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ANALYSIS OF RATES

Unit 3
UNIT III SPECIFICATION & TENDERS

Data – Schedule of rates – Analysis of rates –


Specifications – sources – Detailed and
general specifications – Tenders – Contracts –
Types of contracts – Arbitration and legal
requirements.
GENERAL SPECIFICATION OF FIRST CLASS BUILDINGS

Foundation and Plinth:- First class burnt bricks in cement mortar (1:6) over a bed
of cement concrete. (1:6:12 or 1:8:16)
Superstructure:- Shall be of first class burnt brick work in lime or cement mortar
(1:6)
Damp proof course: - 1 cm thick cement concrete (1:2:4) with one-layer of bitumen
laid hot or any other specified water proof material.
Roofing: - R.C.C slabs (1:2:4) covered with two coats of bitumen laid hot and a
layer of lime of cement concrete 8cm.
Flooring:- Shall be of terrazzo or tile in drawing, dining, bath and WC.
Doors and windows: - Doors and windows shall be of teak wood, Panelled or
Panelled etc..
Finishing: - The inside and outside walls shall have 1.25cm thick cement plaster.
Drawing, dining and bed rooms inside of walls shall have 2 coats of distemper and
other rooms shall have three coats of white washing. The outside of the walls shall
have two coats of color washing over one coat of white washing.
Painting: - Doors and windows shall be given three coats of white lead where
exposed and white zinc or cream or grey sillicate paint elsewhere.
Miscellaneous: - First class buildings shall be provided with first class sanitary and
water supply fittings and electrical installations. A plinth protection 1.50m.wide of
bricks sloped away from the building shall be provided all round the building.
GENERAL SPECIFICATION OF SECOND CLASS BUILDINGS

Foundation and Plinth:- Shall be of first class brickwork with lime mortar over
lime concrete.
Damp proof course: - Shall be of 2cm thick cement concrete (1:2) with 1 kg of
impermo per bag of cement or any other specified water proof material.
Superstructure:- Shall be of 2nd class brick work in lime mortar (1:6); lintels
over brick shall be of RB
Roofing: - Shall be of slabs with 7.5 cm lime concrete terracing above roof
supported over wooden battens and beams. Verandah roof may be of AC sheet
or Allahabad tiles.
Flooring:- Shall be of 2.5 cm cement concrete over 7.5 cm LC, Verandah floor
shall be of brick tile or flag stone over lime concrete, finished cement painted.
Doors and windows: - Chauhat shall be of RCC or well seasoned sal wood,
shutters of shisham wood or deodar wood 4 cm thick, paneled and partly
glazed as required. Doors and windows shall be painted two coats over one
coat of priming.
Finishing: - The inside and outside walls shall have 12cm thick cement plaster
1:6 Ceiling shall be cement plastered 1:3. Inside of walls shall have 3 coats of
white wash and color washed 2 coats over one coat of white wash.
Miscellaneous: - Rain water pipes shall be of cast iron finished painted.
Electrification and sanitary and water fittings may be provided if required.
Factors Affecting the Rate Analysis

 Specification of the items and change in method of


construction
 The current rate of materials
 Daily wages of different categories of labour & their
respective outputs
 The range of lead and lift required(Ground floor or
First floor etc)
 Profits and miscellaneous and over head expenses of
contractor
 Site condition, site organization and cost control
during execution etc.
Analysis of rates – is usually worked out for the unit of payment
of the particular item of work under two heads

i) Materials and
ii) Labour

Cost added together give the cost of items of work.

a) For tools and plants and miscellaneous items provision


should be made.

b) 1 ½ % of total cost should be provided for water charges

c) 10% of total cost should be added for Contractors Profit


Task or Out Turn – The capacity of doing work by an
artisan or skilled labour in the form of quantity of work
per day is known as task-work or out-turn of the
labour. The out-turn of work artisan varies to some
extent according to the nature, size, height, situation,
location etc.

To Remember:

1 ft = 30.48 cm
1 cu m = 35.3 cu ft
100 cu ft = 2.83 cu m
1000 cu ft = 28.30 cu m
1 sq m = 10.7 sq ft - approx 10 sq ft
10 sq m = 100 sq ft (approx)
Painting Coefficient – When measuring the area of doors
and windows for painting, the clear area between walls is
measured on one side and is multiplied by a constant called
painting coefficient to allow both faces including the sides of
frames, groves, projections etc.

