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PHYSICS

INVESTIGATORY
PROJECT

SUBMITTED BY:
HADHIYA HANEEF.M.K
CLASS-XII
Roll no:
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA KALPETTA
TOPIC
AN EXPERIMENT TO
DEMONSTRATE THE
APPLICATION OF
BERNOUULLI’S THEOROM
[BERNOULLI’S BALLON]
INDEX
S.no TITLE Page No.
1 CERTIFICATE
2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
3 OBJECTIVE
4 INTRODUCTION
5 APPARATUS REQUIRED
6 PROCEDURE
7 OBSERVATION
8 CONCLUSION
9 PRECAUTIONS
10 BIBLIOGRAPHY
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Hadhiya Haneef M.K
of class XII has successfully completed the
investigatory project on the topic “An
experiment to demonstrate the application
of Bernoulli’s theorem” under the guidance
of Mrs.Susmitha Mary Robbins (physics
teacher)during the year 2019-20 in the
partial fulfilment of the physics practical
examination conducted by AISSCE, New
Delhi .

Signature Of internal examiner

Signature of external examiner

Signature of the principal


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The successful completion of any task would be
incomplete without mentioning the names of those
persons who helped to make it possible. I take this
opportunity to express my gratitude in few words and
respect to all those who helped me in the completion
of this project. It is my humble pleasure to
acknowledge my deep senses of gratitude to my
Biology teacher, Mrs.Selvi Priya.S for her valuable
support, constant help and guidance at each and
every stage, without which this project would not have
come forth.
I also register my sense of gratitude to our
principal, Mr.G Sasikumar, for his immense
encouragement that has made this project successful. I
would also like to thank my friends and family for
encouraging me during the course of this project. Last,
but not the least, I would like to thank CBSE for giving
us the opportunity to undertake this project.
OBJECTIVE
 The main aim of this project is to do an
experiment to demonstrate the
application of Bernoulli’s theorem.
INTRODUCTION
Daniel Bernoulli was a Swiss mathematician and
physicist who did pioneering work in the field of fluid
dynamics and kinetic theory of gases. Born in a
distinguished family of mathematicians, he was
encouraged by his father to pursue a business career.
After obtaining his Master of Arts degree, he studied
medicine and was also privately tutored in
mathematics by his father. Subsequently, he made a
name for himself and was called to St. Petersburg,
where he spent several fruitful years teaching
mathematics. During this time, he wrote important
texts on the theory of mechanics, including a first
version of his famous treatise on hydrodynamics.
Later, he served as a professor of anatomy and
botany in Basel before being appointed to the chair
of physics. There he taught physics for the next 26
years and also produced several other excellent
scientific works during his term. In one of his most
remarkable works ‘Hydrodynamica’ which was a
milestone in the theory of the flowing behavior of
liquids, he developed the theory of watermills,
windmills, water pumps and water propellers. But,
undoubtedly, his most significant contribution to
sciences would be the ‘Bernoulli Theorem’ which still
remains the general principle of hydrodynamics and
aerodynamics, and forms the basis of modern
aviation.

Bernoulli's principle
 States that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs
simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a
decrease in thefluid'spotential energy.
 Sum of pressure energy ,kinetic energy ,potential
enrgy per unit volume of a incompressible,non
viscous fluid in a streamlined irrotational flow
remains constant along the streamline.
 An important and highly useful special case where
friction is not involved.
General Expression of Bernoulli’s
Equation
Let us consider two different regions in the diagram. Let us
name the first region as BC and the second region as DE.
Now consider the fluid was previously present in between B
and D. However, this fluid will move in a minute
(infinitesimal) interval of time (∆t).If the speed of fluid at
point B is v1 and at point D is v2. Therefore, if the fluid
initially at B moves to C then the distance is v1∆t. However,
v1∆t is very small and we can consider it constant across the
cross-section in the region BC. Similarly, during the same
interval of time ∆t the fluid which was previously present in
the point D is now at E. Thus, the distance covered is v2∆t.
Pressures, P1 and P2, will act in the two regions, A1 and A2,
thereby binding the two parts.
Finding the Work Done
First, we will calculate the work done (W1) on the fluid in the
region BC. Work done is W1 = P1A1 (v1∆t) = P1∆V

Moreover, if we consider the equation of continuity, the same


volume of fluid will pass through BC and DE. Therefore, work
done by the fluid on the right-hand side of the pipe or DE
region is W2 = P2A2 (v2∆t) = P2∆V. Thus, we can consider the
work done on the fluid as – P2∆V. Therefore, the total work
done on the fluid isW1 – W2 = (P1 − P2) ∆V . The total work
done helps to convert the gravitational potential energy and
kinetic energy of the fluid. Now, consider the fluid density as ρ
and the mass passing through the pipe as ∆m in the ∆t interval
of time.

Hence, m = ρA1 v1∆t = ρ∆V

Change in Gravitational Potential and Kinetic


Energy

Now, we have to calculate the change in gravitational


potential energy ∆U.

Similarly, the change in ∆K or kinetic energy can be written as

Calculation of Bernoulli’s Equation

Applying work-energy theorem in the volume of the fluid,


the equation will be

Dividing each term by ∆V, we will obtain the equation


Rearranging the equation will yield

The above equation is the Bernoulli’s equation. However,


the 1 and 2 of both the sides of the equation denotes two
different points along the pipe. Thus, the general equation
can be written as

Thus, we can state that Bernoulli’s equation state that the


Pressure (P), potential energy (ρgh) per unit volume and
the kinetic energy (ρv2/2) per unit volume will remain
constant.
APPARATUSREQUIRED
In order to complete my project I used
different materials like
 Two paper cup
 Two bend straws
 Cutter
 Balloon
 Scissors
 Rubber glue

Two
Twopaper
Rubber
Scissors
Balloon
Cutter
bend
glue
cup
straws
PROCEDURE
Step 1 : Make a small hole in the base of a paper cup
with scissors.

Step 2 : Cut three slits in the cup.


Step 3 : Press fit a bendable straw in the cup hole. And
seal the joined with rubber glue.

Step 4 : Prepare two slip one with slits and one with
without slits.
Step 5 : Inflate a balloon tie a knot on its mouth.

Step 6 :Keep the inflated balloon on both the cups with


slit and without slit and then Blow through the straw and
observe.
OBSERVATION
 It is observed that when inflated balloon is placed
in the cup with no slits the Balloon will not lift no
matter how hard we blow.

Even if we Invert the cup and blow, the


balloon will not fall but stick to cup.
On the other hand On blowing the balloon in
the cup with slits the ballon will fly off.

On inverting and blowing the balloon will fall off.


CONCLUSION
When we are blowing the balloon on a cup with no slit no
air can come from outside and also the air blown through
the straw has a high velocity and creates a low pressure
zone sucking the balloon on the cup.
On the other hand when air is blown in the cup with the slits
most of the air escaping through the slit is at atmospheric
pressure and someo of the air goes up lifting the balloon.

PRECAUTIONS
 Papercups should be of same size
 Knot should be carefully made at the mouth
of inflamated balloon
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 www.scribd.com
 www.arvindguptatoys.com
 Ncert physics text book class 11 part
II(page no:258,259)
 Fundotoys.com
 https://serc.carleton.edu
 www.wikipedia.com