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FOR 10TH GRADE STUDENTS AT SMKN 8 MALANG

ARTICLE

BY:

ELFA NUR FATMASARI

NIM 150311601472

FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE

STUDY PROGRAM OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

APRIL 2019

This article by Elfa Nur Fatmasari

has been reviewed and approved,

Mentor,

NIP 19850816 201012 2 005

Author,

NIM 150311601472

2

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICS LEARNING

INSTRUMENTS BASED ON GUIDED DISCOVERY LEARNING

FOR 10TH GRADE STUDENTS AT SMKN 8 MALANG

Latifah Mustofa Lestyanto

State University Of Malang

E-mail: elfafatmasari27@gmail.com

Instruments in the form of Lesson Plan and worksheet based on Guided Discovery

Learning in trigonometric comparison material on right triangles for class X

students of SMKN 8 Malang that is valid, practical, and effective. The

development model refers to the Plomp development model, namely the initial

investment phase, the design phase, the realization/construction phase, and the

test, evaluation, and revision phases. Based on data analysis, the results that were

obtained are (1) validity test which was declared valid, (2) practicality test which

was stated practical, and (3) effectiveness test which was declared effective. The

validity test was obtained based on the validity score of Lesson Plan, Worksheet,

and Test Questions, which are getting 3.57, 3.76, and 3.71 respectively.

The practicality test was obtained based on the practicality score of observation

sheet for teacher activities, observation sheet for student activities, and student

response questionnaire, which are getting 3.70, 3.42, and 3.41 respectively. The

effectiveness test was obtained based on the results of student learning evaluation

which shows that 86.11% of students got score ≥75. Hence, the Development of

Mathematics Learning Instrument meets the criteria of valid, practical, and

effective. Moreover this mathematics learning instruments is suitable for use in

learning.

comparisons of right triangles.

1

College Students of Mathematics Department, State University of Malang

2

Lecturer of Mathematics Department, State University of Malang

1

PRELIMINARY

Mathematics is one of the science that has important roles and objectives,

especially in solving contextual problems (Siagian, 2012). In Permendikbud

No.64 of year 2013 about the standard content of mathematics subjects, state that

one of the goals of mathematics in school is to improve students' ability to

understand concepts, so students do not difficulties in solving a problem. The role

of the teacher is very influential in realizing the learning goals. In the Education

Act No. 14 of year 2005, state that teachers are professional educators who have

the main task of educating, teaching, guiding, directing, training, and evaluating

students ranging from early childhood education of formal education up to

secondary education. If the task is done well it will then create quality learning.

In addition, the teacher must also have basic competencies such as

pedagogical, professional, personality and social competence. One of the basic

competencies that teachers must have is basic professional competence.

Professional basic competence is the teacher's competence in choosing,

developing, and utilizing learning resources (Rusman, 2017:163). This means that

the teacher must be able to develop and compile a complete and good learning

plan for activities in the classroom and outside the classroom. Lesson plans here

are interpreted as learning instruments that are well compiled by the teacher to

achieve learning goals. While the learning instruments in means is the Lesson

Plan and Worksheet.

Based on observation do by researcher at the Field Study and Practice at

SMKN 8 Malang and interviews with teacher and some students of SMKN 8

Malang class X Software Engineering A, obtained several facts in the field. Field

facts indicate that the Lesson Plan contain learning activities, which are more

dominated by teacher, students also tend to be passive and only listen to the

explanation of the material and then to ask students to do the question exercises.

In addition, students of SMKN 8 Malang class X Software Engineering A also

have the main reference source, namely the module. The module was developed

by mathematics teacher at SMKN 8 Malang and presented in a series of material

descriptions, question examples, and question exercises. Therefore, there is a need

for learning resources that able students to find material concepts independently.

2

The learning resources in mean are Worksheets, because there is no worksheet in

the SMKN 8 Malang which is used as a source of learn.

In worksheet a suitable learning model is needed. The learning model taken

in this research is a guided discovery learning model. Maryanti & Mawaddah

(2016: 77) states that one alternative selection of learning models that can

increase the ability to understand concepts and get a positive response from

students is a guided discovery learning model. Abel & Smith (in Effendi, 2012: 4)

also states that the guided discovery learning model is learning that involves the

teacher as a facilitator who guides students through questions. These questions

lead students to find concepts, principles, or procedures based on the learning

resources provided by the teacher. Markaban (2008: 17) also state that one of the

advantages of guided discovery learning model is that students can actively

participate in the learning presented and are able to grow and instill the attitude of

inquiry (looking for-find). In research conducted by Sa'diyah (2017), it was

proven that guided discovery learning model can improve students' ability to

understand the concepts of cube and beam material and improve skills in solving

various mathematic problems.