The painting coefficient for a few cases are given below

1. Fully panelled, braced or battened doors and windows 2.6


2. Fully glazed door and windows 1.6
3. Partly panelled and partly glazed 2.0
4. Flush doors 2.4
5. Collapsible gates 3.0
Labour(Mazdoor) required for different works

No Item of work Quantity Nos per day


(ft)/(m)
1 Earthwork Excavation 1000 cu ft 4 Mazdoors
28.30 cu m 5 Helpers
2 Earthwork Refilling 1000 cu ft 2 Mazdoors
28.30 cu m 3 Helpers
3 Laying Cement 100 cu ft ¼ Mason
Concrete 2.83 cu m 3 Mazdoors
2 Helpers
4 RCC Work Laying 100 cu ft ½ Mason
2.83 cu m 3 Mazdoors
2 Helpers
Labour(Mazdoor) required for different works

No Item of work Quantity Nos per day


(ft)/(m)
5 RCC Work Centering 100 sq ft 4 Carpenters
and Shuttering 10 sq m 4 Helpers
6 RCC Work Laying 1 quintal steel1 Blacksmith
per day 1 Helper
7 Brick work 100 cu ft 3 Mason
2.83 cu m 2 Mazdoors
3 Helpers
8 Wood Work 0.18 cu m(6.40 2 Carpenter
(For Frames Doors and cu ft) 1 Helper
Windows)
Steel 1ton or MT = 1000 kgs; VG is viscosity grades
Sand/Blue Metal in 1 cft = 0.0283 m3
Bitument = 1 ton = 1000 kgs
Steel 1ton or MT = 1000 kgs; VG is viscosity grades
Sand/Blue Metal in 1 cft = 0.0283 m3
Bitument = 1 ton = 1000 kgs
 Size of brick = 20cm x 10 cm x 10cm
 Brick without mortar = 19 x 9 x 9 cm

 Number of bricks required for 1cu m of brick


masonry 1 cum = 1 / 0.2 x 0.1 x 0.1 = 500 nos
 No of Bricks for 10 cu m = 10 x 500 = 5000 nos

 Actual volume = 5000 x .19 x .09 x .09 = 7.70 cu m


 Thus quantity of wet mortar = 10 – 7.70 = 2.30 cu m
Add 10% wastage 2.30 + 0.23 = 2.53 cu m for 10 cu m
 For 1 cu m quantity of Wet Mortar for brick work = 0.25 cu m
 Dry Mortar for 1 cu m of Brickwork= 0.25 x 1.2 = 0.3 cu m.
 Dry mortar for 10 cu m of Brickwork = 3 cu m

 Practically 1 cu m of cement stack holds has 28 to 30 cement bags


 1 bag of cement = 1 / 30 = 0.034 cu m or 1 / 28 = 0.036 cu m
 So Weight and Volume of One bag of cement = 50 kg and 0.034 cu m

Cement Concrete
 For 1m3 wet concrete = 1.52 m3 dry concrete approximately
 For 10m3 wet concrete = 15.2 m3 dry concrete approximately
 Density of cement = 1400 kg/m3 (or) 1.40 t/m3
 Density of concrete = 2400 kg/m3 (or) 2.40 t/m3
 Density of Steel = 7850 kg/m3

% of Steel in RCC per cu m


 For RC columns 1.5 to 2.0%(160 kg/m3)
 For RC beams 1.0 to 1.5%(120 kg/m3)
 For RC slabs 0.5 to 1.0%(80 kg/m3)
 For RC footings 0.5% (40 kg/m3)

Recommended Mixes of Concrete


The concrete as per IS 456: 2000, the grades of concrete lower than M20
are not to be used in RCC work.

M10 1:3:6
M15 1:2:4
M20 1 : 1.5 : 3
M25 1:1:2
For brickwork in 1:6 cement mortar for 10 cum
1+6=7

Cement = 3 / 7 = 0.43 cu m ~ 0.45 cu m / 0.034


= 13 bags
Sand = 0.43 x 6 = 2.58 cu m ~ 2.7 cu m

Number of bricks required for 1cu m of brick


masonry = 1 / 0.2 x 0.1 x 0.1 = 500 nos
No of Bricks for 10 cu m = 10 x 500 = 5000 nos
PLAIN CEMENT CONCRETE / CC To determine the quantity
of materials for 10 cum of 1:2:4

