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TO STUDY THE IMPORTANCE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

IN JOB PERFORMANCE

HHSM ZG629T: DISSERTATION

BY

Wg Cdr(Dr) YOGESH CHANDRA MBBS,PGDHHM

2011HSMM014

Dissertation work carried out at

AIR FORCE HOSPITAL(I.A.F) M.P

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY &SCIENCE,


PILANI (RAJASTHAN)
May 2013
TO STUDY THE IMPORTANCE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
IN JOB PERFORMANCE
BY

Wg Cdr(Dr) YOGESH CHANDRA MBBS,PGDHHM

2011HSMM014

Dissertation work carried out at


AIR FORCE HOSPITAL(I.A.F) M.P

Submitted in partial fulfillment of M. Phil,Hospital & Health


System Management degree programme

Under the supervision of

Wg Cdr P K M SHENOY
DPMO (MC),I.A.F. ,Nagpur

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY &SCIENCE,


PILANI (RAJASTHAN) May 2013

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE PILANI


(RAJASTHAN)
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Dissertation entitled (TO STUDY THE


IMPORTANCE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCEIN JOB
PERFORMANCE) and submitted by WG CDR (Dr) Yogesh Chandra)
having ID-No. 2011HSMM014 for the partial fulfillment of the
requirements of M.Phil. Hospital & Health Systems Management
degree of BITS, embodies the bonafide work done by him under my
supervision.

______________
__
Signature of the
Supervisor

WG CDR(Dr) PKM
Shenoy
Deputy Principal
Medical Officer
(DPMO-MC)
I.A.F.(Indian Air
Force
Place : Amla (M.P.)

Date : 05 Apr 2013

ABSTRACT
Dissertation title : TO STUDY THE IMPORTANCE
OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
IN JOB PERFORMANCE

Supervisor’s name : Wg Cdr(Dr) PKM Shenoy

Supervisor’s email address : pkmshenoy@gmail.com

Name of the student : Wg Cdr(Dr) Yogesh Chandra

Email address : dryogi23@gmail.com

Semester : IInd Semester 2013

Id no. : 2011HSMM014

Employing organisation : INDIAN AIR FORCE

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a


relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and job
performance of employees of Air Force Hospital. The sample
consisted of 50 participants across different age and status . A
convenience sample was used, since it was easier to focus on
working in the same hospital. All of the participants completed the
Golemann’s questionnaires in order to measure emotional
intelligence whereas the job performance data oure obtained from
Annual Appraisal Report . Correlation Coefficient was calculated and
the research results show that there was statistically moderate
relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance of
the working staff.
Signature of Student Signature of the supervisor
Wg Cdr (Dr) Yogesh Chandra WG CDR(Dr) PKM Shenoy
Deputy Principal Medical
Officer
Place : Amla (DPMO-MC),I.A.F.

Date : 05 Apr 2013

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
1. I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and
deep regards to my guide Wg Cdr(Dr) PKM Shenoy for his
exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement
throughout the course of this Dissertation work. The blessing, help
and guidance given by him time to time shall carry me a long way in
journey of life on which I am about to embark.

2. I am also thankful to JWO Bandopadhyay who assisted me in


compiling and final layout of study project.

3. I am deeply thankful to my wife Mrs. Nidhi Chandra, my daughter


Siddhi &my son Parishkrit for their support during the study.

Date- 02 Apr 2013 Wg Cdr (Dr)


Yogesh Chandra
Place- Amla (M.P.)

LIST OF SYMBOLS & ABBREVIATIONS USED


S.No. Symbols &Abbreviations Descriptions
1. Df Digree of freedom
2. R Correlation Coefficient
3. SS Sum of Squares
4. MS Mean Squares
5. ANOVA ANalysis Of Variance
6. T Stat Test Statstics
7. PPMC PearsonProduct-Moment
Correlation (PPMC)
Coefficient Table
8. SA Self Awareness
9. SM Self Management
10. RM Relationship Management
11. IV Independent Variable
12. DV Dependent Variable

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Ch.No Discription Page No.


1. Title page i.
2. Declaration Ii
3. Abstract Iii
4. Acknowledgement Iv
5. List of tables V
6. List of figures Vi
Table of contents Vii
7. Introduction
8. Review of literature
9. Objectives
10. Research Methodology
11. Result findings & discussion
12. Conclusion & Limitations
13. Recommendations
14. Appendices
15. References
16. Check list

INTRODUCTION

Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control


and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional
intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while others claim it is
an inborn characteristic. When emotional intelligence first garnered
significant media attention back in the 1990s, it really hit home for
people. For the first time we all had an explanation for an unusual
finding: people of average intelligence outperform people with the
highest levels of intelligence the vast majority of the time (70% to
be exact). Suddenly we had a name for the main determinant of
success in life: emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is
critical to managing our behaviour, moving smoothly through social
situations, and making critical choices in life.
EI has been defined by many authors. Some of the revolutionary
definitions are as follow:
Hein (2007) defines “Emotional Intelligence is the innate potential to
feel, use, communicate, recognize, remember, describe, identify,
learn from, manage, understand, and explain emotions. It is
important to use emotional intelligence because it will help us to be
flexible in changing situations. It involves self awareness, empathy
and self restraint. In the workplace, this ability can enhance
interpersonal communication and people skills. According to Mayer
and Salovey (1990)“ Emotional Intelligence is the ability to monitor
one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions, to discriminate among
them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and
actions”. Freedman (1998) defines “Emotional Intelligence is a way
of recognizing, understanding and choosing how we think, feel and
act. It helps us to improve our understanding. M Dileep Kumar
(2006) defines” EI is a set of competencies, which direct and control
one’s feeling towards work and performance at work. The set of
competencies is ability of an individual being to control and manage
his or her mood and impulses, which contribute to best of situational
outcomes”.

According to K.sekarin his Presentation Transcript- Emotional


Intelligence For Managers (2007) “Emotional Intelligence doesn't
mean being soft – it means being intelligent about emotions – a
different way of being smart. Emotional intelligence is our ability to
acquire and apply knowledge from our emotions and the emotions of
others in order to be more successful and lead a more fulfilling life.
“Bosses and leaders, in particular, need high EQ because they
represent the organization to the public, they interact with the
highest number of people within and outside the organization and
they set the tone for employee morale,” says Goleman.

Wayne Leon Payne (Student at an alternative liberal arts college,


USA) was the first who wrote on EI in 1985. Then the two professors
of American University John Mayer and Peter Salvoes wrote on EI
titled as “Emotional Intelligence” and found that some people are
better than others to identify their own feelings as well others and
solving problems involving emotional issues. Now a personality who
is most commonly associated with the term EI Daniel Goleman had
been started working on an article on EI and also started his
research work for his book based on EI in 1992 and then published
it in 1995 titled again “Emotional Intelligence” Since there have
been many work done by many authors about EI. There are four
emotional intelligence skills and they group under two primary
competencies: personal competence and social competence.
Goleman played significant role in emotional intelligence field.
Goleman identified the five 'domains' of EQ as:
Knowing our emotions.
Managing our own emotions.
Motivating You.
Recognising and understanding other people's emotions.
Managing relationships, i.e., managing the emotions of others.

SELF AWARENESS- examining how Our emotions affect Our


performance; using Our values to guide decision-making; self-
assessment - looking at Our strengths and weaknesses and learning
from Our experiences; and being self-confident and certain about
Our capabilities, values and goals. Self awareness in job
performance is required for emotional awareness, accurate self
assessment and self confidence.

SELF MANAGEMENT- controlling Our temper; controlling Our


stress by being more positive and action-centered; retaining
composure and the ability to think clearly under pressure; handling
impulses well; and nurturing trustworthiness and self-restraint.
Controlling one’s internal position, managing limited resources,
Trustworthiness, etc. which is important for conscientiousness.

MOTIVATION- enjoying challenge and stimulation; seeking out


achievement; commitment; ability to take the initiative; optimism;
and being guided by personal preferences in choosing goals. This
element is important in job performance for commitment, initiatives
and confidence.

EMPATHY - the ability to see other people's points of view;


behaving openly and honestly; avoiding the tendency to stereotype
others; and being culturally aware. “Our intuition about other’s
needs and concern”. this element is essential in job performance for
understanding each other, support and progress of people etc.

SOCIAL SKILLS- the use of influencing skills such as persuasion;


good communication with others, including employees; listening
skills; negotiation; co-operation; dispute resolution; ability to inspire
and lead others; capacity to initiate and manage change; and ability
to deal with others' emotions - particularly group emotions. Ability
to act in response to others as it is essential in the job performance
for communication, leadership, resolution for variance, mutual
understanding, teamwork etc.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

This research study focuses to provide the impact of above


mentioned five factors of EI on Job Performance of hospital
employees.
Questionnaires oure used to asses the EI and also the Job
Performance and statistics methods are used as NULL HYPOTHESIS
and establish the co-relation between job performance and EI and
also test the significance of this result if there is any positive relation
exists.

The scope for the organization whose employees, if they are lacking
in their performance due to low level of emotional intelligence, they
can help them to increase their emotional intelligence. Scope of
study will can be helpful in future why some employees are
outstanding performers while others are not. On the basis of these
results an organization can choose a strategy and actions to improve
the performance of their employees.
It can give a new dimension in the future to conduct such research
on the employees of other sector also The study of data is purely
based on secondary data to get proper understanding about this
concept.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control


and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional
intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while others claim it is
an inborn characteristic. Brief history of EI is mentioned as below
1930s – Edward Thorndike describes the concept of "social
intelligence" as the ability to get along with other people.

1940s – David Wechsler suggests that affective components of


intelligence may be essential to success in life.

1950s – Humanistic psychologists such as Abraham Maslow describe


how people can build emotional strength.

1975 - Howard Gardner publishes The Shattered Mind, which


introduces the concept of multiple intelligences.

1985 - Wayne Payne introduces the term emotional intelligence in


his doctoral dissertation entitled "A study of emotion: developing
emotional intelligence; self-integration; relating to fear, pain and
desire (theory, structure of reality, problem-solving,
contraction/expansion, tuning in/coming out/letting go)."

1987 – In an article published in Mensa Magazine, Keith Beasley


uses the term "emotional quotient." It has been suggested that this
is the first published use of the term, although Reuven Bar-On
claims to have used the term in an unpublished version of his
graduate thesis.

1990 – Psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer publish their


landmark article, "Emotional Intelligence," in the journal
Imagination, Cognition, and Personality.
1995 - The concept of emotional intelligence is popularized after
publication of psychologist and New York Times science writer Daniel
Goleman’s book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More
Than IQ.

Gardner (1983) and Hendrie Weisinger (2005) proposed that there


are four basic elements of our emotional intelligence: The ability to
accurately perceive, appraise and express emotion, The ability to
access or generate feelings on demand when they facilitate
understanding of Our self or another person, The ability to
understand emotions and the knowledge that derives from them,
and, The ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and
intellectual growth. In an organization employees tend to suppress
their emotions as method of emotional management. This is what
their parents, teachers and societies have taught them. When
Children become angry, their parents say, “Don’t lose Our temper so
easily”. When they get excited, elders chastise them, “Don’t get
carried away. “ If a boy weeps, his parents remind him, “Men don’t
shed tears.” When an employee develops the habit of suppressing
emotions this way, he/she holds back feelings so that they do not
reach the points of eruption. This may eventually become a source
of abnormal behavior and psychological problems. Due to increase in
the number of such instances, the top management has become
conscious that employees need to learn different ways of managing
their emotions and expressing themselves. (Dalip Singh, 2001)
When we want to manage our money, we want a financial planner.
Of course we need a cosmetologist to manage our hair, and a
gardener to manage our yard. These are a few examples of what
some people are willing to do in order to manage their lives and
improve the flow. How do we manage our emotions? By feeling
them, that's how. Abrams (1997) “Managing Our emotions” Feeling
does not mean dramatizing, it simply means feeling. By doing so,
WE'll develop a more positive and inviting attitude, stay healthier
and happier, and improve every one of Our relationships, including
the most important, the one with ourself.

