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AL HATMY ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY LLC

PROPOSED SULTAN QABOOS MOSQUE


AT SOHAR

Structural Design Basis Report

REV: 0
J ANU ARY 2 012
Table of Contents

1. Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 3

1.1 General ........................................................................................................................................ 3

1.2 Related documents ...................................................................................................................... 3

1.3 Scope of work .............................................................................................................................. 3

1.4. Consultant’s Design and Calculation Documentation ................................................................. 3

2. Design Criteria ...................................................................................................................................... 5

2.1 Ranking ........................................................................................................................................ 5

2.2 Basis of design ............................................................................................................................. 5

2.3 Codes and standards ................................................................................................................... 5

2.4 Service life of building structures ................................................................................................ 6

3. Design requirements, loads and load combinations ................................................................................ 7

3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 7

3.2 Definition of loads ....................................................................................................................... 7

3.3 Dead load ..................................................................................................................................... 8

3.4 Imposed loads, live loads ............................................................................................................. 9

3.5 Wind load .................................................................................................................................... 9

3.6 Temperature loads .................................................................................................................... 10

3.7 Sand accumulation .................................................................................................................... 10

3.8 Water accumulation .................................................................................................................. 10

3.9      Earth and water pressure ............................................................................................................. 10

3.10 Creep and shrinkage of concrete ............................................................................................... 11

3.11 Earthquake load ......................................................................................................................... 11

3.12 Accidental load .......................................................................................................................... 13

3.13 Fire rating .................................................................................................................................. 13

  DB- 1  
3.14 General robustness / disproportionate collapse ....................................................................... 14

3.15 Comfort requirements ............................................................................................................... 14

3.16 Deflection requirements ........................................................................................................... 14

3.18 Load Combinations .................................................................................................................... 16

3.19 Primary and secondary structures ............................................................................................. 19

4. Materials ............................................................................................................................................ 20

4.1 Reinforced concrete .................................................................................................................. 20

4.2 Structural Steel .......................................................................................................................... 21

4.3 Composite structures ................................................................................................................ 23

4.4 Block work ................................................................................................................................. 24

5. Geotechnical conditions and parameters .......................................................................................... 25

5.1 Bearing capacity ........................................................................................................................ 25

5.2 Safety factors ............................................................................................................................. 25

5.3 Piles ............................................................................................................................................ 25

5.4   Settlements ............................................................................................................................... 25

6. Joints .................................................................................................................................................. 26

6.1 General ...................................................................................................................................... 26

6.2 Movement Joints ....................................................................................................................... 26 

Appendix A – MODES Wind Speed and Seismic Zone Charts ..................................................................... 29

Appendix B - Concrete service life design parameters ............................................................................... 29

Appendix C - Norms and standards ............................................................................................................ 30

  DB- 2  
1. Introduction

1.1 General
The intent of this document is to outline the minimum design requirements for the structural
design of the building structures.
This Design Basis covers permanent structures only. Temporary structures, e.g. for erection
purposes, shall be based on the same set of codes and standards as referred to in this Design
Basis.

1.2 Related documents


The documents mentioned above the Design Basis shall also be read in conjunction with the
building specific Performance Specifications, the geotechnical reports, and concourse as well as
the structural drawings.

1.3 Scope of work

The following building structures are covered by this Design Basis.


• Proposed Sultan Qaboos Mosque at Sohar

1.4. Consultant’s Design and Calculation Documentation


1.4.1 General

This section describes the requirements of Design and Calculation Documentation and to the
software packages used for the design.
The requirements given shall be considered as the minimum requirements and shall always be
included for all structural elements and buildings.
The requirements apply to the design of both temporary and permanent structures.
The requirements can however in specific cases be reduced if approved by the Engineer in
advance.
The requirements for drawings prepared by the consultant/contractor are given in the General
Contract Requirements and the General Specifications for Concrete Work, Masonry and
Steelwork.
All drawings and calculation documentation prepared by the Consultan/Contractor shall follow
an approved QA procedure before submittal to the Engineer in accordance with the General
Contract Requirements.

  DB- 3  
1.4.2 Standard contents of structural design calculations

The calculation documentation shall as a minimum include the following for every calculation
submitted:

1. Introduction
2. Conclusion / Summary including statement of adherence to this
Design Basis
3. Reference to drawings
4. Description of the overall structural system including sketches or
diagrams depicting the structural system
5. Description of geometry including cross-sections and cross-sectional
constants for the members used
6. Description of material properties, e.g. E-modulus, density, etc.
7. Description of applied loads
8. Relevant input data from FEM-software including sketches/figures
showing support locations and types, loads, dimensions, member
properties etc. (if used)
9. Relevant output from FEM-software (if used)
10. Check of FEM results (if used)
11 Design of structural elements, i.e. check of stresses, deflections,
vibrations, stability etc. See below mandatory detailed content of every
structural item to be designed.
12 Design of connections, i.e. welds, bolts, gusset plates, stiffeners, etc.
13 Calculation of support reactions, evaluation of geotechnical design support
reactions, evaluation of geotechnical design parameters based on data
reports and design of foundations. See below mandatory detailed content
of every structural item to be designed.
14 Soft copy of FE-models
15 List of reference documents

Example of design of a concrete beam:


• Reference to beam number and other info to locate beam.

• Sketch or illustration which explains where this beam is located

• Sketch or illustration of the static system of which this beam is a part.

• Clear reference to the beam and node number, name of model, and load case
from which the design section forces are taken

• Clear explanation of which load case is governing (ULS, SLS, ALS) and
explanation of how the design section forces have been selected

• Design of beam according to the above assumption (Moment, shear, torsion,


deflection etc.)