Lesson Plan and Worksheet based on guided discovery learning can be

applied to trigonometric comparison material. Based on the preliminary test

conducted by the researcher by giving a question. That is about trigonometric

comparison material to some students who have received it, it turns out that

students still incorrectly answer the questions given. This is also proven from the

mathematical value of class X students of SMKN 8 Malang having the lowest

average score compared to the average value in other mathematics subjects, like

SPLDV, linear program, and sequences and series.

Based on the explanation above, finally the researcher developed a learning

instruments based on guided discovery learning in the form of Lesson Plan and

Worksheet on trigonometric comparison material on right triangle for 10th grade

students. Therefore, the title taken was “The Development of Mathematics

Learning Instruments Based on Guided Discovery Learning for 10th Grade

Students at SMKN 8 Malang”

3

METHOD

This research is a type of development research that goals to develop a

learning instruments product in the form of a Lesson Plan and Worksheet. They

are applied to the trigonometric comparison material on a right triangle for 10th

grade students at SMKN 8 Malang. The development model used in learning

instruments based on Guided Discovery Learning are the development model of

Plomp (in Hobri, 2010). There are five phases in the Plomp development model,

namely (1) initial investigation phase, (2) design phase, (3)

realization/construction phase, (4) test phase, evaluation, and revision, and (5)

implementation phase. But in the development of this device only up to the fourth

phase, due to limited time and research costs.

In the initial investigation phase, the first activity carried out by researcher

was to identify and analyze information about problems that occurred in

classroom learning. From the results of observations and interviews, it was

obtained the fact that during mathematics learning the teacher still used a learning

model that tended to provide formulas, question examples, and students were

immediately given a question exercise, so it does not support students to construct

the concept. It is also known that students still tend to memorize the formulas in

the book or module directly. so, that when students are given trigonometric

comparison questions on right triangles which are slightly different from the

question examples given by the teacher, the students already feel difficulties. The

next researcher activity is to limit the problems that will be used as research

material. The problem taken is a problem regarding the learning instruments that

will be developed on trigonometric comparison material on right triangle for 10th

grade students at SMKN 8 Malang. Learning instrumens developed in the form of

Lesson Plan and Worksheet. The last activity of researcher in this phase, namely

researcher plan to make a mathematic instruments in the form of Lesson Plan and

Worksheet based on Guided Discovery Learning and they will be tested to

determine the validity level.

In the design phase, the first activity carried out by the researcher is the

determine material and basic competencies related in the learning device. The

researcher choose trigonometric comparison material in right triangle on KD 3.8,

4

which is determining trigonometric comparison on right triangle and KD 4.8

which is solving problems related to trigonometric comparison on right triangle.

The next activity in this phase is the researcher designing the content format of the

learning instruments. Format the contents of the Lesson Plan developed based on

Permendikbud 81A 2013 which consists of (1) school / madrasah identity,

subjects, class / semester, subject matter, and time allocation, (2) KI / KD,

indicators, achievement of competencies, (3) goals learning, (4) learning material,

(5) learning approaches / models / methods, (6) media / tools, materials, and

learning resources, (7) steps in learning activities, and (8) assessment. While the

Worksheet format developed was adjusted to the Worksheet format according to

the Ministry of National Education which consisted of (1) the title of worksheet,

(2) learning instructions, (3) competencies to be achieved, (4) supporting

information, (5) tasks and steps work, and (6) assessment. The learning

instruments developed were designed based on guided discovery learning

according to Markaban which consists of five stages, namely (1) problem

presentation, (2) gathering information, (3) conjecture, (4) verbalization, and (5)

evaluation. The last activity of researcher in this phase, namely researcher

compiled development instruments in the form of validation sheets, practicality

test sheets for learning instruments (teacher and student observation sheets), and

student response questionnaires.

In the phase of realization / construction, the activities carried out by the

researcher are compiling the parts of the learning device developed, then

designing the layout and appearance of the learning instruments to make it more

interesting to use. Whereas in the testing, evaluation, and revision phases,

researcher tested product validity. It goals to determine the validity criteria and

after being declared valid, the researcher conducted a product trial to determine

the criteria for practicality and effectiveness. To find out the criteria of

practicality, researcher used the teacher activity observation sheets, student

activity observation sheets, and student response questionnaires. While the

effectiveness test is obtained from the results of student learning evaluations (30%

of the worksheet score and 70% of the test questions).