Methew (2010) defines in an article “The Buzz About Emotional


Intelligence” shown five elements of emotional intelligence given by
a psychologist and a science journalist, Goleman (1998) who
developed a framework to explain emotional intelligence in terms of
five elements, he described as self-awareness, self-regulation,
motivation, empathy and social skills. Each of these elements has
distinctive characteristics, Goleman believes that emotional
intelligence can be developed over a period of time and he
developed an Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI Employment
Cost in association with the Hay Group, to use in assessing and
developing EQ competencies at work. The ECI reduces the original
five components of emotional intelligence to four: Self awareness,
Self management, Social awareness & Social skills.

Rahim, Hussain, Saddam (2010) has investigated the effect of


demographic factors like Age, Education, Job tenure, Gender and
Marital Status on the level of Emotional Intelligence which leads to
organizational performance among male and female employees.
Research has shown that the female segment is more emotionally
intelligent than their male employees in bank sector and there is
inverse relationship between the age of the male and female
employees and EI. With increase in education level, EI has also
improvement in its level. Satisfaction level of employees is also a
good determinant of their performance.

Deepa, R. (2009):- Emotional intelligence (EI), which is an ability


to manage one’s own and others’ emotions appropriately, has
caught the attention of researchers in recent times. It has a
significant impact on the personal and professional success of
individuals. It has been empirically proven that EI impacts the
performance and well-being characteristics of individuals and teams,
and facilitates organizational effectiveness and competitive
advantage. This paper consolidates the research activities on EI in
four areas namely Conceptualization, measurement, Impact, and
development, and concludes with directions for future research for
adapting this concept to Indian Context.
Peter Taylor (2009) Emotional intelligence is the ability to
perceive one's emotions and to effectively manage one's behaviours
in emotionally charged situations. It is also the ability to factor in
the emotions of others as one interacts with them. In this article the
author has provided tips and techniques for applying emotional
intelligence to various scenarios. All of these techniques have
application in negotiations and supplier development. They are also
essential in leadership and coaching. People respond much better to
those who treat them with honesty, respect and civility.

Karen Albertsen, et.al(2009)The aim was to examine whether


exposures in the psychosocial work environment predicted
symptoms of cognitive stress in a sample of Danish knowledge
workersand whether performance-based self-esteem had a main
effect, over and above the work environmental factors. Knowledge
workers, selected from a national, representative cohort study, were
followed up with two data collections, 12 months apart. Author used
data on psychosocial work environment factors and cognitive stress
symptoms measured with the Copenhagen Psychosocial
Questionnaire and a measurement of performance-based self-
esteem. Results: Measures at baseline of quantitative demands, role
conflicts, lack of role clarity, recognition, predictability, influence and
social support from management were positively associated with
cognitive stress symptoms 12 months later. Performance-based self-
esteem was prospectively associated with cognitive stress symptoms
and had an independent effect above the psychosocial work
environment factors on the level of and changes in cognitive stress
symptoms.

Quoidbach and Hansenne (2009) investigated the relationship


between emotional intelligence, performance, and cohesiveness in
23 nursing teams in Belgium. Nursing team performance was
measured at four different levels: job satisfaction, chief nursing
executives’ rating, turnover rate, and health care quality. The
results did not support the generalization that all components of
emotional intelligence relate to all measures of performance;
however, the data clearly supported a relationship between
emotional regulations as an important aspect of team performance
(i.e., health care quality). Emotional regulation was also positively
correlated with group cohesiveness. These results suggest that
emotional regulation may provide an interesting new way of
enhancing nursing teams' cohesion and patient / client outcomes.
The study suggested that including training on emotional regulation
skills during team-building seminars might be more effective than
focusing only on exercises to create long-term cohesiveness.

Khokhar and Kush (2009) in their study explained the


performance of executives on different levels of emotional
intelligence and provided a link between emotional intelligence and
effective work performance. 20 Male executives (out of 200) within
the age range of 40 to 55 yrs from BHEL (Haridwar) and THDC
(Rishikesh) of Uttarakhand State (India) oure selected. T-tests for
independent groups oure used to measure the mean difference
between groups. The findings of the study revealed that executives
having higher emotional intelligence showed better quality of work
performance as compared to their counterparts.Ramo, Saris and
Boyatzis (2009) assessed the relationship between emotional
intelligence, personality, and job performance, as determined by
superior and peer nominations. The participants oure 223 employees
of three medium-sized Spanish organizations that oure involved in a
competency management project based on emotional and social
competencies. The results revealed that both emotional and social
competencies and personality traits are valuable predictors of job
performance. In addition, competencies seem to be more poourful
predictors of performance than global personality traits.
Emotional Intelligence and Job Performance There have been
numerous claims that EI accounts for predicting success at work,
home, and even school. High EI has been linked with less rudeness
in youths, improved
learning, and better decisions. At work, it has been associated with
"team work and cooperation" (Goleman,1995:163). However, the
rising interest in EI partly has to do with claims on its positive effect
on the aspects of job performance such as reduced deviant
behaviour, greater pro-social and positive behaviour,and leadership
(Goleman, 1998; Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, 2004). EI is
conceptualised as a set of mental processes including appraising and
expressing emotions in self and others, regulating emotion in self
and others, and using emotions in adaptive ways (Salovey and
Mayer, 1990:6). Appraising emotions in oneself is a part of EI
because individuals who are high on EI can quickly perceive and
respond to their own emotions and hence better express
those emotions. In addition, the ability to recognise emotions of
others enables individuals high on EI to make empathetic responses
to them. These skills enable individuals to understand responses in
others and thereby choose appropriate behaviour. Finally, regulation
of emotion is an important construct in EI as it would makeone more
adaptive. In addition, emotionally intelligent individuals are at an
advantage as they approach life situations with the ability to solve
interpersonal issues more adaptively. As compared to others,
individuals whoare high on EI are likely to identify, frame, and
address problems based on their emotional experiences (Salovey
and Mayer, 1990).

Krishnaveni, R., & Deepa, R. (2008):- Today’s workplace is


dynamic in nature and is characterized by time deadlines, cross-
cultural teams, work pressures, and work-family conflicts, which in
turn result in a highly stressed work force. These factors have a
negative impact on the well-being of employees and the
effectiveness of an organization. The individual competencies of the
workforce are strong determinants of an organization’s success. It is
in this context that this paper explains how Emotional Intelligence
(EI) can be used as a soft tool, to enhance the competencies of
individuals and teams in Indian organizations and help them to gain
competitive advantage

Lorenzo, Fariselli, et.al (2008)


As in many fields, healthcare is a complex and stressful environment
where interpersonal interactions are of paramount importance. This
study finds that in a sample of 68 professional midwives and
obstetricians in a large urban hospital, emotional intelligence is
strongly predictive of performance (66%), stress is slightly
predictive (6% to 24%), and emotional intelligence is predictive of
stress management (6.5%). The study elaborates on the first finding
to identify the differences of effect in seniority (for the most senior
employees the effects are strongest) to which specific emotional
intelligence competencies are most significant in this context.

Dong, Qingwen (2007):- This study based on a sample of 292


college students shows that interpersonal communication
satisfaction can be predicted by individuals’ emotional intelligence.
Emotional intelligence is operational zed based on Goleman’s (1998)
conceptualization including self-awareness, self-regulation,
motivation, empathy, and social skills. The study suggests that
those individuals, who are aware of themselves and others, and who
are able to manage themselves and others, tend to satisfy their
communication experience with others. However, the study indicates
that self-esteem does not have significant impact on college
students’ interpersonal communication satisfaction. This finding
raises possibilities for further investigation in the area. Limitations
and suggestions for future studies are provided

Rajendran, Diana et.al (2007) The concept of Emotional


Intelligence (EI) has recently attracted a great amount of interest
from HR practitioners and academics alike. Whilst the majority of
research in this area has been conducted in Western countries,
recent studies have begun to assess the generalisability and validity
of the EI concept in cross-cultural settings. The purpose of this
paper was to assess the reliability of the Workplace version of the
Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test in an Indian
population. The Workplace SUEIT demonstrated adequate reliability
in the sample of 110 participants in India, although the mean scores
for the sub-scales were significantly lower than in the Australian
normative population. The results are discussed in the context that
EI tests need to undergo cross-cultural examination to assess their
validity and cultural relevance. Researchers using Indian workplace
samples are needed to evaluate the predictive validity of tests of EI
in the Indian context.

Singh, Kavita (2007) the concept of emotional intelligence has


become so popular in the management literature that it has become
imperative to understand and leverage it for the sake of enhancing
the capacity of human capital in organizations. As the pace of
change is increasing and world of work is making ever greater
demands on a person’s cognitive, emotional and physical resources,
this particular set of abilities are becoming increasingly important.
Since majority of the concerns in organization involve people in
different roles, emotional intelligence must become a determining
factor for their effective management. It has also been found that
ultimately it is the emotional and personal competencies that we
need to identify and measure if we want to be able to predict
performance at workplace resulting in its effectiveness, thereby
enhancing the worth of the human capital. In this scenario the
competencies possessed by the people will have a bearing on the
extent to which they can actualize their emotional intelligence. The
result suggests that emotional intelligence is significantly related
with the personal competencies of employees and the variables of
personal competency namely, people success, system success and
self success have a predictive relationship with emotional
intelligence.
William L Weis, David W Arnesen (2007) Interest in emotional
intelligence (EQ) has grown exponentially over the past decade.
Growing along with that popularity is a demand for management
training programs and graduate business courses that help clients
and students enhance their EQ awareness and behaviours. So far
the response to that demand has been tepid - limited, for the most
part, to educating participants on the theory of EQ, offering
assessment instruments, and suggesting action plans. This
discussion reviews the current state of EQ training and offers an
outline for changing EQ attributes based on a course developed for
graduate business students at Seattle University.
Wakeman, Chris (2006) “Motivation helps the individuals to
define new and improved methods of completing a certain task or
performing a job. It also creates loyalty among the individuals,
towards their cause. In addition to this, the element of empathy
further contributes towards the development of emotional
intelligence in an individual. It allows the individual to consider the
feelings of the individuals who are expected to be affected by his or
her decisions. Emotional Intelligence helps the individuals to realize
the fact that their decisions are going to affect others in a positive or
a negative manner and therefore they should consider the
consequences of their decisions. Finally, social skills allow the
individuals to come close to their peers and subordinates and
understand their emotional needs."
Timothy Tumer (2006) This study examined the relationships
among employees’ emotional intelligence, their manager’s emotional
intelligence, employees’ job satisfaction, and performance for 187
food service employees from nine different locations of the same
restaurant franchise. They predicted and found that employees’
emotional intelligence was positively associated with job satisfaction
and performance. In addition, manager’s emotional intelligence had
a more positive correlation with job satisfaction for employees with
low emotional intelligence than for those with high emotional
intelligence. These findings remain significant after controlling for
personality factors. A similar pattern was found for job performance;
however, the effect did not meet traditional standards of
significance.
Brown, F. William et.al (2006) this article presents a framework
for emotional intelligence, a set of skills hypothesized to contribute
to the accurate appraisal and expression of emotion in oneself and
in others, the effective regulation of emotion in emotion in self and
others, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan, and achieve in
one's life. They start by reviewing the debate about the adaptive
versus maladaptive qualities of emotion. They then explore the
literature on intelligence, and especially social intelligence, to
examine the place of emotion in traditional intelligence conceptions.
A framework for integrating the research on emotion-related skills is
then described. Next, they review the components of emotional
intelligence. To conclude the review, the role of the emotional
intelligence in mental health is discussed and avenues for further
investigation are suggested.
Kevin McGuiness, Bauld, Stephen (2006) this article
identified some of the critical elements of an Emotional
Intelligence (EI) training program, explain their importance,
and discuss their relationship to other training efforts. When
selecting a suitable EI program, look beyond academic merit
for a program with a clear connection to the commercial
context in which purchasing professionals must operate. EI
training lays the foundation for further specialized training in
motivational techniques, including coaching and leadership
programs. The prospective trainer should be able to explain
how the program information will relate to overall
organizational strategy, and how participants will achieve at a
high potential, and demonstrate drive, commitment and
initiative in the performance of their day-to-day
responsibilities.

