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THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICS LEARNING

INSTRUMENTS BASED ON GUIDED DISCOVERY LEARNING


FOR 10TH GRADE STUDENTS AT SMKN 8 MALANG

ARTICLE

BY:
ELFA NUR FATMASARI
NIM 150311601472

STATE UNIVERSITY OF MALANG


FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE
STUDY PROGRAM OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
APRIL 2019
This article by Elfa Nur Fatmasari
has been reviewed and approved,

Malang. 15 April 2019


Mentor,

Latifah Mustofa Lestyanto, S.Si., M.Pd.


NIP 19850816 201012 2 005

Author,

Elfa Nur Fatmasari


NIM 150311601472

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICS LEARNING
INSTRUMENTS BASED ON GUIDED DISCOVERY LEARNING
FOR 10TH GRADE STUDENTS AT SMKN 8 MALANG

Elfa Nur Fatmasari


Latifah Mustofa Lestyanto
State University Of Malang
E-mail: elfafatmasari27@gmail.com

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to produce Mathematics Learning


Instruments in the form of Lesson Plan and worksheet based on Guided Discovery
Learning in trigonometric comparison material on right triangles for class X
students of SMKN 8 Malang that is valid, practical, and effective. The
development model refers to the Plomp development model, namely the initial
investment phase, the design phase, the realization/construction phase, and the
test, evaluation, and revision phases. Based on data analysis, the results that were
obtained are (1) validity test which was declared valid, (2) practicality test which
was stated practical, and (3) effectiveness test which was declared effective. The
validity test was obtained based on the validity score of Lesson Plan, Worksheet,
and Test Questions, which are getting 3.57, 3.76, and 3.71 respectively.
The practicality test was obtained based on the practicality score of observation
sheet for teacher activities, observation sheet for student activities, and student
response questionnaire, which are getting 3.70, 3.42, and 3.41 respectively. The
effectiveness test was obtained based on the results of student learning evaluation
which shows that 86.11% of students got score ≥75. Hence, the Development of
Mathematics Learning Instrument meets the criteria of valid, practical, and
effective. Moreover this mathematics learning instruments is suitable for use in
learning.

Keywords: learning instrument, guided discovery learning, trigonometric


comparisons of right triangles.

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College Students of Mathematics Department, State University of Malang
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Lecturer of Mathematics Department, State University of Malang

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PRELIMINARY
Mathematics is one of the science that has important roles and objectives,
especially in solving contextual problems (Siagian, 2012). In Permendikbud
No.64 of year 2013 about the standard content of mathematics subjects, state that
one of the goals of mathematics in school is to improve students' ability to
understand concepts, so students do not difficulties in solving a problem. The role
of the teacher is very influential in realizing the learning goals. In the Education
Act No. 14 of year 2005, state that teachers are professional educators who have
the main task of educating, teaching, guiding, directing, training, and evaluating
students ranging from early childhood education of formal education up to
secondary education. If the task is done well it will then create quality learning.
In addition, the teacher must also have basic competencies such as
pedagogical, professional, personality and social competence. One of the basic
competencies that teachers must have is basic professional competence.
Professional basic competence is the teacher's competence in choosing,
developing, and utilizing learning resources (Rusman, 2017:163). This means that
the teacher must be able to develop and compile a complete and good learning
plan for activities in the classroom and outside the classroom. Lesson plans here
are interpreted as learning instruments that are well compiled by the teacher to
achieve learning goals. While the learning instruments in means is the Lesson
Plan and Worksheet.
Based on observation do by researcher at the Field Study and Practice at
SMKN 8 Malang and interviews with teacher and some students of SMKN 8
Malang class X Software Engineering A, obtained several facts in the field. Field
facts indicate that the Lesson Plan contain learning activities, which are more
dominated by teacher, students also tend to be passive and only listen to the
explanation of the material and then to ask students to do the question exercises.
In addition, students of SMKN 8 Malang class X Software Engineering A also
have the main reference source, namely the module. The module was developed
by mathematics teacher at SMKN 8 Malang and presented in a series of material
descriptions, question examples, and question exercises. Therefore, there is a need
for learning resources that able students to find material concepts independently.

