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1.

0 Experiment aim
This experiment offers the determination of performance of a concentric tube heat exchanger.

2.0 Experiment objective


1. To determine heat transfer coefficient of the forced convection for parallel and counter flow
tube heat.
2. To determine of coefficient of the forced convection system.

3.0 Experiment apparatus

4.0 Experimental Procedure


1. Connect the main input power supply plug to a nearest single-phase electrical supply of
240VAC/50Hz.
2. Make sure that the main switch is “OFF”.
3. Check the drain valve underneath the water storage tank is fully closed (clockwise).
4. Remove the cover from the storage tank and fill the tank with clean water to within
40mm (above 1.5inch) from the top.
NOTE: Heater will automatically “OFF” if the water level is below the level switch (2) in
order to prolong the heater life.
5. Release the cover on the storage tank (Hot Water).
6. Close the air bleed valves (Hot Water & Cold Water) on the top of the heat exchanger.
7. Connect the cold water inlet to a source of cold water using flexible tubing.
8. Connect the cold water outlet to a suitable drain.
9. Close the hot water flow control valve (V1).
10. Switch “ON” the main switch on the control panel.
11. Set the temperature controller to zero on the front panel.
12. Switch “ON” the pump switch and observe operation of the pump.
13. Raise the cover on the storage tank and observe circulation of the water through the tank.
14. Open the hot water flow control valve (V1) and allow water to flow through the
exchanger until a steady flow of water is indicated on the hot water flowmeter (FT1).
15. Open the cold water flow control valve(V2). Set the selector valves (v3, V4, V5 & V6) to
parallel and co-current positions alternatively. Allow water to flow through the exchanger
until a steady flow of water is indicated on the cold water flowmeter (FT2).
16. Close the hot and cold water flow control valves (V1 & V2).
17. Attach a length of flexible tubing to each of the air bleed valves (Hot water & Cold
water) at the top of the exchanger. Open each bleed valve and allow water to flow until
all air is expelled.
18. Close both bleed valves and remove the flexible tubing.

5.0 Experimental analysis

Parallel Tin Tout


F1 F2 TH (in) TH (mid) TH (out) TC (in) TC (mid) TC (out)
(L/min) (L/min) T1 (°𝐶) T2(°𝐶) T3(°𝐶) T4(°𝐶) T5(°𝐶) T6(°𝐶)
2 2 44.7 43.7 43.0 38.7 36.3 31.8
3 3 44.6 43.8 43.3 38.7 36.3 32.0
4 4 44.5 43.8 43.3 38.7 36.2 32.0
5 5 44.1 43.4 42.9 38.2 35.9 31.9
6 6 44.0 43.2 42.7 37.9 35.7 31.9

Counter Tin Tout


F1 F2 TH (in) TH (mid) TH (out) TC (in) TC (mid) TC (out)
(L/min) (L/min) T1 (°𝐶) T2(°𝐶) T3(°𝐶) T4(°𝐶) T5(°𝐶) T6(°𝐶)
2 2 44.2 43.3 42.5 31.7 35.8 39.0
3 3 44.3 43.5 42.9 31.8 35.7 38.9
4 4 44.6 43.8 43.0 31.8 35.7 38.8
5 5 44.6 43.9 43.1 31.9 35.5 38.6
6 6 44.4 43.8 43.1 31.9 35.4 38.5
Parallel
Hot Cold
Flow rate Velocity Temperatu Density Specific Mass flow Temperatu Density Specific Mass flow
L/min 𝑣, 𝑚3 /𝑠 re 𝜌, 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3 heat rate re 𝜌, 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3 heat rate
𝐶𝑝 , 𝑚̇, 𝑘𝑔/𝑠 𝐶𝑝 , 𝑚̇, 𝑘𝑔/𝑠
𝐽/𝑘𝑔. 𝐾 𝐽/𝑘𝑔. 𝐾
2 0.00003334 43.7 990.62 4179.74 0.0021 36.3 993.51 4178.26 0.0021
3 0.00005001 43.8 990.58 4179.76 0.0032 36.3 993.51 4178.26 0.0032
4 0.00006668 43.8 990.58 4179.76 0.0042 36.2 993.54 4178.24 0.0042
5 0.00008335 43.4 990.74 4179.68 0.0053 35.9 993.66 4178.18 0.0053
6 0.00010002 43.2 990.82 4179.64 0.0064 35.7 993.73 4178.14 0.0064