For 10 cu m of Dry CONCRETE is 15.2 cum

For 1:2:4 Summation =1+2+4 =7

Cement = 15.2 / 7 = 2.17 cu m


= 2.17/0.033
= 65.7 bags ~= 66bags

Sand = 2.17x 2 = 4.34 cu m

Coarse aggr = 2.17 x 4 = 8.69 cu m


Quantity of materials for 10 cu m of concrete for
different proportion(Variations 5% allowed)
 Quantity of wet mortar for 1 m3 = 0.25 cu m
 Quantity of wet mortar for 10 m3 = 2.5 cu m

 Quantity of Dry mortar for 1 cu m = 0.3 cu m


 Quantity of Dry mortar for 10 cu m = 3 cu m

 Volume of 1 bag of cement = 0.034 cu m


 Weight of one bag of cement = 50
 Density of steel = 7850 kg/m3

 For RC columns 1.5 to 2.0%(160 kg/m3)


 For RC beams 1.0 to 1.5%(120 kg/m3)
 For RC slabs 0.5 to 1.0%(80 kg/m3)
 For RC footings 0.5% (40 kg/m3)
DIVIDE FOLLOWING NUMBER BY PROPORTION
Cement Concrete Slabs, Beams and Columns (PCC too)
eg: 1:2:4, 1:4:8, 1:5:10….etc
Volume of Dry Cement Concrete for 1 m3 = 1.52 cu m
Volume of Dry Cement Concrete for 10 m3 = 15.2 cu m

CM for Brickwork eg: 1:2, 1:4, 1:6… etc


Volume of Dry Cement Mortar for 1 m3 = 0.3 cu m
Volume of Dry Cement Mortar for 10 m3 = 3 cu m

CM for Plastering eg: 1:2, 1:4, 1:6… etc


Volume Dry CM Plastering ceiling 12 mm for 100 m2 = 2 cu m
Volume Dry CM Plastering walls 20 mm for 100 m2 = 3 cu m

Cement Concrete for Floors eg 1:2:4, 1:4:8, 1:5:10….etc


Volume of Dry Cement Mortar 20 mm for 100 m2 = 4.125 cu m
Volume of Dry Cement Mortar 40 mm for 100 m2 = 6.6 cu m
For Rate Analysis following sub-head cost area taken
account:
a. Cost of materials: Original cost plus taxes.
b. Cost of labour: Number of labours x wages of labour
per day.
c. Cost of equipment or T & P: Tools required for
particular work.
d. Cost of water charges: 1 to 2% of cost of materials and
labour.
e. Cost of overhead and profit: 10% of cost of material
and labour.
Total cost = a + b + c + d+ e
Rate per unit item of work = Total Cost / Total quantity
Quantity For Rate Analysis :

Generally quantity taken for the rate analysis as follows

a. For mass works: 10 cu m(Example: Cement concrete work,


RCC, Brick Masonry work, etc).
b. For surface works: 100 sq m(Example: Pointing, Plastering,
Flooring, etc)
c. For Running meter works: 100 r mt (Example: Pipe line works,
etc).
d. For Piece work: Per Number(1)(Example: Fixing of plumbing
items such as wash basin, WC, Taps etc)
Problems to solve:
a.Plain cement concrete 1:5:10 in foundation for 1 m3
Cement Concrete (1:2:4, 1:4:8, 1:5:10) 10 m3 (15.2 cu m)
Mason 1 ½ , Mazdoor 12, Men/Woman coolie 18, Helpers 4

b. RCC work in Slabs 1:2:4 – unit 1 cu m


RCC for col, beam & slab (1:2:4, 1:4:8, 1:5:10) 10 m3 (15.2 cu m)
Mason 3 , Mazdoor 12 , Men/Woman coolie 20 , Helpers 6, Blacksmith 8 ,
Bar Benders 8

c. Brickwork in Foundation with CM 1:6


Brickwork in foundation CM (1:2, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6) 10 m3 (3 cu m)
Mason 7, Mazdoor 7, Helpers 7

d. Plastering the walls in CM 1:5, 12 mm thick for 10 m2


Plastering the walls CM (1:2, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6) 100 m2 (2 cu m)
Mason 10 , Mazdoor 15 , Helpers 2
e. Half brick with CM 1:4 for 10 m2
Half Brickwork walls CM (1:2, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6) 10 m3 (3 cu m)
Mason 12, Mazdoor 8, Helpers 8
Assuming current schedule of rates for materials
and labour, prepare data for the following items
of work

a) Plain cement concrete 1:5:10 in foundation for


1 m3 (16 marks Dec 2007)