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The learning resources in mean are Worksheets, because there is no worksheet in
the SMKN 8 Malang which is used as a source of learn.
In worksheet a suitable learning model is needed. The learning model taken
in this research is a guided discovery learning model. Maryanti & Mawaddah
(2016: 77) states that one alternative selection of learning models that can
increase the ability to understand concepts and get a positive response from
students is a guided discovery learning model. Abel & Smith (in Effendi, 2012: 4)
also states that the guided discovery learning model is learning that involves the
teacher as a facilitator who guides students through questions. These questions
lead students to find concepts, principles, or procedures based on the learning
resources provided by the teacher. Markaban (2008: 17) also state that one of the
advantages of guided discovery learning model is that students can actively
participate in the learning presented and are able to grow and instill the attitude of
inquiry (looking for-find). In research conducted by Sa'diyah (2017), it was
proven that guided discovery learning model can improve students' ability to
understand the concepts of cube and beam material and improve skills in solving
various mathematic problems.
Lesson Plan and Worksheet based on guided discovery learning can be
applied to trigonometric comparison material. Based on the preliminary test
conducted by the researcher by giving a question. That is about trigonometric
comparison material to some students who have received it, it turns out that
students still incorrectly answer the questions given. This is also proven from the
mathematical value of class X students of SMKN 8 Malang having the lowest
average score compared to the average value in other mathematics subjects, like
SPLDV, linear program, and sequences and series.
Based on the explanation above, finally the researcher developed a learning
instruments based on guided discovery learning in the form of Lesson Plan and
Worksheet on trigonometric comparison material on right triangle for 10th grade
students. Therefore, the title taken was “The Development of Mathematics
Learning Instruments Based on Guided Discovery Learning for 10th Grade
Students at SMKN 8 Malang”

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METHOD
This research is a type of development research that goals to develop a
learning instruments product in the form of a Lesson Plan and Worksheet. They
are applied to the trigonometric comparison material on a right triangle for 10th
grade students at SMKN 8 Malang. The development model used in learning
instruments based on Guided Discovery Learning are the development model of
Plomp (in Hobri, 2010). There are five phases in the Plomp development model,
namely (1) initial investigation phase, (2) design phase, (3)
realization/construction phase, (4) test phase, evaluation, and revision, and (5)
implementation phase. But in the development of this device only up to the fourth
phase, due to limited time and research costs.
In the initial investigation phase, the first activity carried out by researcher
was to identify and analyze information about problems that occurred in
classroom learning. From the results of observations and interviews, it was
obtained the fact that during mathematics learning the teacher still used a learning
model that tended to provide formulas, question examples, and students were
immediately given a question exercise, so it does not support students to construct
the concept. It is also known that students still tend to memorize the formulas in
the book or module directly. so, that when students are given trigonometric
comparison questions on right triangles which are slightly different from the
question examples given by the teacher, the students already feel difficulties. The
next researcher activity is to limit the problems that will be used as research
material. The problem taken is a problem regarding the learning instruments that
will be developed on trigonometric comparison material on right triangle for 10th
grade students at SMKN 8 Malang. Learning instrumens developed in the form of
Lesson Plan and Worksheet. The last activity of researcher in this phase, namely
researcher plan to make a mathematic instruments in the form of Lesson Plan and
Worksheet based on Guided Discovery Learning and they will be tested to
determine the validity level.
In the design phase, the first activity carried out by the researcher is the
determine material and basic competencies related in the learning device. The
researcher choose trigonometric comparison material in right triangle on KD 3.8,