  DB- 4  
1.4.3 Software requirements

Software packages e.g. FE-programmes, excel sheets for design of structural elements (e.g.
RC beams, columns) used in the design shall be in accordance with the requirements given
in the General Contract Requirements.
FE-model software packages shall be internationally recognised, e.g. Staad Pro, Robot,
ETABS, GT Strudl, SAP2000, Lusas.
The Consultant shall advise which software packages including versions that will be used for
the design at least 8 weeks before the documentation is submitted.

2. Design Criteria

2.1 Ranking
This document, codes, standards and recommendations shall be ranked as follows:

1. Design basis

2. British Standard, Codes of Practice

3. Uniform Building Code 1997 (UBC 1997)

4. Recommendations

In case the detailing required by the UBC 1997 due to earthquake is more onerous than that
required by the British Standards, then the UBC 1997 shall take precedence over the British
Standards. In case of doubt the Consultant shall follow the Engineer’s decision.

2.2 Basis of design


The Employer’s Requirements, comprising Engineer’s Drawings, General Specifications and
building specific Performance Specifications, shall form the basis for the Consultant’s structural
calculations and detailed design drawings. The Consultant’s structural detailed design drawings
shall be coordinated with all other disciplines.

2.3 Codes and standards


The structural design shall be based on British Standard Codes of Practice as required by this
Design Basis. Refer to appendix C for a list of the codes and standards referred to in this
document.
Seismic design of buildings shall be based on the 1997 Uniform Building Code.

  DB- 5  
2.4 Service life of building structures
The term “service life” shall be understood as the time when major repairs will have to take
place in order to ensure the continuous use of the building.
The normal service life of all primary structural elements in all buildings shall 50 years.
In order to achieve the required service life for buildings a systematic durability design
procedure shall be adopted. A description of the approach for concrete structures is given
below.

2.4.1 Durability of concrete structures

The primary approach to designing concrete elements for durability is based on the primary
durability barriers against chloride ingress such as a high quality and relatively impermeable
concrete (i.e. a concrete with low chloride diffusivity) and sufficient concrete cover. The General
Specification for Concrete Work also follows this approach.
All concrete surfaces located above ground and exposed to atmosphere shall only be treated
with surface coating if so required by the architectural finishes. Structures which are located
below ground and are generally exposed to earth (and ground water) on one side (outer side)
and air on the other side (inner side) shall only be treated with surface coating on the inner side
if so required by the architectural finishes.
Water tanks and structures below the groundwater table shall be designed to be 100%
watertight and free from all leakage, seepage and damp patches.
The floor and wall structures shall be provided with an external waterproofing membrane. The
water tightness shall consist of the concrete itself - i.e. a dense concrete with no through-going
cracks - and the membrane. The waterproof membrane shall also protect the concrete structure
against chemical attack from salts in the groundwater and soil.
Potential waterproofing materials for use are:
• Bonded preformed sheet membranes

• Unbonded preformed sheet membranes (pure bentonite membranes are not permitted)

• Liquid (spray or brush) applied membrane

The membrane shall be suitable for underground structures, resistant to sulphates and chlorides
existing in the groundwater and soil.
The suitability of the selected waterproofing system shall be demonstrated with proven actual
application in similar conditions.
An overview of the durability and water tightness related design parameters applicable for
buildings with service lives of 50 years can be found in appendix B

  DB- 6  
A project specific exposure designation has been introduced which differentiates between dry-
wet (DRY-WET), atmospheric (ATM) and indoor (IND) and submerged (SUBM) conditions.
The designations are defined in the following:
Exposure class Exposure description

Concrete faces of structural parts permanently buried in the salty


SUBM
soil/groundwater (from approx. 1 m below lowest GWL and deeper)

DRY-WET a) Concrete faces buried in the soil/groundwater exposed to changing


groundwater levels. Cycles of wetting and drying resulting in chloride
accumulation at the concrete surface or
b) Internal concrete faces at water-retaining structures (one-sided water
pressure) with risk of chloride accumulation due to water ingress
through cracks, un-tight tie-bars, links, malfunctioning of membrane etc.

Concrete faces of structural parts buried in the soil (from approx. 1 m


DRY
above highest GWL)

ATM Concrete faces exposed to airborne chlorides

IND Concrete faces exposed to atmospheric CO2 (no chloride load)

3. Design requirements, loads and load combinations

3.1 Introduction
This chapter describes the characteristic loads, design loads, deflection requirements and load
combinations that shall be taken into account in the structural design.
The loads specified in section 3.3 and 3.4 of this Design Basis have been assumed for the
Preliminary Design and should be considered for information only. The Consultant shall in his
Detailed Design verify that all loads apply to the current design and the chosen equipment and
machinery installed in the buildings.

3.2 Definition of loads

Characteristic load
The load without any safety factor.

Design Load
The load with the required safety factor. Design Load = (Characteristic Load) x (Safety Factor).

  DB- 7  
3.3 Dead load

3.3.1 Dead load from roof, equipment etc.

The dead loads specified below are characteristic loads.

Corrugated steel sheets + Kalzip or similar roof sheeting 0.20 - 0.35 kN/m2

Roofing 2 layers of bituminous membrane placed 0.10 kN/m2


below the roof insulation.

Insulation (100mm mineral wool) 0.3 kN/m2

Density of reinforced concrete members 26 kN/m3

Density of reinforced concrete members, buoyancy 24 kN/m3

Density of structural steel members 77.0 kN/m3

Services (electrical, A.C, Water, etc.) installation 0.50 kN/m2


suspended from the underside of all slabs*
Suspended ceiling- general 0.25 kN/m

Floor finish, 50mm screed 1.25 kN/m2

Floor finish, 100mm screed 2.50 kN/m2

Floor finish incl. floor cooling, 150 mm screed 3.75kN/m2

Partition walls, gypsum 1.5 kN/m3

90/100mm block work wall incl. 2x20mm plaster 2.8 kN/2

140/150mm block work wall incl. 2x20mm plaster 3.8kN/m2

190/200mm block work wall incl. 2x20 mm plaster 4.8kN/m2

290/300mm block work wall incl. 2x20 mm plaster 6.8kN/m2

*Pattern loading shall be considered as appropriate

All loads incl. dynamic loads from utilities / equipment shall be included as appropriate as per
the Supplier’s / Manufacturer’s information and recommendations.