5

This research was conducted in January 2019 in the 2018/2019 school year.

The trial was conducted at SMKN 8 Malang. The trial subjects namely thirty-sixth

students of class X of Software Engineering A. Data obtained from trials are

quantitative data and qualitative data. Quantitative data were obtained from: (1)

the results of the instruments validation sheets in the form of Lesson Plan

validation scores, worksheets, test questions, teacher activity observation sheets,

student activity observation sheets, and student response questionnaires by expert

validator and practitioner, (2) instruments practicality test in the form of

practicality scores of observation sheets of teacher activities by observers,

observation sheets of student activities by observers, and student response

questionnaires, and (3) results of student learning evaluations. While qualitative

data is obtained from comments or suggestions given from: (1) expert validator

and practitioner during the learning instruments validation process and (2)

observers and students about the practicality test of learning instruments.

Quantitative data were analyzed based on quantitative data analysis techniques

adapted from Hobri (2010).

RESULTS

Based on the validity test, data obtained from the Lesson Plan validation

results obtained a final score of 3.57 with valid criteria. The Lesson Plan

developed didn't receive comments or suggestions from the validators. For data

from Worksheet validation, obtained the final score is 3.76 with valid criteria. The

validator's comments or suggestions on the Worksheet are (1) the substitution of

the command to describe the isosceles triangle can be seen in Figure 1(a) by the

students themselves being a picture of an isosceles triangle, can be seen in Figure

1(b) depicted directly on Workshet 2 in the activity "Let’s Find". This goal to

make the time used more effective.

6

Figure 1(a). before revision Figure 1(b). after revision

(2) The substitution of commands to describe equilateral triangle by students

themselves can be seen in Figure 2 (a) being a picture of an equilateral triangle

can be seen in Figure 2 (b) depicted directly on Worksheet 2 in the "Let's Find"

activity. This goal to make the time used more effective too.

For result data from the validation of the Test Questions, get the final score

of 3.71 with valid criteria. The validator's comments or suggestions on the Test

Questions are (1) the replacement of the problem number 1 can be seen in Figure

3(a) being a more reasonable problem can be seen in Figure 3(b). Becaused the

number 1 question about the monument height of 5 m makes little sense so that

revisions are made by changing the problems that make more sense,

(2) The deletion of triangular image colors in questions number 2 and 3 can be

seen in Figure 4(a) to be a colorless triangle image can be seen in Figure 4(b).

7

Figure 4(a). before revision Figure 4(b). after revision

For results data from the observation sheet of teacher activities, observation

sheets of student activities, and questionnaire responses students respectively,

they get the final score of 3.81, 3.81, and 3.75 with valid criteria without any

comments or suggestions from the validators.

The data on practicality test results of learning instruments are known based

on the observation sheet of teacher activities, observation sheets of student

activities, and questionnaire responses of students. The result respectively

obtained the final score of 3.70, 3.42, and 3. 41 with practical criteria. Whereas

for the results of the effectiveness test data obtained 86.11% of students obtained

the value of learning evaluation results above the criteria minimal, namely 75.

DISCUSSIONS

The results of data analysis obtained from validity tests, practicality tests,

and effectiveness tests show that the learning instruments developed meet valid,

practical, and effective criteria. Thus, learning instruments are worthly to be used

for class X students in Vocational High Schools in mathematics learning.

Especially in trigonometric comparisons of right triangles. Learning instruments

based on Guided Discovery Learning developed can transform learning into

student-centered and can guide students to be active in finding concepts.

The developed Lesson Plan was developed based on Minister of Education

and Culture Number 81A of 2013 which was combined with the steps in

Markaban's version of guided discovery learning (2008: 17). The steps of guided

discovery learning in the Markaban version are started by presenting the problem,

collecting datas, conjecture, verbalizing, and ending with the evaluation step.