Joni Rose (2006) Employers no longer just look for a set of


industry related skills. They look for leadership potential and that
includes a high level of emotional intelligence (EI). The
competencies that make up EI include self-awareness, social
awareness, self management and relationship management. Being
aware of your emotional triggers and why they trigger you is key to
practicing emotional intelligence principles. Emotional triggers are
events or personality types that cause an intense emotional
response. It is crucial to your professional development that you
deal with these triggers head-on. They can cause major career
derailment, severe stress and emotional burn out if not taken
seriously.
Côté and Miners (2006) examined the relationship between
emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence, and job performance.
Subjects oure 175 managerial, administrative, and professional full-
time employees of a large public university. Results found that
cognitive intelligence moderated the association between
emotionalintelligence and job performance. Emotional intelligence
became a stronger predictor of job performance and Organizational
Citizenship Behavior directed at the Organization (OCBO) (e.g.,
defend the organization when other employees criticize it) as
cognitive intelligence decreased. Results suggested that using
cognitive intelligence tests alone to predict job performance entails
risk, because employees with low cognitive intelligence can perform
effectively if they have high emotional intelligence.

Sy, Tram, and O’Hara (2006) examined the relationships among


food service employees’ emotional intelligence, their managers’
emotional intelligence, employees’job satisfaction, and employees’
job performance, as assessed by manager ratings. The results
showed that employees’ emotional intelligence was positively
associated with job performance and satisfaction. In addition,
managers’ emotional intelligence had a stronger positive correlation
with job satisfaction for employees with low emotional intelligence
than for those with high emotional intelligence. The findings suggest
that managers' emotional intelligence makes an important difference
to employees who possess low emotional intelligence.

One of the most extensive studies on performance involved the


effectiveness of 1,171

United State Air Force recruiters. These recruiters oure divided into
high-performing groups (those who met or exceeded 100% of their
recruiting goals) and lowperforminggroups (those who met less than
80% of their recruiting goals). An emotional quotient was
administered to the recruiters, and the results indicated the
emotional quotient instrument predicted 28% of the variance in the
performance between the two groups. The emotional quotient
correctly classified 81% of the recruiters in the high- performing and
low-performing groups. Furthermore, recruiters with high levels of
emotional intelligence had a greater ability to place recruits in
positions that closely matched their knowledge and skills (Bar-On,
Handley andFund, 2006).
Shanker and Sayeed (2006) conducted a research on 139
managers working in various organizations in Western India. The
purpose of the study was to establish a relation between emotionally
intelligent managers and managers’ professional development. The
managerial scores on various dimensions of emotional intelligence
oure correlated with professional development indicators of
managers, conceptualized in terms of number of promotions
attained and the rated job success. The assumption that the
emotionally intelligent managers would tend to attain greater
professional development than those who are less emotionally
intelligent was tentatively supported in the findings.

Joshua Freedman,et.al (2005) Critical success factors for work


and life are predicted by scores on the Six Seconds Emotional
Intelligence Assessment (SEI). In a sample of 665, SEI scores are
strongly predictive of effectiveness, relationship quality, health, and
quality of life. This suggests that emotional intelligence (as
measured by the SEI) is an essential element for professional and
personal success. Navigate Emotions: learn from and transform
feelings Increase Optimism: identify multiple options for changing
the future Engage Intrinsic Motivation: build internal energy and
drive:-Increase Empathy: respond appropriately to others’ feelings
Pursue Noble Goals: align daily choices with principles and purpose
James Thomas Kunnanatt (2004) in business, it is growing into a
multimillion dollar training industry. Multinational corporations and
the world’s giant industrial groups are realizing that emotions play
an equally important role as intelligence in enhancing employee
performance. Daniel Goleman, who popularized the concept, argues
that the contribution of emotional intelligence to effective
performance at work is as much as 66 percent for all jobs and 85
percent for leadership jobs (Goleman, 1995). Management
practitioners all over the world, however, are only beginning to
understand what EI is, how EI develops in a person, and what tools,
techniques, and methods are available to develop emotional
intelligence.
Lennart Sjöberg Elisabeth Engel berg (2004) EI was measured
by performance and self-report tasks. Data were also obtained on
basic values, some standard personality dimensions such as those
specified in the five-factor model, social adjustment and several
scales of impression management. Criteria were loneliness, work-
family life balance and Internet addiction, and also measures of
emotional and value deviance. Participants were college students in
a business education program who participated anonymously in the
extensive test session, which took about six hours to complete. It
was found that EI measures - both self-report and performance -
intercorrelated as expected, and that EI was strongly related as
expected to criteria. People high in EI reported less loneliness, less
Internet addiction and better work/studies - leisure/family balance.
Impression management was more strongly related to self-report
data than to performance. Self-report data were to a large extent
accounted for by measures of personality according to the five-
factor model, but performance measures were not. Finally, the
extent of faking was measured and controlled for.

Douglas, Caesar et.al (2004)


This study investigates whether the relationship between
conscientiousness and performance is stronger for individuals who
are high on emotional intelligence. The results of hierarchical
moderated regression analyses supported the hypothesis by
demonstrating that the relationship between conscientiousness and
work performance is positive for individuals high (versus low) in
emotional intelligence. However, the opposite pattern was found for
those low in emotional intelligence; that is, increases in
conscientiousness were associated with decreases in performance.

A critical article by Charles Woodruffe in 2001 reviewed Goleman's


version of EI, and suggested that: Goleman contradicts himself in
claiming that emotional intelligence is inherent and biologically
based, yet is a skill that can be learned and developed. Peter
Salovey from Yale University & John D Mayer from University of New
Hampshire has described in their article Emotional Intelligence in
1990, Baywood Publishing Co, Inc “The emotionally intelligent
person…attends to emotion in the path toward growth. Emotional
intelligence involves self-regulation appreciative of the fact that
temporarily hurt feelings or emotional restraint is often necessary in
the service of a greater objective In the short-term it may not be
pleasant or rewarding for that person to go through the sacrifices or
emotional challenges, but the end result of successfully helping
another may transmute the negative aspects of the experience into
positive ones, or at least transmute the experience as a whole into
one of value and personal meaning. Emotionally intelligent
individuals realize that there is a bigger picture at work, that dwarfs
the limited perspective that we all too easily confine ourselves by.
“People who have developed skills related to emotional intelligence
understand and express their own emotions, recognize emotions in
others, regulate affect, and use moods and emotions to motivate
adaptive behaviors. Is this just another definition of a healthy, self-
actualized individual?” (Salovey & Mayer 200) The beauty of working
with our emotions is that we naturally reap the benefits of getting to
know ourselves more intimately. When we have a clearer sense of
who we are and who we are becoming, we can make wiser choices
in life by strengthening our response ability to everything that
happens “to” us. Self discovery is a lifelong process, and it can serve
us for our entire lives. Self discovery is the basis for self care, and
self care is the foundation for long lasting satisfaction and happiness
in life, which are intricately linked to mental, emotional, and physical
health.
Among other things / purposes, organizations are places where
individuals are “organized” to work. To the extent that the work
requires interactions among individuals, emotions such as
excitement, anger and fear are indispensable in facilitating
cooperation. Employees who are “intelligent” about their
emotions will, therefore, be more efficient and effective in their
interactions with the work environment and with their co-
workers. This emotional intelligence – performance link has
been proposed in a few previous studies which are mentioned as
follows:An analysis of job competencies in 286 behaviours
worldwide indicated that 18 of the 21 competencies in their
generic model for distinguishing better performers oure based on
emotional intelligence (Spencer and Spencer, 1993).Pesuric and
Byham (1996) established that after supervisors in a
manufacturing plant received training in emotional
competencies, such as how to listen better and help employees
resolve problems on their own, lost –time accidents oure
reduced from an average of 15 per year to 3 per year, and the
plant exceeded productivity goals by $250,000.In a study, data
from more than 30 different behaviours from banking, mining,
geology, sales and health care industries documented that a
number of emotional intelligence competencies, qualities such
as, achievement drive, developing others, adaptability, influence
and self confidence distinguished top performers from average
ones (McClelland, 1998).Emotional intelligence may contribute
to work performance (as reflected in salary, salary increase, and
company rank) by enabling people to nurture positive
relationships at work, work effectively in teams, and build social
capital. Work performance often depends on the support, advice,
and other resources provided by others (Seibert, Kraimer and
Liden, 2001). Emotional intelligence enhances work performance
by enabling people to regulate their emotions so as to cope
effectively with stress, perform well under pressure, and adjust
to organizational change.
A study on 100 bank employees by Manila University (cited in Singh,
2001) showed that intelligence quotient scores oure virtually
unrelated with job performance whereas emotional quotient score
accounted for 27 percent of job performance.Bhalla and Nauriyal
(2004) reported in their study that emotional intelligence is a factor
that is potentially useful in understanding and predicting individual
performance at work. They further reported that emotional
intelligence is extremely important in Indians as they have high
affiliation need and emotional intelligence can lead to significant gain
in productivityLyons and Schneider (2005) examined the
relationship of ability-based emotional intelligence facets with
performance under stress. The authors expected high levels of
emotional intelligence would promote challenge appraisals and
better performance, whereas low emotional intelligence levels
would foster threat appraisals and worse performance. The authors
found that certain dimensions of emotional intelligence oure related
more to challenge and enhanced performance, and that some
emotional intelligence dimensions oure related to performance after
controlling for cognitive ability, demonstrating incremental validity.
Cumming (2005) explored the relationship between emotional
intelligence and workplace performance with a sample of workers
from New Zealand. In addition, she studied the relationship among
demographic factors, emotional intelligence and workplace
performance. The results of her study suggested that a significant
relationship exists between emotional intelligence and workplace
performance. In the case of emotional intelligence and demographic
factors,no significant relationshipsoure found between gender and
emotional intelligence, age and emotional intelligence, occupational
groups and emotional intelligence, neither betweeneducation and
emotional intelligence.