  DB- 8  
Loading from block work partitions shall be taken into account according to the actual
positioning in the present architectural design either as appropriate as a general floor loading or
as a line load unless otherwise required by the Employer’s Requirements.
The loads given for gypsum partition walls and block work walls are per vertical wall area.
Loads from cladding shall be included as appropriate corresponding to the specific type of
cladding, e.g. stone cladding, aluminum cladding etc.

3.3.2 Concentrated loads

The structural slabs shall be designed for linear and concentrated loads from block work
partitions, equipment and the like as appropriate.

3.4 Imposed loads, live loads


The total minimum imposed floor loads to be used in the structural design shall in general be in
accordance with BS 6399-1.
Pattern loading shall be considered as appropriate.
Where a concentrated load creates a more severe load implication, this shall be included in the
calculation.
The live loads specified below are characteristic loads. The uniform and concentrated loads
shall not be considered to act simultaneously.
Area Uniform load Concentrated load
Roof (access for maintenance only) 0.5 kN/m2 1.4 kN

Assembly areas without fixed seating 5.0 kN/m2 3.6 kN

Stairs and general corridors 4.0 kN/m2 4.0 kN

Offices and toilets 2.5 kN/m2 2.7 kN

Rooms in general 2.0 kN/m2 2.7 kN


Machinery hall 7.5 kN/m2 4.5 kN

3.5 Wind load

3.5.1 Wind load

The basic design wind speed is determined according to Ministry of Defence Engineering
Services (MODES) Standard for the Muscat Area. See Appendix A-Wind Speed Chart.

  DB- 9  
This gives a maximum 3 second gust wind speed likely to be exceed only once in 50 years,
corresponding to an annual risk of 0.02, at 10 m above the ground in open level country.
The wind loads shall be determined according to BS 6399-2:1997 using the Standard method
where the basic wind speed is defined as an hourly mean wind speed with an annual risk of
being exceeded of 0.02 at a height of 10 m over completely flat terrain.
The basic wind speed shall be taken as:
3 second gust wind speed (m/s) hourly mean wind speed ( m/s)

Muscat 46 25

Salalah 50

3.6 Temperature loads

The effects of thermal actions on the structures due to climatic and operational temperature
changes both during the construction phase and for the final structures shall be taken into
account by applying temperature loads.
The ambient temperature is set at 28°C.
The safety factor should be taken as 1.2 in ULS and 1.0 in SLS. The temperature loads shall be
incorporated in the load combinations as appropriate according to BS 8110-1 and BS 5950-1
and section 3.19.

3.7 Sand accumulation

Sand accumulation is considered not to occur, and shall therefore not be accounted for in the
design.

3.8 Water accumulation

The roof layout with gutters and drains shall generally be designed in a way that eliminates the
risk of water accumulation.
The weight of water in gutters and drains shall be included in the design as appropriate.

3.9 Earth and water pressure


The earth and water pressure on structures shall be determined based on the soil parameters
given in the geotechnical data reports and found by the Consultant’s supplementary
geotechnical investigations (refer to section 5).

  DB- 10  
The earth pressure shall be determined as the pressure at rest.

3.10 Creep and shrinkage of concrete

The effects of creep and shrinkage shall be determined according to BS EN 1992-1-1 and
included in the design as appropriate.
The load effects caused by creep and shrinkage of concrete in composite structures shall be
determined according to BS EN 1994-1-1 and BS EN 19921-1 and included in the design as
appropriate.
The safety factor shall be taken as 1.2 in ULS and 1.0 in SLS.

3.11 Earthquake load

The Uniform Building Code 1997 (UBC 1997) identifies the Muscat area as having a seismic
risk to that of zone 2A. The structural design shall therefore be based on the strength
recommendations for zone 2A.
Earthquake load calculations shall be in accordance with UBC 1997 and be based on the
following parameters. The soil profile types are to be determined by the Consultant based on
the geotechnical data reports.
Structural Zone – Muscat 2A

Structural Zone – Salalah 1

Seismic zone factor, Z – Muscat 0.15

Seismic zone factor, Z - Salalah 0.075

Structure Importance factor, I All buildings 1.0

The seismic response coefficients shall be in accordance with Table 16-Q and 16-R in UBC
1997.
The response modification factors and seismic amplification factors shall be determined
according to table 16-N of the UBC corresponding to the structural system in the specific
building.

3.11.1 Displacements due to seismic load

The displacements obtained from the static or dynamic lateral force procedure are designated
S.

  DB- 11  
The displacement to be used in deflection checks and for design of movement joints is the
maximum inelastic response displacement, M, which is given by:

M = 0.7R S
Where R is the response modification factor given in UBC 1997 table 16N.

3.11.2 Directional effects

Directional effects (also denoted orthogonal effects) shall be considered according to UBC 1997
sections 1630.1.1 and 1633.1 if the structure is irregular or a column forms part of two or more
intersecting lateral-force resisting systems.
The requirement that directional effects are considered may be satisfied by applying 100% of
the prescribed design seismic forces in one direction plus 30% of the prescribed design seismic
forces in the perpendicular direction.

3.11.3 P- Δ Effects

P- Δ Effects shall be considered in accordance with UBC 1997 section 1630.1.3 and BS 5950-1
section 2.4.2.5.