Counter
Hot Cold
Flow rate Velocity Temperatu Density Specific Mass flow Temperatu Density Specific Mass flow
L/min 𝑣, 𝑚3 /𝑠 re 𝜌, 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3 heat rate re 𝜌, 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3 heat rate
𝐶𝑝 , 𝑚̇, 𝑘𝑔/𝑠 𝐶𝑝 , 𝑚̇, 𝑘𝑔/𝑠
𝐽/𝑘𝑔. 𝐾 𝐽/𝑘𝑔. 𝐾
2 0.00003334 43.3 990.78 4179.66 0.0021 35.8 993.70 4718.16 0.0021
3 0.00005001 43.5 990.70 4179.70 0.0032 35.7 993.74 4718.14 0.0032
4 0.00006668 43.8 990.58 4179.76 0.0042 35.7 993.74 4718.14 0.0042
5 0.00008335 43.9 990.54 4179.78 0.0053 35.5 993.81 4178.1 0.0053
6 0.00010002 43.8 990.58 4179.76 0.0064 35.4 993.85 4178.08 0.0064

𝑚̇ = 𝜌𝑉𝐴
𝐴 = 2𝜋𝑟𝐿
𝑟 = 0.0075𝑚, 𝐿 = 1.36𝑚
𝐴 = 0.0641𝑚2 .
𝑄𝑒𝑚𝑡 = 𝑚̇ℎ 𝐶𝑝 (𝑇𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 )

𝑄𝑎𝑏𝑠 = 𝑚̇𝑐 𝐶𝑝 (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝑖𝑛 )

𝑄𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠 = 𝑄𝑒𝑚𝑡 − 𝑄𝑎𝑏𝑠


Overall heat transfer:
𝑄𝑎𝑏𝑠
𝑢=
𝐴∆𝑡𝑚
Efficiency:
𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑏𝑠
𝜂= 𝑥 100%
𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑡𝑚
Log mean temperature difference:
∆𝑡1 − ∆𝑡2
∆𝑡𝑚 =
∆𝑡
𝑙𝑛 ∆𝑡1
2

∆𝑡1 = 𝑇𝐻,𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝐶,𝑖𝑛

∆𝑡2 = 𝑇𝐻,𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝐶,𝑜𝑢𝑡

Parallel
Flow rate Temperature (in) Temperature(out) Qemt Qabs
2 43.7 36.3 64.95316 -64.9302
3 43.8 36.3 100.3142 -100.278
4 43.8 36.2 133.4179 -133.369
5 43.4 35.9 166.1423 -166.083
6 43.2 35.7 200.6227 -200.551

Counter
Flow rate Temperature (in) Temperature(out) Qemt Qabs
2 43.3 35.8 65.82965 -74.311
3 43.5 35.7 104.3253 -117.765
4 43.8 35.7 142.1954 -160.511
5 43.9 35.5 186.0838 -186.009
6 43.8 35.4 224.7039 -224.614
5.1 Determine the efficiency, log mean temperature and overall transfer coefficient for parallel
and counter flow.
Parallel
Flow rate ∆𝑡1 ∆𝑡2 Log mean Overall heat Efficiency, 𝜂
temperature,∆𝑡𝑚 transfer
coefficient, u
2 6 11.2 8.331273 -121.584 -99.9647
3 5.9 11.3 8.309605 -188.264 -99.9639
4 5.8 11.3 8.246559 -252.304 -99.9633
5 5.9 11 8.186946 -316.479 -99.9643
6 6.1 10.8 8.227465 -380.278 -99.9643

Counter
Flow rate ∆𝑡1 ∆𝑡2 Log mean Overall heat Efficiency, 𝜂
temperature,∆𝑡𝑚 transfer
coefficient, u
2 12.5 3.5 7.070104 -163.972 -112.884
3 12.5 4 7.459842 -246.28 -112.882
4 12.8 4.2 7.71743 -324.47 -112.881
5 12.7 4.5 7.903427 -367.164 -99.9598
6 12.5 4.6 7.902589 -443.414 -99.96

5.2 Graph of heat transfer coefficient (Q) vs velocity position for parallel and counter flow.

Heat transfer coefficient(Q) VS Velocity


0
-50 0 0.00002 0.00004 0.00006 0.00008 0.0001 0.00012
Heat Transfer Coefficiency

