cs \f{< T{'fr Eo q{ r)

a (f) Many : Many-:1q rFRtr plural-4 <jrfqs ES I RIFT 3

Hundreds of people have tried to climb on Everest but many


(:many people) have failed. ('F5'iE ffi]=F qglT<-c+ Sbcs or<rq
ftqqr*c$Rq1rcTF(ERrq r)
Many are called but few are chosen. (wq-qot s-lsl S{ fuq.
qE SLTSqqr$A C{A afil q{ I (New Testament.)
t (g) Few, qFsplural-€<I{-dsE$t
Many are called but few are chosen.

EXERCISEI 1. Correct the following.


(a) She has a taperecorder, a television, a ceiling fan, and others.
(b) She took from one of my friend.
(c) One of them have told this.
(d) One should not boast of (ti-{ s-fl) his wealth.
(e) Every one has brought one's books.
Ans. (a) Other things (b) friends (c) has (d) one's (e) his,/her.
2. frrrd cfltsl qsrf{
(bold) word erEI{ {c{i 6sl{fr adjective {K( csl{E
pronoun (indefinite) \el <-q I oR"i q{s r

(a) Any student can do it.


(b) Any of the students can do it.
(c) I want some money.
(d) Do you have rice? Oh no, I would like to buy some.
(e) One person is enough io do this work.
(f) I have no such files, but my brother has one.
Ans. (a) Adj. (b) ind. Pron. (c) Adj. (d) Ind. Pron. (e) Adj. (fl Ind. Pron.
4ld"tfiffi o?to-< r