3.11.4 Response spectrum analysis

When the dynamic lateral force procedure is required for the earthquake loads a response
spectrum analysis according to section 1631 of the UBC 1997 shall be carried out.
The response spectrum shall be in accordance with figure 16-3 of the UBC 1997 and shall be
multiplied by the acceleration of gravity, g = 9.815 m/s2, and the importance factor, I, and
divided by the R-factor given in table 16-N in the UBC 1997.
The CQC combination method shall be applied for the response spectrum analysis.
The vertical component of the ground motion and the earthquake load, Ev, shall be taken as
0.5CaID as defined in section 1630.1.1 of the UBC 1997. I.e. no vertical response spectrum
analysis shall be done. Ev has been included in load combination 7-14 and 21-23 in section
3.19.
According to UBC 1997 section 1631.5.4 the base shear obtained from the response spectrum
analysis may not be taken less than the base shear obtained from the static lateral force
procedure.
Therefore all section forces, displacements, etc. obtained from the response spectrum analysis
shall be multiplied by f = Vbase,stat/Vbase,dyn if the dynamic base shear is less than the static
base shear. I.e. the factor can be taken as an additional safety factor on the earthquake loads in
the load combinations. f shall not be taken less than 1.0.

  DB- 12  
3.11.5 Seismic detailing requirements

The seismic design according to the UBC 1997 gives a series of detailing requirements that
shall be fulfilled. These requirements may in several cases overrule requirements given by the
British Standards.

3.11.6 Seismic design of block work infill walls

The UBC 1997 requires the effect of infill walls to be taken into account but does not state how
this shall be done. The design of infill panels shall therefore be in accordance with the
guidelines in BS EN 1998-1:2004.
The reinforcement detailing of block work infill walls shall be in accordance with chapter 21 of
the UBC 1997.

3.11.7 Interaction between sub- and superstructures of different stiffness

The sudden drop of stiffness from the reinforced concrete part of substructures to steel
superstructures may lead to relative motions out-of phase in between the sub- and
superstructure. Such relative motions may be unacceptably large for steel columns in the
superstructure. On the other hand, the same out-of-phase relative motions may provide the
basis for a beneficial structural interaction in the sense that the overall seismic response of the
substructure may be damped out.
The Consultant/Contractor shall address these issues in a suitable manner subject to the
Engineer’s approval. Seismic analysis able to describe the structural interaction mentioned
above (e.g. time-history analysis with ground motion records that fit the response spectra given
in the previous sections) shall be carried out and references in which this problem is treated
shall be given.

3.12 Accidental load


Structural elements, where applicable, shall be designed for accidental loads due to collision of
vehicles in accordance with BS EN 1991-1-7.

3.13 Fire rating

For fire ratings for the structural members, refer to the Fire Strategy Reports and Fire
Compartmentation Drawings for the relevant buildings.
Refer to section 4.1.4, 4.2.7 and 4.4.4 for fire protection requirements.

  DB- 13  
3.14 General robustness / disproportionate collapse

The requirements of BS 8110 regarding minimum lateral forces and required ties between
structural elements to ensure robustness shall be covered through the earthquake design and
specific earthquake detailing requirements according to the UBC 1997.
Robustness of concrete structures shall be provided based on BS 8110-1 section 2.2.2.2. If the
robustness cannot comply with the requirements, the elements shall be designed as key
elements according to BS 8110-2 section 2.6.2.
Reinforcement detailing shall comply with section 1921.8 of UBC 1997, in addition to complying
with British standard practice.
Robustness of steel structures shall be provided based on BS 5950-1 section 2.4.5.3. If the
robustness cannot comply with the requirements, the elements
shall be designed as key elements according to BS 5950-1 section 2.4.5.4, applying the loads
stated in section 12 of BS 6399-1.

3.15 Comfort requirements

3.15.1 General comfort requirements


The vibration serviceability requirements given in BS 5400-2:2006 appendix B shall be fulfilled
for cantilevered and long span slabs or beams in bridges and/or bridge-like structures, e.g. fixed
boarding bridges and bridges within the Passenger Terminal Building.
When determining Eigen frequencies a live load of 0.8 kN/m2 should be included in the
calculations if the slabs or beams can be considered as a light structure.
Vibrating machinery shall be placed on separate foundations or otherwise prevented from
transferring noise through the structure.

3.16 Deflection requirements

3.16.1 Concrete structures

Maximum vertical deflection of beams due to vertical load (SLS*)

Beams and cantilevers supporting Partitions Span / 500 or 20** mm whichever is the
made of brittle materials lesser.
Beams and cantilevers supporting Partitions Span / 350 or 20** mm whichever is the
made of non-brittle materials lesser.
Maximum horizontal deflection due to characteristic wind load
Relative horizontal deflection in any one storey Height of storey/500

  DB- 14  
*The deflection should in general be checked for the SLS load combinations in section 3.19.2. However
the General Specification for Concrete Work requires that cambers corresponding to the deflection due
to dead load are included. The dead load can therefore be disregarded in the SLS combinations in the
deflection checks.

** The 20 mm requirement can be disregarded if the Consultant verifies that partitions etc. supported by
or adjacent to the beam or slab are not damaged by the increased deflection or unacceptable cracks
are developed.

For cantilevers the span equals twice the length of the cantilevered part.
In addition to the above deflection requirements, deflections in structures shall comply with the
deflection requirements for any roof lights, curtain walls etc connected to them.
In case a part of the live load can be considered permanent this shall be taken in account in
accordance with clause 3.3.3 of BS 8110-2.