Or

b) Plastering the walls in CM 1:5, 12 mm thick for


1 m2 (16 marks Dec 2007)
a) Plain cement concrete 1:5:10 in
foundation for 1 m3 (16 marks Dec 2007)
Take for 10 cu m

For 1:5:10
Summation = 1 + 5 + 10 = 16
Cement = 15.2 /16 = 0.95 cu m
(Volume of Dry Cement Concrete for 10 cum = 15.2 cum)
= 0.95/0.034 = 29 bags
(Volume of One Cement bag = 0.034 cum)

Sand = 5 x 0.95 = 4.75 cu m


Brick/Stone
Ballast = 10 x 0.95 = 9.5 cu m
Particulars Qty or Nos Rate Cost
Materials
Brick ballast 1st Class 40 mm 9.5 cu m 1950/ m3 Rs. 18425
(9.5/0.0283) = 335x55/- /cft
Sand(4.75/0.0283) = 159 x Rs 60 4.75 cu m 2030 / m3 Rs. 9540
per cft
Cement(28 bags) 0.95 cu m(28nos) 360 per bag Rs. 10080
Total Rs. 38045
Labour
Head Mason ½ nos 750 p/day Rs. 375
Mason 1½ nos 650 p/day Rs. 975
Mazdoor 12 nos 400 p/day Rs. 4800
Man or Women coolie 18 nos 350 p/day Rs. 6300
Helpers(curing) 4 nos 350 p/day Rs. 1400
Sundries T and P etc Lump sum 5000 LS Rs. 5000
Total Rs. 18850
Total of materials and labour Rs. 56895
Add 1½ % Water charges Rs. 853
Add 10% Contractors profit Rs. 5690
Grand Total(for 10 cum) Rs. 63438
Rate per 1 cu m 1:5:10 = 63438 / 10 = Rs. 6344/- per 1 cubic meter
b) Plastering the walls in CM 1:5, 12 mm
thick for 1 m2 (16 marks Dec 2007)
Take for 100 sq m
For 1:5
Summation =1+5 =6

Cement = 2 /6 = 0.33 cu m
(Volume of Dry Cement Mortar 12mm for 100 m2 = 2 cum)
= 0.33/0.034 = 10 bags
(Volume of One Cement bag = 0.034 cum)
Sand = 5 x 0.33 = 1.65 cu m
Particulars Qty or Nos Rate Cost

Materials
Sand (local) 1.65 cu m 2030 / cu m Rs. 3,349/-
Cement (10 bags) 0.33 cu m 360 / bag Rs. 3,600/-
Total Rs. 6,949/-
Labour
Head Mason ½ No 650 per day Rs. 325/-
Mason 10 No 600 per day Rs. 6,000/-
Mazdoor 15 Nos 450 per day Rs. 6,750/-
Helpers Curing 2 Nos 300 per day Rs. 600/-
T&P Lump 5000 Rs. 5,000/-
Total Rs. 18,675/-
Total Rs. 25,624/-
Add 1 1/5 % Water charges Rs. 385/-
Add 10 % contractors profit Rs. 2,562/-
Grand Total Rs. 28,571/-
Rate per Sq m for Half brick wall = Rs. 28,571/- / 100 =
Rs. 285/- / Sqm
Using current schedule of rates for materials and
labours, prepare data for the following items of
work

a) Half brick with CM 1:4 for 1 m2 (16 marks Dec


2007)
Half brick with CM 1:4 for 1 m2 (16 marks Dec 2007)

Half brick thickness assume is 10 cm


Take for 100 sq m of 10 cm thickness
= 100 sq m x 0.1 m = 10 m3
(We know Dry Volume Cement Mortar for 10 m3 = 3 cu m)

For 1:4
Summation = 1 + 4 = 5

Cement =3/5 = 0.6 = 0.6 /0.033


= 18 bags

Sand = 4 x 0.6 = 2.4 cu m

Half Bricks Required (5000 full bricks / m3)


= 10000 nos half bricks
Particulars Qty or Nos Rate Cost

Materials
Bricks 1st Class 10 mm 10000 nos Rs.30,000/-
Sand (local) 2.4 cu m Rs.3 / brick Rs.16,800/-
Cement (0.6 cu m) 18 bags Rs. 7000/ m3 Rs.6,480/-
360 / bag
Labour
Head Mason ½ No 650 per day Rs.325/-
Mason 12 No 600 per day Rs.7,200/-
Mazdoor 8 Nos 450 per day Rs.3,600/-
Helpers Curing 8 Nos 300 per day Rs.2,400/-
Tools & Plants Lump 1000 Rs.1,000/-
Total Rs.67,805/-
Add 1 1/2 % Water charges Rs.1017/-
Add 10 % contractors profit Rs.6,780/-
Grand Total Rs.75,602/-
Rate per Sq m for Half brick wall = Rs. 75,602/- / 100 = Rs. 756.02/-
RCC work in Slabs 1:2:4 – for 1 cu m