8

The Worksheet developed was based on the Worksheet structure of the

Ministry of National Education (2008) which was also adjusted to the steps of

Guided Discovery Learning. Worksheets consists of two worksheet which are

used for two meetings. Worksheet 1 contains trigonometric comparison material

on right triangle. In Worksheet 1, students are guided to find trigonometric

comparisons of right triangles through congruence triangles. Whereas for

Worksheet 2 contains trigonometric comparison material at a special angle

(30°, 45°, 𝑑𝑎𝑛 60°). On Worksheet 2 students were guided to find trigonometric

comparison values at special angles (30°, 45°, and 60°). It was connected with the

concept of trigonometric comparisons on right triangles which had been discussed

at the previous meeting. In addition, each worksheet is equipped with practice

questions so that students are able to apply the concepts of trigonometric

comparisons to solve problems.

While the test questions developed are test questions for the comparison of

trigonometry in right triangles according to KD 3.8 and KD 4.8. The test

questions consist of four description questions that students must do individually

in 60 minutes.

Conclusions

Based on the results of the validity test that has been done, the results of the

validity test, namely (1) the Lesson Plan shows that the lesson plan meets the

valid criteria with a score of 3.57 for the 1-4 scale. (2) Worksheet shows that

worksheets meet valid criteria with a score of 3.76 for a 1-4 scale, and (3) Test

Questions also show that test questions meet valid criteria with a score of 3.71 for

a 1-4 scale. For practicality test seen from the results of the observation sheet of

teacher activities, the results of the observation sheet of student activities, and

student response questionnaires. Sequentially obtained a score of 3.70, 3.42, 3.41

to scale 1-4 with practical criteria. While the results of the effectiveness test

obtained from the results of student learning evaluation which includes 30% of the

results of worksheets and 70% of student test results. The results of student

learning evaluations show that 86.11% of students get grades above the Criteria

9

Minimal. This means that the learning instruments developed meet the effective

criteria. Thus, the learning instruments developed have met valid, practical, and

effective criteria to be used as an alternative to mathematics teaching materials.

Suggestions

Suggestions for further product utilization and development namely (1) the

results of the development of learning instruments based on guided discovery

learning are expected to be used as an teaching material alternative by Senior

High School mathematics teachers, (2) the commands contained in Worksheet are

more explained and more emphasized by the teacher, so that students understand

more about these commands, (3) the development of this learning instruments are

still limited in the material of trigonometric comparisons of right triangles, so it is

expected that learning instruments for other material, (4) Further developers are

expected to be able to make practice questions more varied, so that students are

canned to apply their abilities in using the concepts of trigonometric comparisons

on right triangles, (5) The next developer is expected to create a grid of questions

which are used as guidelines in making test questions, so that they will produce

questions that are in accordance with the objectives to be achieved.

REERENCES

Depdiknas. 2008. Panduan Pengembangan Bahan Ajar. Jakarta: Direktorat

Pembinaan Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah.

Terbimbing untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Representasi dan

Pemecahan Masalah Matematis Siswa SMP. Jurnal Penelitian

Pendidikan,13(2), 1-10. Dari http://jurnal.upi.edu/file/Leo_Adhar.pdf.

Pendidikan Matematika). Jember: Pena Salsabila.

SMK. Yogyakarta: Pusat Pengembangan dan Pemberdayaan Pendidikan

dan Tenaga Kependidikan Matematika.

dalam Pembelajaran Menggunakan Penemuan Terbimbing (Discovery

Learning). Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 4(1), 76-85. Dari

https://ppjp.ulm.ac.id/journal/index.php/edumat/article/view/2292/2010.

10

Permendikbud Republik Indonesia No.64 Tahun 2013 tentang Standar Isi

Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah. Bsnp Indonesia (online), (http://bsnp-

indonesia.org/id/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/Permendikbud-Nomor-64-

tahun-2013-ttg-SI.pdf), di akses 11 Juni 2018.

Kurikulum Pedoman Pembelajaran. Bsnp Indonesia (online),

(http://luk.staff.ugm.ac.id/atur/bsnp/Permendikbud81A-

2013ImplementasiK13Lengkap.pdf), di akses 24 Oktober 2018.

Pendidikan. Jakarta: Kencana.

Penemuan Terbimbing Materi Kubus dan Balok untuk Siswa kelas VIII.

Skripsi tidak diterbitksn, Malang: FMIPA UM.

Siagian, R. E. F. 2012. Pengaruh Minat dan kebiasaan Belajar Siswa terhadap

Prestasi Belajar Matematika. Jurnal Formatif, 2(2), 123. Dari

https://journal.lppmunindra.ac.id/index.php/Formatif/article/view/93.

Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 14 Tahun 2005 tentang Guru dan

Dosen. Jakarta: Presiden Republik Indonesia

11

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