3.16.2 Steel structures

Maximum vertical deflection of beams due to imposed load (SLS*)


Cantilevers carrying plaster or other brittle Span / 250
finish
Other cantilevers Span / 100
Beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish Span / 500
Other beams Span / 200
Maximum horizontal deflection of columns due to imposed load and/or wind load (SLS)
Tops of columns in single storey except portal Height / 500
frames
Columns in portal frame buildings To suit cladding
In each storey of a building with more than one Height of that storey / 500
Storey

*The deflection should in general be checked for the SLS load combinations in section 3.19.2. However in
case that cambers corresponding to the deflection due to dead load are included, the dead load can be
disregarded in the SLS combinations in the deflection checks.

In addition to the above deflection requirements, deflections in structures shall comply with the
deflection requirements for any roof lights, curtain walls etc connected to them.

3.16.3 Earthquake, story drift

According to UBC 1997 section 1630.10 the maximum inelastic response displacement, M, shall
not exceed the following:
Fundamental building period, T Requirement
T < 0.7 s 0.025 x story height
T > 0.7 s 0.020 x story height

  DB- 15  
3.16.4 Earthquake, building separations and movement joints
The UBC 1997 requires all structures to be separated from adjoining structures.
The minimum distance between two structures is given by:
2 2
Δ MT =√ ((Δ M1 ) +(Δ M2 ) )

Where Δ M1 and Δ M2 is the maximum inelastic response displacement for each structure.
Movement joints shall be able to cater for a total deformation Δ MT

3.16.5 Special situations

Special caution shall be taken in areas with conveyors and other equipment that may have
additional deflection requirements due to functionality other than stated elsewhere in section
3.16.

3.17 Crack width requirements

Crack widths in concrete members calculated in the serviceability limit state (SLS) shall not
exceed the values given in the following table. Refer to appendix B for more detailed
information.
Structure type Maximum crack width [mm]
General 0.25 (0.15)
Water tight structures 0.20 (0.10)

The values given in parenthesis apply to pre stressed structures where the pre stressing strands
are placed within one-fifth of the depth/width of the member from any surface of the member.

3.18 Load Combinations

The buildings shall be designed to the most critical arrangement of loading arranged in the
following load combinations, where:
D = Dead load (according to section 3.3)
L = Live and imposed load (according to section 3.4)
W = Wind load (according to section 3.5)
EW = Earth and water pressure (according to section
3.10)
Eh = Earthquake load (according to section 3.12)
T = Temperature load (according to section 3.6)
S = Shrinkage load (according to section 3.11)

  DB- 16  
The safety factors for the loads are given in the following subsections. In general the safety
factors on dead load shall be set to 1.0 when the load has a beneficial effect on the structure.
L, W or T shall be left out in cases where this causes more critical combinations.
The load combinations given in the following sections shall be considered as the minimum
requirements. The Consultant shall include additional load combinations (e.g. for the fire limit
state FLS) in his design as appropriate.

3.18.1 Load combinations ULS

Load Steel structure Concrete structure


combination
1a 1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.21 EW ± 1.2 T2 + 1.2 S2 1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.21 EW
1b 1.0 D + 1.6 L + 1.21 EW ± T2 + 1.2 S2 1.0 D + 1.6 L + 1.21 EW
2a 1.0 D + 1.6 L + 1.21 EW ± 1.2 T2 + 1.2 S2 1.4 D + 1.4 L + 1.21 EW
3a 1.2 D + 1.2 L + 1.2 W + 1.21 EW ± T2 + 1.2 S2 1.2 D + 1.2 L + 1.2 W + 1.21
EW
3b 1.0 D + 1.2 L + 1.2 W + 1.21 EW ± T2 + 1.2 S2 N/A

1. For the partial safety factor on earth and water pressure refer to BS 8110-1 table 2.1
and BS 5950 table 2.

2. Temperature and shrinkage effects shall only be included in the ULS combinations as
appropriate.

Temperature and shrinkage effects need normally not be included in the ULS combinations for
concrete according to BS 8110-1 section 2.4.3.3. However for large monolithic structures it shall
be verified that temperature loads do not cause failure to the structure. This can be done by
including the load combination 1.4D ± 1.2T and by including 1.2T in combination 1.

3.18.2 Load combinations SLS

Load Steel structure Concrete structure


combination
4 1.0 D + 1.0 L + 1.0 EW ± 1.0 T + 1.0 S 1.0 D + 1.0 L + 1.0 EW ± 1.0
T + 1.0 S
5 1.0 D + 1.0 W + 1.0 EW ± 1.0 T+ 1.0 S 1.0 D + 1.0 W + 1.0 EW± 1.0
T + 1.0 S
6 .0 D + 0.8 L + 0.8 W + 1.0 EW± 1.0 T + 1.0 S 1.0 D + 1.0 L + 1.0 W +.0 EW
± 1.0 T + 1.0 S

The SLS load combinations shall be used for checks of effects of temperature and shrinkage,
crack widths, deflections and other SLS related effects.

  DB- 17  
3.18.3 Load combinations ALS

Load Steel structures


combination
7 (1.2 + 0.5CaI) D + f1 L ±1.0 f Eh
8 (0.9 ± 0.5CaI) D ± 1.0 f Eh
9 1.2 D + f1L ± 1.0 f Ώ0 Eh
10 0.9 D ± 1.0 f Ώ0 Eh
Concrete Structure
11 (1.32 + 0.55CaI) D + 1.1 f1 L ± 1.1 f Eh
12 (0.99 ± 0.55CaI) D ± 1.1 f Eh
13 (1.32 + 0.55CaI) D + 1.1 f1 L ± 2.2 f Eh
14 (0.99 ± 0.55CaI) D ± 2.2 f Eh

According to UBC 1997 sections 1612.2.1 and 1612.4 the factor f1 shall be taken as 1.0 for
floors in places of public assembly and for characteristic live loads in excess of 4.8 kN/m2. For
other live loads f1 shall be taken as 0.5.
seismic force amplification factor, 0, and the factors Ca and I are given in table 16-Q and 16-N
in UBC 1997 and in section 3.11 of this document.
The factor f shall be taken as f = V base,stat /V base, dyn as stated in section 3.11.4 when a response
spectrum analysis is carried out. Otherwise f should be taken as 1.0.
Load combinations 7 to 14 are in accordance with UBC 1997.