Take for 10 cu m

For 1:2:4
Summation =1+2+4 =7
Cement = 15.2/7
= 2.17 /0.033 = 66 bags

Sand = 2 x 2.17 = 4.75 cu m

Stone Ballast = 4 x 2.17 = 8.68 cu m

Steel taken 1% for RCC Column, Beam/Slabs of 10 cum


RCC work in Beam, Slabs 1:2:4 – unit 1 cu m Take 10 cu m
Particulars Qty or Rate Cost
Nos
Stone ballast 20 mm gauge 8.68 cu m 5000/cum Rs. 33,400/-
Sand(coarse) 4.75 cu m 4000/cum Rs. 19,000/-
Cement(66bags) 2.17 cu m 360/bag Rs. 23,760/-
Steel 1 % of 1 cum for (1/100x10 = 7.85q 5000/q Rs.39,250/-
0.1m3) Reinforcement 78.5 q/cum
Binding wire 1.5kg 100 / kg Rs.150/-
(1 quintal = 100kgs)
Total Rs. 1,15,160/-
Labour
Head Mason ½ nos 750 p/day Rs. 375
Mason 3 nos 450 p/day Rs. 1050
Mazdoor 12 nos 350 p/day Rs. 4200
Man/Women cooliee 20 nos 350 p/day Rs. 7000
Helpers (curing) 6 nos 350 p/day Rs. 2100
Scaffolding and Sundries T and P etc sum 60,000 LS Rs. 60,000
Total Rs. 74,725
Bending, Cranking & Binding Steel
bars in position
Blacksmith 8 nos 750 p/day Rs. 6,000
Masdoor 8 nos 450 p/day Rs. 3,600
Total Rs. 9,600
Particulars Qty or Rate Cost
Nos
Centering and Shuttering
Timber planks Lumpsum Rs. 10000 Rs. 10,000/-
Carpenter 10 Rs. 750 Rs. 7,500/-
Masdoor 10 Rs. 350 Rs.3,500/-
Nails 1.5kg Rs. 100 Rs.150/-
Tools and Plants Lumpsum Rs. 5000 Rs.5000/-
Total Rs. 26,150/-
Grand Total Rs. 2,25,635/-
Add 1 1/5 % Water charges Rs.3384/-
Add 10 % contractors profit Rs.22,563/-
Grand Total Rs.2,51,582/-
for 10 cu m
For 1 cu m, Rs. 25,158/- (Rs.2,51,582/- / 10) Rs. 25,158/-
Rs. 25,158/- for 1 cu m
Ist Class Brickwork in Foundation and Plinth with
20x10x10cm bricks with CM 1:6 - Unit 1 cu m.

Take for 10 cu m

For 1:6
Summation =1+6 =7

Cement = 3/7 = 0.43 = 0.43/.034


= 12.6 bags (13 bags)

Sand = 6 x 0.43 = 2.58 cu m

Bricks = 1/0.2x0.1x0.1
= 500 x 10 = 5000 nos
Particulars Qty or Rate Cost
Nos
Brick I class (500 bricks per 5000 nos Rs 6.67 Rs. 33350
cum) (Rs 6.60/- per brick)
Sand(local) 2.58 cu m 1800 per cum Rs. 4650
Cement(0.43 cu m)
6325 per cu m 13bags Rs 360 per bag Rs. 4680
Total Rs. 42680
Labour
Head Mason ½ nos Rs. 750 p/day Rs. 375
Mason 7 nos Rs. 450 p/day Rs. 1050
Mazdoor 7 nos Rs. 350 p/day Rs. 5600
Helpers (curing) 7 nos Rs. 350 p/day Rs. 4900
Scaffolding and Sundries T Lump Rs. 9000 LS Rs. 9000
and P etc sum
Total Rs. 20925
Total of materials and labour Rs. 63605
Add 1½ % Water charges Rs. 954
Add 10% Contractors profit Rs. 6360
Grand Total Rs. 70919
for 10 cu m
Rate per cu m 1:6 = 70919 / 10 = Rs. 7091/- per cubic meter
Analyse the rates of the following. Assume your
own rates suitably

a) Cement concrete 1:8:16 with brick ballast in


foundation, 1 mason, 13 labourers and 2 Bhistes
can lay 10 cum of cement concrete in one day (16
marks Dec 2010)