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which is determining trigonometric comparison on right triangle and KD 4.8
which is solving problems related to trigonometric comparison on right triangle.
The next activity in this phase is the researcher designing the content format of the
learning instruments. Format the contents of the Lesson Plan developed based on
Permendikbud 81A 2013 which consists of (1) school / madrasah identity,
subjects, class / semester, subject matter, and time allocation, (2) KI / KD,
indicators, achievement of competencies, (3) goals learning, (4) learning material,
(5) learning approaches / models / methods, (6) media / tools, materials, and
learning resources, (7) steps in learning activities, and (8) assessment. While the
Worksheet format developed was adjusted to the Worksheet format according to
the Ministry of National Education which consisted of (1) the title of worksheet,
(2) learning instructions, (3) competencies to be achieved, (4) supporting
information, (5) tasks and steps work, and (6) assessment. The learning
instruments developed were designed based on guided discovery learning
according to Markaban which consists of five stages, namely (1) problem
presentation, (2) gathering information, (3) conjecture, (4) verbalization, and (5)
evaluation. The last activity of researcher in this phase, namely researcher
compiled development instruments in the form of validation sheets, practicality
test sheets for learning instruments (teacher and student observation sheets), and
student response questionnaires.
In the phase of realization / construction, the activities carried out by the
researcher are compiling the parts of the learning device developed, then
designing the layout and appearance of the learning instruments to make it more
interesting to use. Whereas in the testing, evaluation, and revision phases,
researcher tested product validity. It goals to determine the validity criteria and
after being declared valid, the researcher conducted a product trial to determine
the criteria for practicality and effectiveness. To find out the criteria of
practicality, researcher used the teacher activity observation sheets, student
activity observation sheets, and student response questionnaires. While the
effectiveness test is obtained from the results of student learning evaluations (30%
of the worksheet score and 70% of the test questions).

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This research was conducted in January 2019 in the 2018/2019 school year.
The trial was conducted at SMKN 8 Malang. The trial subjects namely thirty-sixth
students of class X of Software Engineering A. Data obtained from trials are
quantitative data and qualitative data. Quantitative data were obtained from: (1)
the results of the instruments validation sheets in the form of Lesson Plan
validation scores, worksheets, test questions, teacher activity observation sheets,
student activity observation sheets, and student response questionnaires by expert
validator and practitioner, (2) instruments practicality test in the form of
practicality scores of observation sheets of teacher activities by observers,
observation sheets of student activities by observers, and student response
questionnaires, and (3) results of student learning evaluations. While qualitative
data is obtained from comments or suggestions given from: (1) expert validator
and practitioner during the learning instruments validation process and (2)
observers and students about the practicality test of learning instruments.
Quantitative data were analyzed based on quantitative data analysis techniques
adapted from Hobri (2010).

RESULTS
Based on the validity test, data obtained from the Lesson Plan validation
results obtained a final score of 3.57 with valid criteria. The Lesson Plan
developed didn't receive comments or suggestions from the validators. For data
from Worksheet validation, obtained the final score is 3.76 with valid criteria. The
validator's comments or suggestions on the Worksheet are (1) the substitution of
the command to describe the isosceles triangle can be seen in Figure 1(a) by the
students themselves being a picture of an isosceles triangle, can be seen in Figure
1(b) depicted directly on Workshet 2 in the activity "Let’s Find". This goal to
make the time used more effective.

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Figure 1(a). before revision Figure 1(b). after revision
(2) The substitution of commands to describe equilateral triangle by students
themselves can be seen in Figure 2 (a) being a picture of an equilateral triangle
can be seen in Figure 2 (b) depicted directly on Worksheet 2 in the "Let's Find"
activity. This goal to make the time used more effective too.

Figure 2(a). before revision Figure 2(b). after revision


For result data from the validation of the Test Questions, get the final score
of 3.71 with valid criteria. The validator's comments or suggestions on the Test
Questions are (1) the replacement of the problem number 1 can be seen in Figure
3(a) being a more reasonable problem can be seen in Figure 3(b). Becaused the
number 1 question about the monument height of 5 m makes little sense so that
revisions are made by changing the problems that make more sense,

Figure 3(a). before revision

Gambar 3(b). after revision


(2) The deletion of triangular image colors in questions number 2 and 3 can be
seen in Figure 4(a) to be a colorless triangle image can be seen in Figure 4(b).