Steel structures
For moment resisting steel frames designed as ordinary moment resisting frames according to
UBC 1997 the load combinations shall be applied as follows:
The use of the load combinations for all other structural systems shall be in accordance with
UBC 1997 section 22.
For steel beams load combinations 7 and 8 shall be used. For storey drift load combinations 7
and 8 shall be used. For steel columns load combinations 9 and 10 shall be used.
For beam to column and column to beam connections load combinations 9 and 10 shall be
used.
For steel to concrete connections load combinations 9 and 10 shall be used.
When load combinations 9 and 10 are applied directional effects are not required to be included
according to UBC 1997 section 2214.3.1.

Concrete structures
According to UBC 1997 section 1909.2.3 the load combinations in section 1612.2.1 shall be
applied when designing masonry/block work and concrete elements. They shall however be

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increased by a factor 1.1 as per exception 2. The increased load combinations are given as
combination 11 and 12 of this design basis.
According to UBC 1997 section 1921.8.3 shear reinforcement in beams and columns shall be
designed using an earthquake effect twice that prescribed in UBC 1997 section 1626, i.e. load
combination 13 and 14 shall be used for design of shear reinforcement.
The use of the load combinations for all other structural systems, e.g. shear walls, shall be in
accordance with UBC 1997 section 1921.

3.18.4 Load combinations, foundations

The check of the soil bearing capacity shall be based on the following load combinations as the
full safety factor shall be applied to the bearing capacity of the soil according to section 5 of this
design basis.
The design of RC pad footings and strip foundations (i.e. concrete and reinforcement etc.) shall
be based on combination 1 through 12.

Load combination
15 1.0 D + 1.0 L
16 1.0 D + 1.0 W
17 1.0 D + 1.0 L + 1.0 W
18 1.0D + 1.0L + 1.0 EW
19 1.0 D + 1.0 W + 1.0 EW
20 1.0 D + 1.0 L + 1.0 W + 1.0 EW
21 (1.0 + 0.36CaI) D ± 0.71 f Eh
22 (0.9 ± 0.36CaI) D ± 0.71 f Eh
23 (1.0 +0.27CaI) D + 0.75 L ± 0.53 f Eh

The factor Ca is given in table 16-Q in UBC 1997 and I is given in section 3.11 of this design
basis.
The factor f shall be taken as f = V base,stat/V base,dyn as stated in section 3.11.4 when a response
spectrum analysis is carried out. Otherwise f shall be taken as 1.0.
Load combinations 21 to 23 are in accordance with UBC 1997 section 1612.3.1.

3.19 Primary and secondary structures

All primary structures shall be self supported and self stable, without counting on secondary/
architectural elements, such as roof decking, cladding, ceilings etc.
Secondary effects like buckling of structural elements can be supported/restrained by roof
decking as long as it is well documented to be sufficient.

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4. Materials

4.1 Reinforced concrete

4.1.1 General

All concrete members shall be designed in accordance with BS 8110 unless otherwise stated or
specifically agreed with the Engineer.
BS 8007 shall apply as appropriate for concrete structures retaining aqueous liquids.

4.1.2 Partial safety factors

The partial safety factors (γm) for the strength of concrete for ULS in accordance with BS8110-
1, table 2.2 are given below.
Reinforcement (pre stressing steel included) 1.05
Concrete in flexure or axial load 1.50
Shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.25
Bond strength 1.40
Others (e.g. bearing stress) ≥ 1.50

4.1.3 Concrete strength and stiffness


The following concrete grades shall be applied as a minimum.
Grade fc,cube (MPa) fc,cyl (MPa) Utilization

C50 50 40 Piles, Pile Caps


C40 40 32 All concrete unless otherwise stated
C20 20 16 Blinding layers, mass concrete

Stiffness / modulus of Elasticity


The elastic modulus for short term loads shall be determined according to table 7.2 in BS 8110-
2.
The modulus of elasticity for long term loads shall be determined taking the effects of creep in to
consideration.
UBC 1997 section 1630.1.2 requires that the effect of cracked sections shall be taken into
account in the structural model of the structure in the seismic design.
The stiffness of a cracked section is normally determined by calculating a reduced moment of
inertia taking into account only the concrete and reinforcement in compression and

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reinforcement in tension. However for practical reasons it shall be allowed to use a reduced
modulus of elasticity instead provided the effective stiffness, i.e. Ec x Ic is the same.

4.1.4 Fire protection

All concrete structures shall be fire proofed by provision of adequate cover to reinforcement
corresponding to the required fire rating in accordance with BS 8110-1 Section 3.3.6 and BS
8110-2 Section 4. The cover layer requirements for fire protection given by BS 8110 may be
overruled by the cover layer requirements due to durability and service life requirements given
in section 2.4.

4.1.5 Aggregates

Coarse and fine aggregates shall be as specified in the General Specification for Concrete
Work.

4.1.6 Cement

Cement shall be as specified in the General Specification for Concrete Work.

4.1.7 Reinforcement

Reinforcement shall be as specified in the General Specification for Concrete Work.

4.1.8 Post-tensioning strands

Post tensioning strands for pre stressed elements shall be as specified in the General
Specification for Concrete Work.