Mechanisms by which High Emotional Intelligence Leads to Better


Job Performance
Emotional intelligence concerns expertise at identifying and
understanding the emotions of other individuals. In most, if not all
jobs, organisation members interact with supervisors, coworkers,
support staff, and outsiders such as customers, clients, or patients.
These individuals publicly display their emotions through facial,
vocal, and
bodily signals that provide important information abouttheir goals,
attitudes, and intentions (Rafaeli and Sutton,1987; Sutton, 1991).
This information may be convertedinto high task performance by
individuals with high emotional intelligence. A second mechanism by
which emotional intelligence may enhance job performance of
individuals concerns how regulating emotion influences the quality of
social relationships. Employees displaying genuine concern about
their coworkers' problems should build stronger relationships than
the employees whose concern seems less genuine. Individuals with
high emotional intelligence may employ their abilities to manage
emotions to develop good social relationships that may in turn
enhance task performance via advice and social support.A third
mechanism by which emotional intelligencemay enhance job
performance of individuals concerns the effects of emotions on how
people think and act.Emotionally intelligent individuals may achieve
high levels of task performance and Organisation Citizenship
Behaviour (OCB) in most, if not all, jobs by managing their emotions
in ways that enhance their motivation and the quality of decisions. A
manager who understands that anger tends to lead people to
underestimate the degree of risk in situations may suppress anger
before making an important financial decision and, in turn, exhibit
good task performance (Cote and Miners, 2000). The Cote and
Miners study reveal that emotional intelligence and cognitive
intelligence are compensatory with respect to task performance and
OCB directed at the organisation. Thus, employees with low
cognitive intelligence perform tasks correctly and engage in OCB
more frequently if they are emotionally intelligent. The authors state
that,emotional intelligence is an important predictor of task
performance and OCB because of its interactive effect with cognitive
intelligence. Deeter-Schmelz and Sojka (2003) attempted to find out
whether certain elements of EI lead to increased performance
among sales personnel. In this study different skills associated with
EI were measured which included empathy, perceiving others'
emotions, selfawareness, self-regulation and self-motivation. The
results ofthat research highlighted evidence 'of a possible link
between EI and sales performance. In general, eachsalesperson
interviewed was considered successful in sales by their own
standards, company standards and each exhibited aspects of EI.
Empathy for example, was exhibited by most respondents who
specifically mentioned the importance of putting themselves in their
customers' shoes. Perceiving others emotions, which represents
another dimension of EI, was also reported by the respondents as
having the ability to read their customers mood.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1. The general empirical objective of this research was to
determine whether there is a significant relationship between
the emotional intelligence and job performance of personnel
working in hospital.

2. Furthermore, the aim is to pinpoint the specific EI traits


that are most significant in job performance in this
environment.

3. The limitations will be discussed and on the bases of


these, recommendations will be made for future research in
this field.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1. SCOPE OF WORK:

Study of this project will be carried out one of the AIR FORCE
HOSPITAL under following heads:

2. METHOD:

2.1 Research Design .The study is descriptive in nature. The major


emphasis in this study was on find how emotional intelligence
affects the job performance and how each elements of EI
contributes in a Job performance approach.

2.2 Research instrument. The inventory was used keeping 5


parameters of EI (On the scale of 5) related to job performance. A
study was conducted to understand its relevance in AIR FORCE
HOSPITAL’S performance of employees.

3. SAMPLE PLANNING Sample unit – Air Force Hospital


Sampling Method – purposive sampling
Sample size – 50 employees of different tasks (purpose of study was
explained to subjects and consent was taken)

4. DATA COLLECTION AND PARTICIPANTS

A sample of 50 personnel employed in Air Force Hospital participated


in this study. The selection of the personnel was random and as per
the convenience of the author and his good relationship with
organization This was important, as cooperation of the organization
played a major role in ensuring the accuracy of data, which was
collected within the available time frame.

5. PLAN OF WORK. For the purpose of this study, a copy of the


questionnaire was given to 50 employees in Air Force Hospital. The
survey was confidential. No names or any identity was recorded.

5.1 DEPENDENT VARIABLE :

5.1.1 JOB PERFROMANCE (Criterion)


The organization’s evaluation is based on the employees’ job
performance, which is related to their current performance. Data
were collected by using quantitative scale of measurement.
5.2 INDEPENDENT VARIABLE :

5.2.1. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (Predictor)


To evaluate the emotional intelligence of Healthcare providers with
respect to their job performance, questionnaire used, was designed
by Daniel Goleman in the book Emotional Intelligence. EI scale
constitutes five dimensions or elements which affects an individual’s
behaviour/performances-

(i) Self awareness.


(ii) Self management
(iii) Motivation
(iv) Empathy
(v) Social skills

5.2.2. MEASUREMENT OF INTERNAL CONSISTENCY


Cronbach’s alpha:
α = k x r /1 + (k-1) r
where, k = number of items = 05
r = average correlation between any two items =0.35 (Pearson
Correlation Coefficient)
α = reliability of the average or sum = 0.73(73%) which is
favourable for this study.

6. TEST. To test the under mentioned hypothesis (at the


significance level=.05)

H0: There is no statistically significant relationship between the


response variable(Job Performance) and the predictor
variable(Emotional Intelligence) (Null Hypothesis)
H0:p=0(The linear correlation coefficient is Zero)

H1: There is a statistically significant linear relationship between the


response variable and the predictor variable of employees.
H0:p=0(The linear correlation coefficient is not Zero)

H2: Employees’ scores on EI significantly predict their job


performance.

7. DATA ANALYSIS. Formulate an analysis plan. For this


analysis, the significance level is 0.05. Using sample data, we will
conduct a linear regression t-test to determine whether the slope of
the regression line differs significantly from zero.
Data analysis is done in Excel as well as manually also, for following
purpose:
7.1 To calculate the Pearson’s Correlation coefficient to test the null
hypothesis
7.2 To understand whether employees’ score on EI predict their job
performance by Simple Linear Regression method
RESULT FINDINGS & DISCUSSION
Based on theory and intuition, we expect the job performance to
depend on emotional intelligence. Consequently, the job
performance is a dependent variable and emotional intelligence is an
independent variable in the regression model.

Table. 1

SCORE SHEET- Av EI & JOB PERFORMANCE


S. Age SA SM Empathy RM M Av JP
No. EI
1. 32 3 2.2 2.6 1.6 3.2 2.52 3.73
2. 42 3.4 3.8 3 2.8 3.6 3.32 4.34
3. 38 2.8 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.64 2.65
4. 48 3.2 2.4 2.8 2.2 2.4 2.60 2.79
5. 45 3 2 2.4 2.8 3 2.64 2.73
6. 43 3 3.6 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.80 3.11
7. 40 3.8 3.8 3.4 2.8 2.8 3.32 4.23
8. 38 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.8 2 2.44 3.95
9. 38 3.2 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.68 3.79
10. 35 3.2 2 2.2 2.2 3 2.52 3.22
11. 35 3.4 3.4 4 3.4 4 3.64 3.95
12. 38 3.2 4 4 3.4 2.8 3.48 3.31
13. 36 3.4 3.2 3.4 2.4 2.6 3.00 3.71
14. 33 3 1.4 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.92 2.88
15. 49 3.2 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.2 3.48 3.27
16. 23 3.4 3.2 2.4 2.6 2.4 2.80 3.08
17. 24 3.2 3 3.6 3 3 3.00 2.90
18. 26 3.4 2.8 2.8 3 3 3.00 3.77
19. 25 2 3 2.4 2 1.4 2.16 2.93
20. 20 3.2 2.8 2.4 3.4 3.6 3.08 3.50
21. 21 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.2 3.2 3.36 3.71
22. 22 3.2 3 2.4 2.4 2 2.60 4.03
23. 23 3.2 2.4 3.2 2 3 2.76 2.87
24. 24 2.2 2.4 3.4 2.8 2.6 2.68 3.41
25. 22 3 2 2.2 1.8 1.4 2.08 3.29
26. 21 3 3.4 2.8 1.8 2.2 2.64 2.40
27. 38 2 2.2 2.2 2 2.4 2.16 2.63
28. 52 3.2 3.2 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.68 3.57
29. 40 3.4 3.6 2.6 2.4 3.4 3.08 3.21
30. 22 3.4 2.8 3.2 2.6 1.8 2.76 3.03
31. 36 3.4 2.8 2.8 3 3 3.00 3.75
32. 42 3.2 2.6 2.2 3.2 3.4 2.92 3.40
33. 36 3 3 2.2 3 2.8 2.80 3.16
34. 47 2.8 2.6 2.2 2.8 2 2.48 3.22
35. 35 3 2.6 2.6 2 2.8 2.60 2.80
36. 32 3.4 3.4 2.4 3 3.2 3.28 3.30
37. 42 2.8 2.8 3 2.2 2.6 2.68 3.60
38. 45 3 3.2 2.8 2.2 2.8 2.80 3.25
39. 50 2.2 3.4 2.2 3 2 2.56 2.82
40. 24 2.8 3 2.8 3.4 2.6 2.92 3.21
41. 38 2.6 2.8 2.4 2 2.2 2.40 2.32
42. 39 2 2.2 2.8 3 2.4 2.48 2.36
43. 40 2.2 2.8 3.4 3.2 3 2.92 2.80
44. 36 3 2.4 2.8 3.4 2.8 2.88 2.64
45 37 2.6 2.8 3.4 3.2 2.8 2.96 3.01
46. 36 3 2.6 2.8 2.2 2.4 2.60 2.51
47. 36 2.8 3.4 2.4 2.2 3 2.76 2.86
48. 24 2.6 2.8 3.2 2 3 2.72 3.02
49. 42 2.8 2 2.2 2.8 2.4 2.44 2.86
50. 24 2.4 3.2 2.6 2.2 2.8 2.64 2.88
First we draw a scatter plot to know the whether there is any
relation is existing between Job performance and Emotional
intelligence (as a whole). Graph is drawn between response variable
(Y-axis) and predictor variable(X-axis) which clearly reflects the
linear relationship between two variables.

Figure 1
Note in the plot above how a straight line comfortably fits through
the data; hence a linear relationship exists. The scatter about the
line is small, so there is a moderate linear relationship. The slope of
the line is positive (In general small values of X correspond to small
values of Y; large values of X correspond to large values of Y), so
there is a positive co-relation (that is, a positive correlation)
between X and Y.
It is evident from above picture that there is no outlier present. An
outlier is defined as a data point that emanates from a different
model than do the rest of the data. The data here appear to come
from a linear model with a given slope and variation.
Outlier detection is important for effective modelling. Outliers should
be excluded from such model fitting. If all the data here are included
in a linear regression, then the fitted model will be poor virtually
everywhere. If the outlier is omitted from the fitting process, then
the resulting fit will be excellent almost everywhere (for all points
except the outlying point).