-100
-150
-200
-250
-300
-350
-400
-450
-500
Velocity

Parallel Counter
Calculation example:
Parallel (4L/min)
4L/min = 4 x 0.000017𝑚3 /𝑠 = 0.000068𝑚3 /𝑠
Parallel Tin Tout
F1 F2 TH (in) TH (mid) TH (out) TC (in) TC (mid) TC (out)
(L/min) (L/min) T1 (°𝐶) T2(°𝐶) T3(°𝐶) T4(°𝐶) T5(°𝐶) T6(°𝐶)
4 4 44.5 43.8 43.3 38.7 36.2 32.0
∆𝑡1 = 44.5°𝐶 − 38.7°𝐶 = 5.8°𝐶
∆𝑡2 = 43.3°𝐶 − 32.0°𝐶 = 11.3°𝐶
∆𝑡1 −∆𝑡2 5.8−11.3
∆𝑡𝑚 = ∆𝑡 = 5.8 =8.246559
𝑙𝑛 1 𝑙𝑛
11.3
∆𝑡2

Parallel
Hot Cold
Velocity Density Specific Mass flow Density Specific Mass flow
𝑣, 𝑚3 /𝑠 𝜌, 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3 heat rate 𝜌, 𝑘𝑔/𝑚 3 heat rate
𝐶𝑝 , 𝑚̇, 𝑘𝑔/𝑠 𝐶𝑝 , 𝑚̇, 𝑘𝑔/𝑠
𝐽/𝑘𝑔. 𝐾 𝐽/𝑘𝑔. 𝐾
0.00006668 990.58 4179.76 0.0042 993.54 4178.24 0.0042
All the density and specific heat can be obtained at Table A9, Properties of saturated water, with
interpolation.
Mass flow rate is from the formula 𝑚̇ = 𝜌𝑉𝐴.
𝑄𝑒𝑚𝑡 = 0.0042 𝑥 4179.76 𝑥 (44.5 − 38.7) = 133.4179J/s
𝑄𝑎𝑏𝑠 = 0.0042 𝑥 4178.24 𝑥 (43.3 − 32.0) = −133.369J/s
−133.369
Efficiency,𝜂 = 𝑥100% = −99.9633%
133.4179
133.369𝐽

𝑠
Log mean temperature difference, 𝑢 = (8.246559)𝑥(0.00641𝑚2 ) =-252.304

The same calculation for counter flow.


6.0 Discussion
6.1 Comments on the variation heat transfer coefficient by convection with air velocity and heat
power and efficiency of the system with heat power.
There is a variation of temperature for parallel and counter flow because the two system works in
a different way. With parallel flow the temperature difference between the two fluids is large at
the entrance end, but it becomes small at the exit end as the two fluid temperatures approach
each other. The overall measure of heat transfer driving force, the log mean temperature
difference is greater for counter flow, so the heat exchanger surface area requirement will be
larger than for a counter flow heat exchanger with the same inlet and outlet temperatures for the
hot and the cold fluid.

6.2 List all factors that will be affecting the convection process.
Factors affecting convection include:
i. Temperature difference between 2 fluids.
ii. Fluid flow rate.
iii. Temperature difference between 2 gases.

6.3 What will be happened if we increase the flow rate of cold water in the experiment.
The heat transfer rate of the cold water will increase. The result is shown in the graph, the higher
the flow rate, the higher the heat transfer coefficient.

6.4 Compare your results, which type of flow to more effective within parallel flow or counter
flow heat exchanger.
A counter flow heat exchanger is more efficient that the parallel flow pattern. It leads to the lowest
required heat exchanger surface area because the log mean temperature drop is the highest for a
counter flow heat exchanger.
6.5 Sketch and explain the heat transfer process occurred between fluid and tube wall of heat
exchanger in the experiment.

This is the type in which two fluids enter from the same end and exit from the same end means the
direction of flow is same for both the fluids i.e. .travel parallel to one another when either enter or
leaves the tube. With parallel flow the temperature difference between the two fluids is large at the
entrance end, but it becomes small at the exit end as the two fluid temperatures approach each other.
The overall measure of heat transfer driving force, the log mean temperature difference is greater for
counter flow, so the heat exchanger surface area requirement will be larger than for a counter flow
heat exchanger with the same inlet and outlet temperatures for the hot and the cold fluid. In a parallel
flow(cocurrent) design, the temperature of the cold stream outlet, TC (out)is always lesser than that of
the hot stream outlet, TH (out). Therefore, the heat transfer is restricted by the cold stream's outlet
temperature, TC (out).
Counter current heat exchanger is quite a bit more efficient than the parallel one as average
temperature difference along any unit length is higher. For efficiency, fins or corrugations are
introduced which increases the surface area and may channel fluid flow resistance or Amun (Re) for
efficiency we increase the surface area, while minimizing the resistance to flow through exchanger.
On the other hand, in a counter flow(countercurrent) design, the restriction is relaxed and TC (out)can
exceed TH (out). Hence in this design, the heat transfer is restricted by the cold stream's inlet
temperature, TC (in).
Therefore, to achieve greater heat recovery, a countercurrent design is preferred to that of a parallel
flow design.
7.0 Conclusion
7.1
From this experiment, there are many errors that occur when do the experiment. Based on the
calculation, the percentage efficiency in experiment are more than 100% but it still we can prove
that the counter flow is more efficiency than parallel flow. It is because the percentages
efficiency of counter flow is more than parallel flow. Therefore, the counter flow is better that
parallel flow. Secondly, the heat should have transfer from the cold water to the surrounding
which lead to much smaller temperature difference for the cold water and makes the power
absorbed less than the power emitted. So, we assume that there could be external or internal
factors that could contribute to this kind of phenomena. Lastly, we also can conclude that the
water could affect the efficiency of heat exchanger because the water supplies could contain
contaminant such as sand, dust, microorganism and other that can be affect the result and the
heat exchanger cannot work with efficiently. The problem occur in heat exchanger are fouling,
scale and corrosive.