4.1.9 Protection of exposed concrete edges

Exposed concrete edges, such as edges of trenches, pits and floor level changes shall be
protected by hot-dip galvanized steel angles. The steel angles shall be adequately anchored to
the concrete. The Consultant shall include edge protections and anchor details in his Detailed
Design for the Engineers approval. Minimum steel angle size should be L75x75x6.

4.2 Structural Steel

4.2.1 General

All structural steel members shall be designed in accordance with BS 5950 unless otherwise
stated or specifically agreed with the Engineer.

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Cast steel elements shall be designed in accordance with BS 5950-1 section 3.3, SCI
publication 172 “Castings in Construction” and as specified in the General Specification for
Structural Steelwork.

4.2.2 Partial safety factor

The partial safety factors (γm) for the strength of structural steel at ULS shall be in accordance
with BS 5950-1, subsection 2.1.3.
Yield strength (Ys) and the minimum yield strength (ReH) γm = 1.0
Tensile strength (Us) and the minimum tensile strength (Rm) γm = 1.2

4.2.3 Structural steel

In accordance with BS 5950-1, subsection 3.1.1 including table 9, BS EN 10025-2 table 7 and
BS EN 10025-3 table 5 the design strength py should be taken as 1.0 ReH, but not greater than
Rm / 1.2.

Steel grade Yield Tensile Design


Thickness strength strength strength

t [mm] ReH [MPa] Rm [MPa] py [MPa]

S275 t ≤ 16 275 410 275


16 < t ≤ 40 265 410 265
40 < t ≤ 63 255 410 255
63 < t ≤ 80 245 410 245
S355 t ≤ 16 355 470 355
16 < t ≤ 40 345 470 345
40 < t ≤ 63 335 470 335
63 < t ≤ 80 325 470 325
S460 t ≤ 16 460 550 460
16 < t ≤ 40 440 550 440
40 < t ≤ 63 430 550 430
63 < t ≤ 80 410 550 410

4.2.4 Welded connections

Fillet welds shall be in accordance with B5950-1, subsection 6.8, including table 37. Butt welds
shall be in accordance with B5950-1, subsection 6.9.

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4.2.5 Bolted connections

The shear capacity of bolts shall be determined using the tensile stress area of the threaded
part of the bolt.
Connections between beams and columns in the main structural system shall be designed as
friction grip connections if the connection is located within the dissipative zone.

4.2.6 Element / section sizes

The Consultant shall decide the overall length, weight and size of the sections to be erected and
subject to the Engineers approval.
Joints in visible steel elements other than those shown in the Engineer’s drawings, e.g. in roof
trusses, shall be welded with no visible gusset plates, no stiffener plates, etc.

4.2.7 Fire protection

All structural steel elements requiring a fire resistance rating or supporting other elements
requiring a fire resistance rating shall be fire protected by intumescent coating as required by
the fire compartmentation or as otherwise indicated in the Employer’s Requirements.

4.2.8 Corrosion protection

Protective coating of steel structures against corrosion shall be as specified in the General
Specification for Structural Steelwork.

4.2.9 Gratings

Grating pieces such as over trenches, floor openings, etc. shall not have any sharp edges or
corners. For this purpose peripheries shall be banded by welding 6mm bars.

4.3 Composite structures

All composites structures shall be designed according to BS 5950-3.1 or BS EN 1994-1-1 as


appropriate.
Structural steel and concrete shall be in accordance with section 4.1 and 4.2 in this design
basis.
Only headed shear connectors shall be allowed.

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4.3.1 Partial safety factors

Values of the partial safety factor for materials are given in the table below:
Material SLS ULS
Structural steel 1.0 1.10
Reinforcement 1.0 1.15
Concrete 1.0 or 1.3 1.5
(as appropriate)

Shear connectors 1.0 1.25

4.4 Block work

4.4.1 General

All block work shall be designed in accordance with BS 5628 unless otherwise stated or
specifically agreed with the Engineer.
Structural and non-structural block work walls shall be designed for earthquake loads according
to UBC 1997 and as specified in section 3.12.6.

4.4.2 Blocks and concrete infill and grout

Blocks shall be according to BS 5628-1.


When load bearing or stabilizing block work is considered 14 MPa blocks shall be used.
When non load bearing block work is considered 7 MPa blocks shall be used. The modulus of
elasticity shall be in accordance with UBC 1997 section 2106.2.12.1.

4.4.3 Reinforcement

The reinforcement shall be in accordance with section 4.1.7 of this design basis.

4.4.4 Fire protection

Block work shall be fire protected as required by the General Specification for Masonry.

4.4.5 Partial safety factors

The partial safety factors at ULS shall be in accordance with BS 5628.


Unreinforced masonry Category I, γm , γmv Category II, γm , γmv
Compression 3.1 3.5
Flexure 3.0 3.0

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Shear 2.5 2.5
Wall ties 3.0 3.0

Reinforced masonry γm , γmv


Compression 2.3
Flexure 2.3
Shear 2.0
Reinforcement 1.15
Wall ties 2.5

In case the category of manufacturer control of the block work units is documented to be
“special”, then the partial safety factors can be reduced as given in BS 5628.

5. Geotechnical conditions and parameters

5.1 Bearing capacity


The Geotechnical Contractor shall determine the soil parameters for his design based on the
factual geotechnical data supplied by the Employer and the Contractor’s own supplementary
geotechnical investigations.
The Employer’s investigations are not exhaustive and the Consultant is responsible for carrying
out any additional geotechnical investigations necessary for his design.
The Pile foundation designs shown on the Contract Drawings are indicative and the Pile
Contractor shall carry out the Detailed Design of the Pile foundations, this shall include pile
sizes and depth together with the reinforcement design.