Correlation Co-efficient :
Correlation(r) =[ NΣXY - (ΣX)(ΣY) / Sqrt([NΣX2 - (ΣX)2][NΣY2 -
(ΣY)2])]
where N = Number of values or elements
X = First Score
Y = Second Score
ΣXY = Sum of the product of first and Second Scores
ΣX = Sum of First Scores
ΣY = Sum of Second Scores
ΣX2 = Sum of square First Scores
ΣY2 = Sum of square Second Scores

Table. 2
CORRELATION-COEFFICIENT CALCULATION

S.No EI(X) JP(Y) X*X Y*Y X*Y


1. 2.52 3.73 6.3504 13.91 9.3996
2. 3.32 4.34 11.0224 18.83 14.4088
3. 2.64 2.65 6.9696 7.02 6.996
4. 2.60 2.79 6.76 7.78 7.254
5. 2.64 2.73 6.9696 7.45 7.2072
6. 2.80 3.11 7.84 9.67 8.708
7. 3.32 4.23 11.0224 17.89 14.0436
8. 2.44 3.95 5.9536 15.6 9.638
9. 2.68 3.79 7.1824 14.36 10.1572
10. 2.52 3.22 6.3504 10.36 8.1144
11. 3.64 3.95 13.2496 15.6 14.378
12. 3.48 3.31 12.1104 10.95 11.5188
13. 3.00 3.71 9 13.76 11.13
14. 1.92 2.88 3.6864 8.29 5.5296
15. 3.48 3.27 12.1104 10.69 11.3796
16. 2.80 3.08 7.84 9.48 8.624
17. 3.00 2.90 9 8.41 8.7
18. 3.00 3.77 9 14.21 11.31
19. 2.16 2.93 4.6656 8.58 6.3288
20. 3.08 3.50 9.4864 12.25 10.78
21. 3.36 3.71 11.2896 13.76 12.4656
22. 2.60 4.03 6.76 16.24 10.478
23. 2.76 2.87 7.6176 8.23 7.9212
24. 2.68 3.41 7.1824 11.62 9.1388
25. 2.08 3.29 4.3264 10.82 6.8432
26. 2.64 2.40 6.9696 5.76 6.336
27. 2.16 2.63 4.6656 6.91 5.6808
28. 2.68 3.57 7.1824 12.74 9.5676
29. 3.08 3.21 9.4864 10.3 9.8868
30. 2.76 3.03 7.6176 9.18 8.3628
31. 3.00 3.75 9 14.06 11.25
32. 2.92 3.40 8.5264 11.56 9.928
33. 2.80 3.16 7.84 9.98 8.848
34. 2.48 3.22 6.1504 10.36 7.9856
35. 2.60 2.80 6.76 7.84 7.28
36. 3.28 3.30 10.7584 10.89 10.824
37. 2.68 3.60 7.1824 12.96 9.648
38. 2.80 3.25 7.84 10.56 9.1
39. 2.56 2.82 6.5536 7.95 7.2192
40. 2.92 3.21 8.5264 10.3 9.3732
41. 2.40 2.32 5.76 5.38 5.568
42. 2.48 2.36 6.1504 5.56 5.8528
43. 2.92 2.80 8.5264 7.84 8.176
44. 2.88 2.64 8.2944 8.29 7.6032
45. 2.96 3.01 8.7616 9.06 8.9096
46. 2.60 2.51 6.76 6.3 6.526
47. 2.76 2.86 7.6176 8.17 7.8936
48. 2.72 3.02 7.3984 9.12 8.2144
49. 2.44 2.86 5.9536 5.95 6.9784
50. 2.64 2.88 6.9696 8.29 7.6032

Now we calculate the correlation coefficient with the help of excels


and it resulted into 0.459. This value indicates the strength of
association of each other but this value does not comment on
causation. Hence Correlation is not Causation! As result shows job
performance and emotional intelligence are positively correlated. A
correlation tells that the two variables are related, but one cannot
say anything about whether one caused the other. This method does
not allow to come to any conclusions about cause and effect.
Now, Substitute the value from table in the formula given below
Correlation(r) =[ NΣXY - (ΣX)(ΣY) / Sqrt([NΣX2 - (ΣX)2]
[NΣY2 - (ΣY)2])]
N=50, X=138.68, Y=159.76,
X*X=391.00,Y*Y=521.07,X*Y=447.07
By putting all these value into formula we get the result =0.459

The range of the correlation coefficient is from -1 to 1. Since our


result is 0.459 or 45.9%, which means the variables have a
moderate positive correlation.

CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
+ 0.459

-1 REJECT Do not reject REJECT +1

-0.279 Figure 2 +0.279

+ +
+0.279 +0.279
For df 48 and significance level 0.05 , value from PPMC is 0.279
while as calculated coefficient is + 0.459 which lies in zone of
rejection of null hypothesis
The level of significance (significance level) is denoted by the Greek
letter alpha (α). It is also called the level of risk (as there is the risk
we take of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is really true). Level
of significance is defined as the probability of making a type-I error.
It is the maximum probability with which we would be willing to risk
a type-I error. It is usually specified before any sample is drawn so
that results obtained will not influence our choice.
5% level of significance means that there are about 5 chances out of
100 that we would reject the true hypothesis i.e. we are 95%
confident that we have made the right decision. The hypothesis that
has been rejected at 0.05 level of significance means that we could
be wrong with probability 0.05.
The degrees of freedom of the t-statistic is n - 2. All else equal,
the larger the sample size, the more likely that the null hypothesis
will be rejected.

Where r is sample correlation and n is sample size


Putting the value r = 0.459 ,n =50-2 =48
t test statistic value is = 3.5633
The rejection points at a specified level of significance are obtained
by using a t-table. As the table of critical values of the t-distribution
for a two-tailed test shows, for a t-distribution with n - 1 = 49
degrees of freedom at the 0.05 level of significance,is 2.0096 hence
we reject the null hypothesis as the value of the test statistic is
greater than 2.0096 .
t test value (3.5633) > t critical value (2.0096)
Note that a relationship can be strong and yet not significant
Conversely, a relationship can be weak but significant
In this case relationship is not very strong yet it is significant,
Further assessment will be done by.

Multiple Regression Analysis

SELF AWARENESS

SELF MANAGEMENT

EMPATHY JOB PERFORMANCE

RELATION
MANAGEMENT
MOTIVATION
Figure 3

Purpose:
Multiple regression analysis is very similar to a simple linear
regression analysis and is used to determine if there is a relationship
between a response variable and multiple predictor variables
simultaneously. In a multiple regression, a best-fit (least squares)
regression equation is calculated such that the distances between
the observed data points and the predicted values estimated by the
multiple regression equation are minimized. This method is also
used to estimate the significance of the relationship between each
predictor variable and the response variable while controlling for
variation that can be attributed to the other predictor variables.

Graphical Representation:
The number of dimensions of the multiple regression is determined
by the number of predictor variables e.g., a plane for two predictor
variables or a cube for three. It becomes impossible to visualize this
multi-dimensional space with more than three predictor variables.
Hence scatter plot of one response variable against one predictor
variable is drawn.

SCATTER PLOT-A SCATTER PLOT-B


Figure 4 Figure 5

SCATTER PLOT-C SCATTER PLOT-D

Figure 6 Figure 7
SCATTER PLOT- E
Figure 8
Scatterplot is drawn between all five variables and job performance
independently which clearly reflects that Self Awareness has more
strong relation than other variables which will be further prooved in
multiple lenear regression.

Statistical hypotheses:
Full Model
H0: There is no statistically significant relationship between the
response variable and the predictor variables as a group.
H0: b1 = b2 = b3 = b4 = 0
HA: There is a statistically significant relationship between the
response variable and the predictor variables as a group.
HA: At least one of these b’s ¹ 0
Residual Models
H0: There is no statistically significant relationship between the
response variable and the specific predictor variable while controlling
for the effects of the other predictor variables.
HA: There is a statistically significant relationship between the
response variable and the specific predictor variable while controlling
for the effects of the other predictor variables.
Report:
a) Model parameters
The regression equation is in the format y = β0 + β1x1 + β2x2 …
βnxn, where β0 is a constant, β1 is the regression coefficient for the
predicted relationship between x1 (first predictor variable) and y
(response variable), β2 is the regression coefficient for the predicted
relationship between x2(second predictor variable) and y (response
variable), up to βn, the regression coefficient for the predicted
relationship between xn (nth predictor variable) and y (response
variable).
Job performance(Y) =bbSA b SM b Emp
b Rb M
Where is the intercept which is the value of y when all Xs =
0,this is the point at which the regression plane crosses the Y-axis
(vertical).
b1 is the regression coefficient for variable 1. (Self Awareness)
b2 is the regression coefficient for variable 2. (Self Management)
b3 is the regression coefficient for 3 variable. ( Empathy)
b4 is the regression coefficient for 4 variable ( Relationship
Management)
b5 is the regression coefficient for 5 variable (Motivation)

Beta values: the change in the outcome (Dependent variable)


associated with a unit change in the predictor (Independent
variable)

b) Test statistics
First we report F-statistic for the full model including all of the
predictor variables with the appropriate degrees of freedom. We also
need to report the t-statistic calculated separately for each of the
predictor variables with the appropriate degrees of freedom.

c) Degrees of freedom

F-statistic: (DFM, DFE) = (p, n-p) = [degrees of freedom of model


(Regression), degrees of freedom of error (Residual)], where n =
sample size and p = number independent variables t-statistic: (1, n-
1). t-statistic: (DFM, DFE) = (1, n-1) = [degrees of freedom of
model (Regression), degrees of freedom of error (Residual)], where
n = sample size.
In order to determine whether to reject the null hypothesis, it is
necessary to compare the calculated F-statistic to a critical F-value.
The null hypothesis here is that there is not a general relationship
between the response (dependent) variable and one or more of the
predictor (independent) variables, and the alternative hypothesis is
that there is one. A big F, with a small p-value, means that the null
hypothesis is discredited, and we would assert that there is a
general relationship between the response and predictors (while a
small F, with a big p-value indicates that there is no relationship).In
this study we see the ANOVA analysis which comments on the F
value and p value
Total number of degrees of freedom DF(Total) always = n-1(50-
1=49)
Degrees of freedom for regression (DFR) = the number of factors in
the regression (i.e. the number of x’s in the linear regression) = 05
Degrees of freedom for error (DFE) = difference between the two =
DF(Total) –DFR =49-5=44

Table. 3
ANOVA FOR OBSERVED ‘F’ VALUE

ANOVA
Df SS MS F Significance
F
Regression 3.788896 0.006116591
5 3.515118 0.703024
Residual 44 8.16413 0.185548
Total 49 11.67925

Calculated F (+ 3.788896 )> critical F (+2.427), p ≤ 0.05:


We can reject the null hypothesis; we find significant statistical
evidence for a linear relationship between the response variable and
the predictor variable. The probability that we would find a linear
relationship between the two variables due to chance is less than or
equal to 5%, which is an acceptable level of error for ecological
experiments.
F DEGREE OF FREEDOM

F Table
for α =
0.05

Figure 9

HYPOTHESIS TESTING
Reject H0
Reject H0
Do not reject H0

3.788896
documenUs
documenUs
e the Text-2.4271 0 +2.4271
e the Text

Figure 10

p-value (Significance ‘F’):

Significance of F - This indicates the probability that the Regression


output could have been obtained by chance. A small Significance of
F confirms the validity of the Regression output.
p≤0.05 (always use this baseline p-value for the purpose of this
course). In this case p value is 0.006116591 which is less than
predefined value of 0.05. Hence full hypothesis H0 is rejected.
Since F statistic is higher than critical value and p value is less than
critical value, it is established defined model is fit for further
analysis.
Significance of F - This indicates the probability that the Regression
output could have been obtained by chance. A small Significance of
F confirms the validity of the Regression output.

Table.4
MULTIPLE REGRESSION CO-EFFICIENT

Regression
Statistics
Multiple R 0.548608475
R Square 0.300971259
Adjusted R 0.221536175
Square
Standard 0.430753305
Error
Observations 50

Multiple R:
The correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted
values. It ranges in value from 0 to 1. A small value indicates that
there is little or no linear relationship between the dependent
variable and the independent variables. In this example multiple
R=0.548608475 which indicates there is linear relationship exists
between dependent and independent variables.