Or
b) Cement Plaster with 1:6 mix, 10 masons, 10
mazdoors and 2 bhistes can finish 100 m2 area in
one day(16 marks Dec 2010)
Cement concrete 1:8:16 with brick ballast in foundation,
1 mason, 13 labourers and 2 Bhistes can lay 10 cum of
cement concrete in one day (16 marks Dec 2010)

Take for 10 cu m

For 1:8:16
Summation = 1+8+16 = 25

Cement = 15.2/25 = 0.61 = 0.61 /0.033


= 18 bags

Sand = 8 x 0.61 = 4.88 cu m

Stone Ballast = 16 x 0.61 = 9.76 cu m


Particulars Qty or Rate Cost
Nos
Materials
Brick ballast 1” 40 mm 9.76 2000 / cu m Rs. 19,520/-
Sand (local) 4.88 7500 / cu m Rs. 36,600/-
Cement (18 bags) 0.61 5760 / cu m Rs. 3,314/-
Labour
Mason 1 No 650 per day Rs. 650/-
labourers 13 Nos 450 per day Rs. 5850/-
Bhistes 2 Nos 300 per day Rs. 600/-
T&P Lump 1000 Rs. 1000/-
Total Rs. 67,534/-
Add 1 1/5 % Water charges Rs. 1,014/-
Add 10 % contractors profit Rs. 6,753/-
Grand Total Rs.75,301/-
Rate per for CC 1:8:16 is 10 cu m = Rs. 75,301/-
Plain cement concrete 1:2:4 unit 1 cu m

Take for 10 cu m

For 1:2:4
Summation =1+2+4 =7

Cement = 15.2/7 = 2.17 /0.033


= 66 bags

Sand = 2 x 2.17 = 4.75 cu m

Stone Ballast = 4 x 2.17 = 8.68 cu m


Others
Labour(Mazdoor) required for different works
No Item of work Quantity Nos per day
(ft)/(m)
9 Wood Work 0.075 cu 15 Carpenter
(For paneled, glazed) m(2.66 cu ft) 4 Beldars
shutters
10 Iron work fixing 16 mm 54 r ft per day 1 Blacksmith
dia rods 2 Carpenters
3 Helper
11 Flooring 4 cm thick of 5 Mason
40 sq m(400 4 Mazdoors
sq ft) 1 Helpers
12 Finishing Plastering 12 40 sq m(400 3 Mason
mm thick sq ft) 3 Mazdoors
1 Helpers
Calculate the cost of carriage of 50,000 bricks by
bullock cart from a distance of 7 km on kutcha
road. The cart can make two trips per day and
carry 250 bricks per trip. The wages of bullock
cart may be taken as Rs. 50 per day including
driver

No of trips required = 50000/250 = 200

No of days work at two trips per day = 200/2 = 100

Cost of transport @ Rs 50/- per day = 100 x 50 = Rs 5000/-


Calculate the cost of transport of 1500 cu m of
stone ballast from a distance of 20 km by truck
can carry 3 cu m per trip. The kilometre age rate
of carriage inclusive of loading and unloading
being.

1st km Rs.5.50 per cu m/km


2nd km and 3rd km Rs.1.00 per cu m/km
4th km and 5th km Rs.0.80 per cu m/km
6th km to 10th km Rs.0.60 per cu m/km
11th km to 20th km Rs.0.40 per cu m/km

No of trips = 1500 / 3 = 500 nos


Cost of trip of 3 cu m
Cost of trip of 3 cu m –

1st km @ 5.5/cu m/km = 5.50 x 3 x 1 = Rs. 16.50


2nd and 3rd km/ cu m/km = 1.00 x 3 x 2 = Rs. 6.00
4th and 5th km/cu m/km = 0.80 x 3 x 2 = Rs. 4.80
6th to 10th km/cu m/km = 0.60 x 3 x 5 = Rs. 9.00
11th to 20th km/cu m/km = 0.40 x 3 x 10 = Rs. 12.00
Total = Rs. 48.30
Per trip of 3 cu m

Cost of transport = Rs. 48.30 x 500 trips = Rs. 24,150/-

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