5.2 Safety factors


Foundations shall be designed in accordance with BS 8004 with a safety factor of f = 3.0.
When wind loading is included, the allowable bearing pressures can be increased by 25%
according to BS8004 corresponding to a factor of safety of f = 2.4.
For earthquake loading a factor of safety, f = 1.7, shall be used for bearing capacity
calculations.

5.3 Piles
• Piles can be used for foundation of the building for these project.

5.4 Settlements
Maximum acceptable settlements are 25 mm.
The Geotechnical Contractor shall however still specify criteria’s for acceptable settlements and
differential settlements to suit his Design of the foundations, structures, curtain walls, applied
finishes etc. The foundation design shall be carried out to satisfy all these requirements.

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The Consultant shall determine whether differential settlements are likely to occur between the
structure and the external works and if so include the effects of the differential settlements in the
design of the works as appropriate.

6. Joints

6.1 General
The Consultant shall include provisions in his detailed design for in-service inspection,
maintenance and replacement of, movement joint items, expansion joints, joint seals and fillers
etc.

6.2 Movement Joints


The buildings are divided into a number of sections by movement joints. These joints are
indicated on the structural drawings.
Movement joints shall be designed for movements due to e.g. thermal, wind, shrinkage,
settlement and seismic actions.
The Consultant shall plan his construction sequence of concrete structures in a way that
minimizes the effects of shrinkage.

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Appendix A - MODES Wind Speed and Seismic Zone Charts
Design Criteria

Basic Wind Speed Chart

Design Criteria

  DB- 27  
Seismic Zone Chart

Zone A = UBC Zone 2A

Zone B = UBC Zone 1

Zone C = UBC Zone 0

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Appendix B - Concrete service life design parameters

Structural elements with 50 years service life


Exposure Exposure description Reinforcement Minimum Nominal Maximum
class type cover to design crack
any steel cover width
SUBM Concrete faces of High Yield
structural parts Strength Bars (
permanently buried in the BS4449,BS4461,
50 mm 60 mm 0.20 mm
salty soil/groundwater BS 4482,BS4483)
(from approx. 1 m below
lowest GWL and deeper)
DRY-WET a) Concrete faces buried High Yield
in the soil/groundwater Strength Bars (
exposed to changing BS4449,BS4461,
groundwater levels. BS 4482,BS4483)
70 mm 80 mm 0.25 mm
Cycles of wetting and
drying resulting in
chloride accumulation at
the concrete surface or
b) Internal concrete faces High Yield
at water-retaining Strength Bars (
structures (one-sided BS4449,BS4461,
water pressure) with risk BS 4482,BS4483)
of chloride accumulation
0.20 mm
due to water ingress 70 mm 80 mm
through cracks, un-tight
tie-bars, links,
malfunctioning of
membrane etc.
DRY Concrete faces High of Yield
structural parts buried in
Strength Bars (
50 mm 60 mm 0.25 mm
the soil (from approx. 1 m
BS4449,BS4461,
above highest GWL) BS 4482,BS4483)
ATM External Concrete faces High Yield
exposed to airborne
Strength Bars (
50 mm 60 mm 0.25 mm
chlorides BS4449,BS4461,
BS 4482,BS4483)
IND Internal Concrete faces High Yield
exposed to atmospheric Strength Bars (
40 mm 50 mm 0.25 mm
CO2 (no chloride load) BS4449,BS4461,
BS 4482,BS4483)

1) May be overruled by the fire requirements.

2) Maximum cover to be used in crack width calculations is 50 mm.

3) In case of pre stressed structures the maximum crack width shall be reduced from 0.25 to 0.15 and 0.20 to
0.10 when the post tensioning strand is located near the surface of the member.

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Appendix C - Norms and standards
The codes and standards listed below are those referred to in this Design Basis. Codes and
standards specific to materials, execution and tolerances etc. are generally not mentioned here
as these are referred to in detail in the General Specifications for Concrete Work, Masonry and
Structural Steelwork.
If a standard is mentioned without a specific part, all the parts shall be considered relevant.
The most recent version of the referenced code or standard shall be used unless a specific
version is given here or elsewhere in the text in this document.
BS5628-1 Code of practice for use of masonry - Part 1. Structural use of unreinforced
masonry
BS5628-2 Code of practice for use of masonry - Part 2. Structural use of reinforced
masonry
BS5950-1 Structural use of steelwork in building - Part 1. Code of practice
BS5950-3.1 Code of practice for design of simple and continuous composite beams
BS5950-4 Code of practice for design of composite slabs with profiled steel sheeting
BS6399-1 Loading for buildings - Part 1. Code of practice for dead and imposed loads
BS6399-2 Loading for buildings - Part 2. Code of practice for wind loads
BS8004 British Standard Code of practice for Foundations
BS 8007 Code of practice for Design of concrete structures for retaining aqueous
liquids
BS8110-1 Structural use of concrete - Part 1. Code of practice for design and
construction
BS8110-2 Structural use of concrete - Part 2. Code of practice for special
circumstances
BS EN 1337 Structural bearings
BS EN 1991-1-7 Euro code 1. Actions on structures. Part 1-7. General actions - accidental
actions
BS EN 1992-1-1 Euro code 2. Design of structures for concrete structures. Part 1-1. General
rules and rules for buildings
BS EN 1994-1-1 Euro code 2. Design of composite steel and concrete structures. Part 1-1.
General rules and rules for buildings
BS EN 1998-1 Euro code 8. Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Part 1. General
rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings
BS EN 10025-2 Hot rolled products of structural steels. Part 2. Technical delivery conditions
for non- alloy structural steels
BS EN 10025-3 Hot rolled products of structural steels. Part 3. Technical delivery conditions
for normalized rolled weldable fine grain structural steels .

Uniform Building Code 1997, Volume 2. International Conference of Building Officials SCI
Publication 172, Castings in construction

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