Coefficient of determination:

R2 = proportion of variation in response variable explained by or


due to all of the predictor
Variables included in the model. Values fall between 0 and 1 and a
low value indicates that the independent variables explain very little
variation in the dependent variable. In this model it is 0.300971259
on lower site.
A high R2 indicates that the data points fall very closely along the
best-fit line and that the independent variable is a good predictor of
the dependent variable. In fact, R2 can be interpreted as the
proportion of variation in the response variable explained by the
predictor variable. A low R2 indicates that the data points are
scattered away from the best-fit line and that the independent
variable is a poor predictor of the dependent variable. It is possible
to find evidence for a statistically significant relationship between
two variables (p<0.05) but a very low R2. In this case, it should
indicate that while the linear relationship between the variables is
significant, the independent variable is a poor predictor of the
dependent variable. Unlike the F-statistic significance level (p-
value), there is no standard cut-off value for a “low” versus “high”
R2, more important is p value.

Overlap between IV &DV


Coefficient of Determination

Multiple R=0.549
Coefficient of determination = 0.301
Multiple R=0.549
Coefficient of determination = 0.301

Portion of IV not Portion of DV not


IV DV
associated with Portion of DVwithnot
associated IV
DV associated with IV

Overlap between IV &DV


Coefficient of Determination
0.549*0.549 = 0.301
Portion of IV not
Portion of DV not
associated with DV
associated with IV

Figure 11

Adjusted R-square:
Measures the proportion of the variance in the dependent variable
(wage) that was explained by variations in the independent
variables. In this example, the “Adjusted R Square” shows that
22% ( 0.221536175 ) of the variance was explained.

7. Std Error of Estimate

Std error of the estimate measures the dispersion of the dependent


variables estimate around its mean (in this example, the “Std. Error
of the Estimate” is ( 0.430 ). Compare this to the mean of the
“Predicted" values of the dependent variable ( 3.19 ). If the Std.
Error is more than 10% of the mean, it is high while as in this
sample Std Error of the Estimate is quiet lower than mean of
predicted dependent variable hence.
The standard error about the regression line (often denoted by SE)
is a measure of the average amount that the regression equation
over- or under-predicts. The higher the coefficient of determination,
the lower the standard error; and the more accurate predictions are
likely to be.

Std error of Estimate =0.430 < Mean of Predicted value of


dependent = 3.19

8. The reliability of individual coefficients


The table “Coefficients” provides information on the confidence with
which we can support the estimate for each such estimate (see the
columns “T” and “Sig.”.) If the value in “Sig.” is less than 0.05, then
we can assume that the estimate in column “B” can be asserted as
true with a 95% level of confidence. Always interpret the "Sig" value
first. If this value is more than 0 .1 then the coefficient
estimate is not reliable because it has "too" much
dispersion/variance.
Table. 5
Beta CO-EFFICIENT VALUES FOR INDEPENDENT VARIABLES

Interc Low Upp


ept Stand Lowe Uppe er er
Coefficien ard t P- r r 95.0 95.0
ts Error Stat value 95% 95% % %
1.0100235 1.92 0.048 2.068 0.04 2.06
2 0.5251 3 0.0609 3 3 8 8
SA 0.4922149 3.04 0.166 0.817 0.16 0.81
5 0.1615 7 0.0038 6 7 6 7
SM 0.0941989 0.72 0.168 0.357 0.16 0.35
4 0.1304 1 0.4741 7 1 8 7
EMP 0.0311108 0.21 0.261 0.323 0.26 0.32
0 0.1452 4 0.8313 5 7 1 3
RM 0.1010333 0.73 0.174 0.376 0.17 0.37
3 0.1367 8 0.4638 5 6 4 6
M 0.0408107 0.29 0.240 0.322 0.24 0.32
5 0.1396 2 0.7714 6 2 0 2

Job Performance = b0(1.010) 0.492 SA + 0.094 SM + 0.031 EMP +


0.101 RM +0.041 M
Table reflects that Regression Beta coefficient for all variables
are in following order:
SA>RM>SM>M>EMP
Since all beta coefficients are positive value, hence all five variables
have positive effect on Job performance.
(a) If we increase 1 unit in predictor variable Self Awareness
then Response variable is increased by 0.492.
(b) If we increase 1 unit in predictor variable Self Management
then Response variable is increased by 0.094.
(c) If we increase 1 unit in predictor variable Empathy then
Response variable is increased by 0.031.
(d) If we increase 1 unit in predictor variable Relationship
Management then Response variable is increased by 0.10.
(e) If we increase 1 unit in predictor variable Motivation then
Response variable is increased by 0.041.
Now we analyse the each independent variable and ascertain the
significance of each in prediction of response variable:
Table 6
‘t’ STAT & ‘P’ VALUE TABLE
Independent Observed Observed Remarks
variable ‘t’ stat (T . p-value
05,04 = ( 0.05 )
2.0096)
Self Awareness 3.0471 0.0038
Self Management Unreliable and
0.7219 0.4741 insignificant
Empathy 0.2142 0.8313
Relationship
Management 0.7388 0.4638
Motivation 0.2922 0.7714

Above table clearly indicates that only Self Awareness is reliable


and statistically significant to predict the Response variable.
Others independent variables are positively related with Response
variable.
the direction of the relationship (positive or negative) and the
biological significance of the relationship. Your interpretation of the
model should also take into account both the F-value and the R2
value. In particular, a model in which there is a significant linear
relationship between the two variables (large F-value, low p-value)
but a low R2 is often indicative of unmeasured independent
variables that also have an effect on the dependent variable.
Simultaneous evaluation of multiple variables in a more inclusive
model (Multiple Regression) may improve the fit and increase the R2
of the overall model.

For the multiple regression analysis, it is necessary to first consider


the statistical significance of the full model before going on to
interpret the significance of the individual predictor variables.

If one fails to find a statistically significant relationship between the


response variable and all the predictor variables simultaneously,
then fail to reject the null hypothesis for the full model and
consequently must conclude that the model as a whole is not a good
fit for the data. It is not appropriate to interpret the effects of the
individual predictor variables from a full model that has been
rejected. However, if there is evidence for a significant relationship
between the response variable and all the predictor variables as a
group, then it is appropriate to interpret the effect of each of the
individual predictor variables (residual models).

P-value of each coefficient and the Y-intercept - The P-Values of


each of these provide the likelihood that they are real results and
did not occur by chance.
The lower the P-Value, the higher the likelihood that that coefficient
or Y-Intercept is valid. For example, a P-Value of 0.016 for a
regression coefficient indicates that there is only a 1.6% chance that
the result occurred only as a result of chance.

Residuals Analysis

The difference between the observed value of the dependent


variable (y) and the predicted value (ŷ) is called the residual (e).
Each data point has one residual.
Residual = Observed value - Predicted value e = y – ŷ

Residual Plots

A residual plot is a graph that shows the residuals on the vertical


axis and the independent variable on the horizontal axis. If the
points in a residual plot are randomly dispersed around the
horizontal axis, a linear regression model is appropriate for the data;
otherwise, a non-linear model is more appropriate.

Figure12 Figure 13
Figure 14 Figure 15

Figure 17

The residuals are the difference between the Regression's predicted


value and the actual value of the output variable. One can quickly
plot the Residuals on a scatter plot chart. Look for patterns in the
scatter plot. The more random (without patterns) and centered
around zero the residuals appear to be, the more likely it is that the
Regression equation is valid.
By analysing the above graphs it is evident that SA &RM has not
very distinctive graph pattern and value is also mostly centered
about zero hence we can conclude that regression equation is valid
as a whole.

Table 7
RESIDUAL OUTPUT OF OBSERVED AND PREDICTED JOB
PERFORMANCE

RESIDUAL
OUTPUTS
Residuals
Observation Observed Predicted Standard
Y Y0 Y-Y0 Residuals

1. 3.73 3.067041912 0.662958 1.624161296

2 4.34 3.56465483 0.775345 1.899495065

3 2.65 3.093503016 0.4435 1.086524844

4 2.79 3.218518248 0.42852 1.049814106

5 2.73 3.155057809 0.42506 1.041336481

6 3.11 3.249038485 -0.13904 0.340626249

7 4.23 3.74133653 0.488663 1.197162098

8 3.95 2.862819821 1.08718 2.663450377

9 3.79 3.273489198 0.516511 1.265384448

10 3.22 3.186658639 0.033341 0.081682009

11 3.95 3.635030362 0.31497 0.771634745

12 3.31 3.544133831 0.23413 0.573597507

13 3.71 3.439355697 0.270644 0.663043426

14 2.88 2.909659051 0.02966 0.072660826

15 3.27 3.549380688 0.27938 0.684446435

16 3.08 3.420289404 0.34029 0.833664887

17 2.90 3.405239381 -0.50524 1.237770928

18 3.77 3.459953936 0.310046 0.759572628

19 2.93 2.610917925 0.319082 0.781709683

20 3.50 3.413966409 0.086034 0.210771136


21 3.71 3.569730767 0.140269 0.34364142

22 4.03 3.266475655 0.763524 1.870535576

23 2.87 3.235242358 0.36524 0.894796388

24 3.41 2.81375193 0.596248 1.460730407

25 3.29 2.982505105 0.307495 0.753322595

26 2.40 3.165698718 0.7657 1.875862508

27 2.63 2.570147363 0.059853 0.146631194

28 3.57 3.293477596 0.276522 0.677444012

29 3.21 3.484795233 0.2748 0.673212667

30 3.03 3.383012019 0.35301 0.864833643

31 3.75 3.459953936 0.290046 0.710575223

32 3.40 3.36053564 0.039464 0.09668256

33 3.16 3.255079107 -0.09508 0.232931477

34 3.22 3.066101267 0.153899 0.377031926

35 2.80 3.12881052 0.32881 0.805543112

36 3.30 3.512191131 0.21219 0.519840739

37 3.60 3.073696157 0.526304 1.289376126

38 3.25 3.211758716 0.038241 0.093686185

39 2.82 2.866338118 0.04634 0.113522376

40 3.21 3.207553784 0.002446 0.005992913

41 2.32 2.920055713 0.60006 1.470058638

42 2.36 2.689847181 0.32985 0.808082795

43 2.80 2.908169144 0.10817 0.265000367


44 2.64 3.257639559 0.61764 1.513136779

45 3.01 3.096892974 0.08689 0.212876511

46 2.51 3.138915046 0.62892 1.540760261

47 2.86 3.127873342 0.26787 0.65625493

48 3.02 2.977592964 0.042407 0.103891735

49 2.86 3.025906203 0.16591 0.406448671

50 2.88 2.910207582 -0.03021 0.074004656

As we know, the major problem with ordinary residuals is that their


magnitude depends on the units of measurement, thereby making it
difficult to use the residuals as a way of detecting unusual y values.
We can eliminate the units of measurement by dividing the residuals
by their standard deviation, thereby obtaining what are known as
standardized residuals.

Standardized residuals

Standardized residuals are defined for each observation, i = 1, ..., n


as an ordinary residual divided by its standard deviation:
The good thing about standardized residuals is that they quantify
how large the residuals are in standard deviation units, and
therefore can be easily used to identify outliers:
An observation with a standardized residual that is larger than 3 (in
absolute value) is generally deemed an outlier.

In this model that there is no standardized residual which has value


3 , means there is no outliers in the sample data.
Figure 18

In this histogram curve shows normal distribution of residuals, which


is in favour of regression model.