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Figure 4(a). before revision Figure 4(b). after revision
For results data from the observation sheet of teacher activities, observation
sheets of student activities, and questionnaire responses students respectively,
they get the final score of 3.81, 3.81, and 3.75 with valid criteria without any
comments or suggestions from the validators.
The data on practicality test results of learning instruments are known based
on the observation sheet of teacher activities, observation sheets of student
activities, and questionnaire responses of students. The result respectively
obtained the final score of 3.70, 3.42, and 3. 41 with practical criteria. Whereas
for the results of the effectiveness test data obtained 86.11% of students obtained
the value of learning evaluation results above the criteria minimal, namely 75.

DISCUSSIONS
The results of data analysis obtained from validity tests, practicality tests,
and effectiveness tests show that the learning instruments developed meet valid,
practical, and effective criteria. Thus, learning instruments are worthly to be used
for class X students in Vocational High Schools in mathematics learning.
Especially in trigonometric comparisons of right triangles. Learning instruments
based on Guided Discovery Learning developed can transform learning into
student-centered and can guide students to be active in finding concepts.
The developed Lesson Plan was developed based on Minister of Education
and Culture Number 81A of 2013 which was combined with the steps in
Markaban's version of guided discovery learning (2008: 17). The steps of guided
discovery learning in the Markaban version are started by presenting the problem,
collecting datas, conjecture, verbalizing, and ending with the evaluation step.

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The Worksheet developed was based on the Worksheet structure of the
Ministry of National Education (2008) which was also adjusted to the steps of
Guided Discovery Learning. Worksheets consists of two worksheet which are
used for two meetings. Worksheet 1 contains trigonometric comparison material
on right triangle. In Worksheet 1, students are guided to find trigonometric
comparisons of right triangles through congruence triangles. Whereas for
Worksheet 2 contains trigonometric comparison material at a special angle
(30°, 45°, 𝑑𝑎𝑛 60°). On Worksheet 2 students were guided to find trigonometric
comparison values at special angles (30°, 45°, and 60°). It was connected with the
concept of trigonometric comparisons on right triangles which had been discussed
at the previous meeting. In addition, each worksheet is equipped with practice
questions so that students are able to apply the concepts of trigonometric
comparisons to solve problems.
While the test questions developed are test questions for the comparison of
trigonometry in right triangles according to KD 3.8 and KD 4.8. The test
questions consist of four description questions that students must do individually
in 60 minutes.

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS


Conclusions
Based on the results of the validity test that has been done, the results of the
validity test, namely (1) the Lesson Plan shows that the lesson plan meets the
valid criteria with a score of 3.57 for the 1-4 scale. (2) Worksheet shows that
worksheets meet valid criteria with a score of 3.76 for a 1-4 scale, and (3) Test
Questions also show that test questions meet valid criteria with a score of 3.71 for
a 1-4 scale. For practicality test seen from the results of the observation sheet of
teacher activities, the results of the observation sheet of student activities, and
student response questionnaires. Sequentially obtained a score of 3.70, 3.42, 3.41
to scale 1-4 with practical criteria. While the results of the effectiveness test
obtained from the results of student learning evaluation which includes 30% of the
results of worksheets and 70% of student test results. The results of student
learning evaluations show that 86.11% of students get grades above the Criteria

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Minimal. This means that the learning instruments developed meet the effective
criteria. Thus, the learning instruments developed have met valid, practical, and
effective criteria to be used as an alternative to mathematics teaching materials.
Suggestions
Suggestions for further product utilization and development namely (1) the
results of the development of learning instruments based on guided discovery
learning are expected to be used as an teaching material alternative by Senior
High School mathematics teachers, (2) the commands contained in Worksheet are
more explained and more emphasized by the teacher, so that students understand
more about these commands, (3) the development of this learning instruments are
still limited in the material of trigonometric comparisons of right triangles, so it is
expected that learning instruments for other material, (4) Further developers are
expected to be able to make practice questions more varied, so that students are
canned to apply their abilities in using the concepts of trigonometric comparisons
on right triangles, (5) The next developer is expected to create a grid of questions
which are used as guidelines in making test questions, so that they will produce
questions that are in accordance with the objectives to be achieved.

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