7.2
Heat Exchanger in Food Industry
Heat exchangers can be used in food industry as a process of cooling down various products in
the industry. Large number of products like hazelnut paste and other types of food pastes are
required to be cooled down or heated up in order to be processed further. For this process, heat
exchanger can be used.
The type of heat exchanger used is a Scarped Surface Heat Exchanger or SSHE. SSHE is
designed for processing various high viscosity materials and heat exchanging a variety of heat
sensitive products like fruit pulps. The continuous scraping action exerted on surface ensures
uniform heating of the contents, prevents fouling. It is also heavily used for materials that
solidify at the wall. A wide variety of SSHE have been developed for the same purpose.
Dynamics Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger, Rotary Scraped Heat Exchanger, Alternate
Conventional Design Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger, Alternate Blades Scraped Surface Heat
Exchanger are a few studied. It has been researched and concluded that ASSHE is highly
effective in food paste heating and cooling and the amount of heat transfer can be manipulated
by changing various parameters of the heat exchanger. Studies show that the A-SSHE gives heat
transfer coefficient values almost twice that of an equivalent C-SSHE.

Heat exchanger in Ethanol Production


Ethanol produced from various sources is gaining popularity worldwide for being the next
alternative fuel which will replace the conventional fossil fuels and help in saving the
environment. In the process of ethanol production, a network of heat exchangers is used instead
of single or double heat exchangers. The use of heat exchanger networks fulfills the utilization of
waste heat and enable considerable savings of energy in short payback period.
The entire method includes pinch analysis. Pinch analysis is a methodology for minimizing
energy consumption of chemical processes by calculating thermodynamically possible energy
targets and achieving them by optimizing heat recovery systems, methods of operation and
process operating conditions. It is known as process integration. Thus, formulation of optimized
heat exchanger networks can help in two functions; reduced cost and increased efficiency.
Studies show that the use of Heat Network can increase the efficiency of the heat exchanger and
almost 50% of the heat recovery. Reduction in the utility equipment helps in reducing the cost of
the process.

Heat exchanger in Sterilization


Packaged juice manufacturers follow a procedure of Flash Pasteurization for the sterilization of
juices when packaged. Hot juices at a temperature of 95°Celsius are heated using heat
exchangers. Then the pack is sealed and inverted and rapidly cooled using rotary or spin action.
However once in container cooling is not as rapid as expected and also problem of handling the
packs after filling is difficult. Many types of heat exchangers are used. The simplest design is a
conducting coil submerged in boiling water with the flow of juice adjusted in such a way that
pasteurization temperature is achieved.
Another additional advantage of using hot fills is the deaeration that takes place. A partial or
complete vacuum maybe created in the process. This helps in sterilizing and further inert gases
can be used in the packs. Sterilization is very critical especially when organisms like
Bysochalmous fulva and Talarmyces flavus are present which require very high temperature to
be killed. Temperature of almost 100°Celsius is required for 60 seconds for sterilizing the
equipment.

8.0 References
1. https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Heat_Transfer/Heat_Exchangers
2. https://www.scribd.com/doc/27156908/CONCENTRIC-TUBE-HEAT-EXCHANGER
3. https://www.quora.com/Why-is-a-counter-flow-heat-exchanger-better-than-a-parallel-
flow-heat-exchanger
4. Heat and Mass Transfer (A Practical Approach) – 3rd EditionYunus A. CengelMcGraw
Hill (2006)
5. https://www.academia.edu/25412248/CHE245_-
_Lab_Report_SOLTEQ_Concentric_Tube_Heat_Exchanger_Unit_HE_104-PD_2016_