Figure 19

In this plot also there is no definitive pattern which also supports


normality of assumptions.
Figure 20

The P-P Plot reflects that residual is probably normally distributed,


which is in favour of model. A probability-probability (P-P) plot is
used to see if a given set of data follows some
specified distribution. It is approximately linear which means the
specified distribution is the
correct model.
The probability-probability (P-P) plot is constructed using the
theoretical cumulative
distribution function, F(x), of the specified model which is beyond
the scope of this research work

VARIOUS FACTORS IN WHOLE MODEL

JOB PERFORMANCE
SELF AWARENESS
B=0.492,

SELF MANAGEMENT t=3.0471,p=0.0038


B=0.094,
t=0.7219,p=0.4741
EMPATHY B=0.031,

R MANAGEMENT t=0.2142,p=0.8313
B=0.101,
t=0.7388,p=0.4638
MOTIVATION B=0.040,
t=0.2922,p=0.7714
N.B.-All values are positive
(a =0.05)
t 4,0.05
f (4,44),0.05

Figure 21
B coefficient for various independent variables shows that all have
positive effects on Job performance yet only SA has significant
statistically, which means there must be some factors which are
responsible for this result. Certain possibilities are discussed below:

Multicollinearity:

Collinearity (or multicollinearity) is the undesirable situation where


the correlations among the independent variables are strong. In
some cases, multiple regression results may seem paradoxical. For
instance, the model may fit the data well (high F-Test), even though
only one out of five X variables has a statistically significant impact
on explaining Y. How is this possible? When two X variables are
highly correlated, they both convey essentially the same
information. When this happens, the X variables are collinear and
the results show multicollinearity.

Multicollinearity misleadingly inflates the standard errors. Thus, it


makes some variables statistically insignificant while they should be
otherwise significant. Refer to Table No. intervariables relations
are present in some cases which are responsible for
multicollinearity.

Simultaneity bias:

Simultaneity bias may be seen as a type of mis-specification. This


bias occurs if one or more of the independent variables is actually
dependent on other variables in the equation. For example, we are
using a model that claims that income can be explained by
investment and education. However, we might believe that
investment, in turn, is explained by income. If we were to use a
simple model in which income (the dependent variable) is regressed
on investment and education (the independent variables), then the
specification would be incorrect because investment would not really
be "independent" to the model - it is affected by income. Intuitively,
this is a problem because the simultaneity implies that the residual
will have some relation with the variable that has been incorrectly
specified as "independent" - the residual is capturing (more in a
metaphysical than formal mathematical sense) some of the un
modeled reverse relation between the "dependent" and"
independent" variables.

RECOMMENDATION
In the earlier era as we have seen in this project report there was a
much emphasis on IQ only and EI was not given much importance
but now the scenario has been changed and organization from IQ to
EI so here are some of the recommendations for organizations and
individuals about EI.As now-a-days, a person is exposed to many
cultures and influenced by many things. Organizations earlier used
to give tangible benefits to the internal / external customers, these
days customers are looking for fulfilment of their emotional needs.
Organizations in a long run to maintain customer loyalty they need
to take care of employees emotional needs and behave
empathetically. Therefore organization should pay attention towards
Emotional Intelligence needs of employees.

1. Organizations should choose those employees who are having a


high level of emotional intelligence. Because these people are more
emotionally balanced and they have a better understanding of every
situation and they can perform very well in these situations weather
it is stress, happiness, anger, love etc.

2. Employers should time to time check the level of EI to provide


them feedback and get better performance out of them. Because
when there is a effective communication between the two sides
better will be the results for both the parties hence increased
productivity and performance.

3. Organizations should give training to employees to improve their


EI, because EI can be learned at any age and at any time in life, it is
not an inborn characteristic.

4. EI techniques should be used to enhance the reasoning of


employees.Those companies who will be using EI, they’ll remain
successful in the future, because the workforce will be emotionally
more stable and can handle under every situation.

Individuals who are having lower level of EI they should work to


improve this and it can result in understanding better your emotions
and managing them and it will be helpful in workplace and as a
result the performance of an individual will be increased.

All information to the brain comes through our senses and when this
information is overwhelmingly stressful or emotional, instinct will
take over and our ability to act will be limited to the flight, fight, or
flee response. Therefore, to have access to the wide range of
choices and make good decisions, we need to be able to bring our
emotions into balance at will.Memory is also strongly linked to
emotion.
By learning to use the emotional part of our brain as well as the
rational, we’ll not only expand our range of choices when it comes to
responding to a new event, we’ll also factor emotional memory into
our decision-making. This will help prevent us from continually
repeating earlier mistakes.

To improve our emotional intelligence—and our decision-


making abilities—We need to understand and control the
emotional side of our brain. This is done by developing five
key skills. By mastering the first two skills, we’ll find skills 3,
4, and 5 much easier to learn.
Developing emotional intelligence through five key skills:
Emotional intelligence consists of five key skills, each building
on the last:
Emotional intelligence (EQ) skill 1: The ability to quickly
reduce stress.
Emotional intelligence (EQ) skill 2: The ability to recognize
and manage our emotions.
Emotional intelligence (EQ) skill 3: The ability to connect
with others using nonverbal communication.
Emotional intelligence (EQ) skill 4: The ability to use
humour and play to deal with challenges.
Emotional intelligence (EQ) skill 5: The ability to resolve
conflicts positively and with confidence.

How to learn the five key skills of emotional intelligence:

The five skills of emotional intelligence can be learned by anyone, at


any time. But there is a difference between learning about emotional
intelligence and applying that knowledge to our life. Just because we
know we should do something doesn’t mean we will—especially
when we become overwhelmed by stress, which can hijack our best
intentions.

1. In order to permanently change behaviour in ways that


stand up under pressure, we need to learn how to take
advantage of the powerful emotional parts of the brain that
remain active and accessible even in times of stress. This
means that we can’t simply read about emotional intelligence
in order to master it. We have to experience and practice the
skills in our everyday life.
Emotional intelligence (EQ) skill 1: Rapidly reduce stress
2. High levels of stress can overwhelm the mind and body,
getting in the way of our ability to accurately “read” a
situation, hear what someone else is saying, be aware of Our
own feelings and needs, and communicate clearly.

3. Being able to quickly calm ourself down and relieve


stress helps we stay balanced, focused, and in control–no
matter what challenges we face or how stressful a situation
becomes.

4. Stress busting: functioning well in the heat of the


moment
Develop our stress busting skills by working through the
following three steps:

Realize when we’re stressed – The first step to reducing


stress is recognizing what stress feels like. How does our body
feel when we’re stressed? Are our muscles or stomach tight or
sore? Are our hands clenched? Is our breath shallow? Being
aware of our physical response to stress will help regulate
tension when it occurs.

Identify our stress response – Everyone reacts differently


to stress. If we tend to become angry or agitated under stress,
we will respond best to stress relief activities that quiet we
down. If we tend to become depressed or withdrawn, we will
respond best to stress relief activities that are stimulating. If
we tend to freeze—speeding up in some ways while slowing
down in others—we need stress relief activities that provide
both comfort and stimulation.

Discover the stress-busting techniques that work for


we – The best way to reduce stress quickly is by engaging one
or more of our senses: sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch.
Each person responds differently to sensory input, so we need
to find things that are soothing and/or energizing to we. For
example, if we’re a visual person we can relieve stress by
surrounding ourself with uplifting images. If we respond more
to sound, we may find a wind chime, a favourite piece of
music, or the sound of a water fountain helps to quickly
reduce our stress levels.

Emotional intelligence (EQ) skill 2: Emotional


awareness
Being able to connect to our emotions—having a moment-to-
moment awareness of our emotions and how they influence
our thoughts and actions—is the key to understanding ourself
and others.
Many people are disconnected from their emotions–especially
strong core emotions such as anger, sadness, fear, and joy.
This may be the result of negative childhood experiences that
taught We to try to shut off our feelings. But although we can
distort, deny, or numb our feelings, we can’t eliminate them.
They’re still there, whether we’re aware of them or not.
Unfortunately, without emotional awareness, we are unable to
fully understand our own motivations and needs, or to
communicate effectively with others.
What kind of a relationship do we have with our emotions?
Do we experience feelings that flow, encountering one
emotion after another as our experiences change from
moment to moment?
Are our emotions accompanied by physical sensations that we
experience in places like our stomach or chest?
Do we experience discrete feelings and emotions, such
as anger, sadness, fear, joy, each of which is evident in subtle
facial expressions?
Can we experience intense feelings that are strong enough
to capture both our attention and that of others?
Do We pay attention to our emotions? Do they factor into
our decision making?
If any of these experiences are unfamiliar, our emotions may
be turned down or turned off. In order to be emotionally
healthy and emotionally intelligent, we must reconnect to our
core emotions, accept them, and become comfortable with
them.

Developing emotional awareness:

Emotional awareness can be learned at any time of life. If we


haven’t learned how to manage stress, it’s important to do so
first. When we can manage stress, we’ll feel more comfortable
reconnecting to strong or unpleasant emotions and changing
the way we experience and respond to our feelings.

Emotional intelligence skill (EQ) 3: Nonverbal


communication

Being a good communicator requires more than just verbal


skills. Often, what we say is less important than how we say it
or the other nonverbal signals we send out—the gestures we
make, the way we sit, how fast or how loud we talk, how close
we stand, how much eye contact we make. In order to hold
the attention of others and build connection and trust, we
need to be aware of and in control of this body language. we
also need to be able to accurately read and respond to the
nonverbal cues that other people send we.

These messages don’t stop when someone stops speaking.


Even when we’re silent, we’re still communicating nonverbally.
Think about what we are transmitting as well, and if what we
say matches what we feel. If we insist “I’m fine”, while
clenching our teeth and looking away, our body is clearly
signalling the opposite. our nonverbal messages can produce a
sense of interest, trust, excitement, and desire for connection
—or they can generate fear, confusion, distrust, and
disinterest.

Tips for improving nonverbal communication:

Successful nonverbal communication depends on Our ability to


manage stress, recognize Our own emotions, and understand
the signals we’re sending and receiving. When
communicating:

Focus on the other person. If we are planning what we’re


going to say next, daydreaming, or thinking about something
else, we are almost certain to miss nonverbal cues and other
subtleties in the conversation.

Make eye contact. Eye contact can communicate interest,


maintain the flow of a conversation, and help gauge the other
person’s response.
Pay attention to nonverbal cues we’re sending and
receiving, such as facial expression, tone of voice, posture and
gestures, touch, and the timing and pace of the conversation.

Emotional intelligence (EQ) skill 4: Use humour and play


to deal with challenges:

Humour, laughter, and play are natural antidotes to life’s


difficulties. They lighten Our burdens and help WE keep things
in perspective. A good hearty laugh reduces stress, elevates
mood, and brings Our nervous system back into balance.
Playful communication broadens our emotional intelligence
and helps we:
Take hardships in stride. By allowing we to view our
frustrations and disappointments from new perspectives,
laughter and play enable we to survive annoyances, hard
times, and setbacks.

Smooth over differences. Using gentle humour often helps


we say things that might be otherwise difficult to express
without creating a flap.

Simultaneously relax and energize ourself. Playful


communication relieves fatigue and relaxes our body, which
allows we to recharge and accomplish more.

Become more creative. When we loosen up, we free ourself


of rigid ways of thinking and being, allowing we to get creative
and see things in new ways.

How to develop playful communication:

It’s never too late to develop and embrace our playful,


humorous side.
Try setting aside regular, quality playtime. The more we joke,
play, and laugh—the easier it becomes.

Find enjoyable activities that loosen we up and help we


embrace our playful nature.

Practice by playing with animals, babies, our children, and


outgoing people who appreciate playful banter.

Emotional intelligence (EQ) skill 5: Resolve conflict


positively:

Conflict and disagreements are inevitable in relationships. Two


people can’t possibly have the same needs, opinions, and
expectations at all times. However, that needn’t be a bad
thing. Resolving conflict in healthy, constructive ways can
strengthen trust between people.
When conflict isn’t perceived as threatening or punishing, it
fosters freedom, creativity, and safety in relationships.

The ability to manage conflicts in a positive, trust-building way


is supported by the previous four skills of emotional
intelligence. Once we know how to manage stress, stay
emotionally present and aware, communicate nonverbally, and
use humour and play, we’ll be better equipped to handle
emotionally-charged situations and catch and defuse many
issues before they escalate.

Tips for resolving conflict in a trust-building way:

Stay focused in the present. When we are not holding on to


old hurts and resentments, WE can recognize the reality of a
current situation and view it as a new opportunity for resolving
old feelings about conflicts.
Choose our arguments. Arguments take time and energy,
especially if we want to resolve them in a positive way.
Consider what is worth arguing about and what is not.
Forgive. Other people’s hurtful behaviour is in the past. To
resolve conflict, we need to give up the urge to punish or seek
revenge.
End conflicts that can't be resolved. It takes two people to
keep an argument going. We can choose to disengage from a
conflict, even if we still disagree.

Guidelines for Promoting Emotional Intelligence in the


Workplace:

A paper chiefly constructed by Cary Cherniss and Daniel


Goleman featuring 22 guidelines which represent the best
current knowledge relating to the promotion of EQ in the
workplace, summarised as:
Paving the way
Assess the organization's needs
Assessing the individual
Delivering assessments with care
Maximising learning choice
Encouraging participation
Linking goals and personal values
Adjusting individual expectations
Assessing readiness and motivation for EQ development
Doing the work of change
Foster relationships between EQ trainers and learners
Self-directed change and learning
Setting goals
Breaking goals down into achievable steps
Providing opportunities for practice
Give feedback
Using experiential methods
Build in support
Use models and examples
Encourage insight and self-awareness
Encourage transfer and maintenance of change (sustainable
change)
Encourage application of new learning in jobs
Develop organizational culture that supports learning
Evaluating the change - did it work?
Evaluate individual and organizational effect

The results of this study could serve as a useful source of


information in further research even though these results may be
industry and environment specific. It is recommended that similar
studies should be conducted in economic sectors other than the
medical aid sector in order to broaden the relevance of the results
on the relationship between the EI and job performance of
employees.

Recommendations for future research. Overall, it is


recommended that future research should:

• Include a larger sample


• Include more diversified raters
• Study the impact of extraneous variables on the research
findings.
( Age, Qualification etc )
CONCLUSION

The present study has produced some important results that have
implications for both research and practice. The study on employee’s
emotional intelligence and their ability to perform effectively on the
job is identified as they are able to manage their emotional
intelligence, which has a direct impact on their job. These skills are
to be developed for achieving higher employee productivity and to
enhance the image of the organization. A particularly interesting
finding or result of the present study was that emotional intelligence
of employees had an impact on their level of performance on the
job. This has implications for management, suggesting that
organizations could be profitable by identifying the level of
emotional intelligence of employees and apply interventions that are
focused on the developing emotional intelligence among the
employees in the organization. EI is associated with better
performance in the following areas:

1. Participative Management.
2. Pulling people at Ease.
3. Balance between personal life and work.
4. Straight Forwardness & Composure.
5. Decisiveness
6. Doing whatever it takes
7. Adaptability.
8. Confronting Problem Employees

Individuals who are having high EI have the following


characteristics:

1. Understand diverse worldviews and are sensitive to


group differences
2. Are attentive to emotional cues and listen well
3. Detect crucial social networks
4. Deal with difficult issues straightforwardly
5. Listen well, seek mutual understanding, and welcome
sharing of information fully
6. Foster open communication and stay receptive to bad
news as well as good
Hence we can say that emotionally intelligent employees have an
impact on their performance and these employees perform well in
the organization. These people are more emotionally stable and they
are able to express their emotions, these are motivated, they can
empathize with other and they are having good social skills. To
perform well your responsibilities in the workplace you need to have
good social skills, only then you can perform your work well and can
take work out of the others.
Most of the organizations are nowadays taking those
employees who are emotionally intelligent, so that they can
face the workplace problems easily and they can become more
productive for the organization. Emotionally intelligent
organization can be made through organizational strategies,
self awareness and self management tools, through leadership
skills, development programmes. So what has been concluded
from the whole project report is that emotional intelligence is
linked at every point of workplace performance and it is of
utmost importance nowadays. In the earlier time EI was not
given much emphasis and instead of that IQ is given more
importance. People with IQ level are preferred within the
organizations but now the scenario has been changed and
organizations prefer those employees who are emotionally
stable. Hence, to be successful in life EQ plays a vital role.
Appendix-‘A’
INFORMED CONSENT FORM

My name is Dr Yogesh Chandra. The research project is a


requirement toward the completion of my M.Phil degree. This
research project is being conducted under the advisement of Wg Cdr
P.K.Shenoy DPMO. (IAF)

Project Summary: The proposed study will focus on the


relationship, if any, between emotional intelligence and job
performance. The study will be conducted through a series of
questions. Study participants will be asked to reply the question
with honesty. Data gathered in interviews will be analyzed and
interpreted with the goal of enabling a more complete understanding
of how Emotional Intelligence (if at all) impacts job performance.
You may also be contacted by phone at a later date for clarification
or follow-up necessary to insure accuracy of the data.
Voluntary Participation: Participation is completely voluntary
and participants are free to change their mind at any time
and choose not to continue even after signing this consent
form.

Confidentiality and Anonymity: All information given by


study participants is confidential and individual contributions
are anonymous. All data will be stored in a secured,
confidential location accessible only by me. Each participant
will be identified on the tape by first name and participant
code only.

Availability of Results: A Summary of the results of this


study will be available to participants upon request after
completion of the study.
Annexure ‘1’ to Appendix ‘A’

Consent: I hereby consent to participate in the above research


project. I understand that my participation is voluntary and that I
may change my mind or refuse to participate or withdraw at any
time without consequence. I may refuse to answer any questions or
I may stop the interview. I understand that some of the things I
say may be directly quoted in the text of the final report, and
subsequent publications, but that my name will not be associated
with this study.

Participant Signature: ____________________________Date:


____________
Name: (Please Print) ____________________________

Witness Signature: ______________________________Date:


____________
Name: (Please Print) ____________________________
Appendix’B’

TABLE OF CRITICAL VALUE FOR F


Annexure 2 to Appendix ‘B’
TABLE OF CRITICAL VALUE FOR F CONT’D
Appendix ‘C’
QUESTIONNAIRE-EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE SELF-
ASSESMENT
Annexure ‘1’ to Appendix ‘C’
QUESTIONNAIRE-EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
SELF-ASSESMENT(CONT’D)
Annexure ‘2’ to Appendix ‘C’

QUESTIONNAIRE-EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
SELF-ASSESMENT(CONT’D)
Annexure ‘3’ to Appendix ‘C’

QUESTIONNAIRE-EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
SELF-ASSESMENT(CONT’D)
Annexure ‘4’ to Appendix ‘C’

QUESTIONNAIRE-EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
SELF-ASSESMENT(CONT’D)
Annexure ‘5’ to Appendix ‘C’
QUESTIONNAIRE-EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
SELF-ASSESMENT(CONT’D)
Appendix ‘D’
Variables SA SM EMPATHY RM MOTIVATION
SA - 0.32 0.20 0.15 0.39
SM 0.32 - 0.46 0.34 0.33
EMPATHY 0.20 0.46 - 0.42 0.41
RM 0.15 0.34 0.42 - 0.44
MOTIVATION 0.39 0.33 0.41 0.44 -
INTERVARIABLES PEARSON’S CORRELATION
COEFFICIENT TABLE

N.B.- All the values are positive

Appendix ’E’
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation (PPMC)
Coefficient
Table of Critical Values

df = n – 2 Level of significance for two-tailed test


.10 .05 .02 .01
1 .988 .997 .9995 .9999
2 .900 .950 .980 .990
3 .805 .878 .934 .959
4 .729 .811 .882 .917
5 .669 .754 .833 .874
6 .622 .707 .789 .834
7 .582 .666 .750 .798
8 .549 .632 .716 .765
9 .521 .602 .685 .735
10 .497 .576 .658 .708
11 .476 .553 .634 .684
12 .458 .532 .612 .661
13 .441 .514 .592 .641
14 .426 .497 .574 .628
15 .412 .482 .558 .606
16 .400 .468 .542 .590
17 .389 .456 .528 .575
18 .378 .444 .516 .561
19 .369 .433 .503 .549
20 .360 .423 .492 .537
21 .352 .413 .482 .526
22 .344 .404 .472 .515
23 .337 .396 .462 .505
24 .330 .388 .453 .495
25 .323 .381 .445 .487
26 .317 .374 .437 .479
27 .311 .367 .430 .471
28 .306 .361 .423 .463
29 .301 .355 .416 .456
30 .296 .349 .409 .449
35 .275 .325 .381 .418
40 .257 .304 .358 .393
45 .243 .288 .338 .372
50 .231 .273 .322 .354
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HHSM ZG629T (Second Semester 2012-2013) Course


Handout
Checklist of items for the Final Dissertation Report
1. Is the report properly hard bound? Spiral bound, softbound reports are not Yes / No
acceptable.
2. Is the Cover page in proper format as given in Annexure A? Yes / No
3. Is the Title page (Inner cover page) in proper format? Yes / No
4. (a) Is the Certificate from the Supervisor in proper format? Yes / No
(b) Has it been signed by the Supervisor? Yes / No
5. Is the Abstract included in the report properly written within one page? Have the Yes / No
keywords been specified properly?
Yes / No
6. Is the title of your report appropriate? The title should be adequately descriptive, Yes / No
precise and must reflect scope of the actual work done.
7. Have you included the List of abbreviations / Acronyms? Uncommon abbreviations Yes / No
/ Acronyms should not be used in the title.
8. Does the Report contain a summary of the literature survey? Yes / No
9. Does the Table of Contents include page numbers?
(i). Are the Pages numbered properly? Yes / No
(ii). Are the Figures numbered properly? (Figure Numbers and Figure Titles at
the bottom of the figures)
(iii). Are the Tables numbered properly? (Table Numbers and Table Titles at Yes / No
the top of the tables)
(iv). Are the Captions for the Figures and Tables proper?
(v). Are the Appendices numbered properly? Yes / No
Yes / No
Yes / No
10. Is the conclusion of the Report based on discussion of the work? Yes / No
11. Are References or Bibliography given at the end of the Report? Yes / No
Have the References been cited properly inside the text of the Report?
Yes / No
Is the citation of References in proper format?
Yes / No
12. Have you written your report according to the guidelines? The report should not Yes / No
be a mere printout of a Power Point Presentation. Source code need not be
included in the report.
13. A Compact Disk (CD) containing the softcopy of the Final Report and a copy of the Yes / No
Final Seminar Presentation made to the Supervisor / Examiner (both preferably in
PDF format only) has been placed in a protective jacket securely fastened to the
inner back cover of the Final Report. Please write your name and ID No with
a marker on the CD as well as the CD Jacket.

Declaration by Student:
I certify that I have properly verified all the items in this checklist and ensure that the
report is in proper format as specified in the course handout.

Place: ________________________ Signature of the Student

Date: _________________________ Name: _____________________

ID No.: ____________________