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Advanced Arti cial Lift Methods – PE 571
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1 Advanced Arti cial Lift Methods – PE 571
Chapter 1 - Electrical Submersible Pump
artificial lift methods
Introduction
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2 Class Schedule Instructor: Tan Nguyen Class:
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Tuesday & Thursday
Time: 09:30 AM - 10:45 AM
Room: MSEC 367
O ce: MSEC 372
O ce Hours: Tuesday & Thursday 2:00 – 4:00 pm 206
Phone: ext-5483

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3 Course Outline Chapter 1: Electrical Submersible Pump
Chapter 2: Gas Lift
Chapter 3: Rod Sucker Pump
Chapter 4: Plunger Lift
Chapter 5: Progressive Cavity Pump
Chapter 6: Hydraulic Pump

4 Introduction to ESP Electrical Submersible Pumping


Second most commonly used method worldwide (+100,000 wells)
Used massively in Russia and in signi cant number of wells in US
Responsible for the highest amount of total uids produced (oil and water) by any arti cial lift
method and an ideal method for high water cut wells
Problems with sand production, high gas liquid ratio and high bottom hole temperatures

5 Introduction to ESP

6 Introduction to ESP

7 Introduction to ESP
The system’s surface equipment includes transformers, a switchboard, junction box and
surface power cables. Power passes through a cable running from the transformer to the
switchboard and junction box, then to the wellhead
The ESP downhole assembly is located in the well at the bottom of the tubing. The motor,
seal, intake and pump assembly, along with the power cable, goes in the well as the tubing is Advertisements
run.
Below the pump is an intake that allows uid to enter the pump. Below the intake is a gas
separator and a protector or seal, which equalizes internal and external pressures and
protects the motor from well uids. At the bottom is a motor that drives the pump. The
assembly is positioned in the well above the perforations; this allows uid entering the intake
to ow past the motor and cool it.

8 Introduction to ESP Bene ts of ESPs


They can be economically designed for both oil and water wells, at production rates ranging
from 200 to 60,000 B/D and at depths of .up to 15,000 feet.
They can be used in crooked or deviated wells. DLS < 9 degrees/100ft
They have a relatively small “surface footprint,” and so are appropriate for use in o shore,
urban or other con ned locations. They are relatively simple to operate.
They generally provide low lifting costs for high uid volumes.
They make it easy to apply corrosion and scale treatments.
9 Introduction to ESP Limitations of ESPs
They are generally limited to single-zone completions
They requires a source of high-voltage electric power
The presence of a power cable alongside the tubing string can make it more di cult to run or 
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pull tubing.
They are not particularly good at handling gas and solids production.
Analyzing the system performance can Webe a challenge.
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Power cables may deteriorate in download
high temperature conditions—400
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it to your Fahrenheit
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(about 200 degrees Celsius) is their general upper limit with respect to operating
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temperature.
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10 Introduction to ESP Principles of an ESP


For a naturally owing well the intersection of the IPR and OPR curves de nes the natural
equilibrium owrate 206
• For a naturally owing well it is possible to produce a wide range of ow rates smaller than
the naturally owing owrate with the use of a choke
• On the other hand, in a naturally owing well without arti cial lift equipment, production
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owrates higher than the natural owrate are impossible to be achieved since for those
conditions, the OPR pressures are bigger than the IPR pressures

11 Introduction to ESP
Principles of an ESP

12 Introduction to ESP Principles of an ESP


In order to produce owrates higher than the natural equilibrium owrate the use of an
arti cial lift system is necessary
• If an ESP is installed in the tubing string close to the perforations, the discharge pressure of
the pump must be equal to the OPR pressure and the intake pressure of the pump must be
equal to the IPR pressure
• The di erence between the OPR and IPR bottom hole owing pressure for owrates bigger
than the natural equilibrium owrate de nes the pressure increment that the ESP must
deliver

13 Introduction to ESP
Principles of an ESP

14 Introduction to ESP Principles of an ESP


The submersible pumps are multistage centrifugal pumps operating in a vertical position.
Produced liquids, after being subjected to great centrifugal forces caused by the high
rotational speed of the impeller, lose their kinetic energy in the di user where a conversion of
kinetic to pressure energy takes place. This is the main operational mechanism of radial and
mixed ow pumps.
The ratio between the centrifugal force and the gravitational force:
If w = 3600 RPM, r = 4’’ then this ratio is 131,673

15 Introduction to ESP History of ESPs Armais Arutuno


REDA: Russian Electric Dynamo of Arutuno estalished in 1930 in Bartlesville, OK
Became Schlumerger-REDA Production Systems in the late 1990s
Armais Arutuno

16 Introduction to ESP History of ESPs ESP providers nowadays:


Schlumberger-REDA (Bartlesville, OK)
Centrilift – Baker Hughes (Claremore, OK)
Weatherford
Wood Group ESP - GE (Oklahoma city, OK)
ALNAS (Russia)
Etc …

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17 Introduction to ESP ESP Classi cations
ESP centrifugal stages are classi ed according to their design as:
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Radial stages
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Mixed ow stages
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Mixed ow stages
Radial stages Buttons:

18 Introduction to ESP ESP Classi cations


The performance characteristics of stages at the best e ciency point is a function
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dimensionless number called speci c speed

19 Introduction to ESP Cancel Download


ESP Classi cations

20 Coil Tuibing Deployed ESP System


Introduction to ESP
Coil Tuibing Deployed ESP System
Cable suspended and coil tubing ESPs can also be used. They can also be used to kick-o
wells, clean wells after a frac job and test wells
Figure on the side is the coil tubing deployed ESP system.

21 Coil Tuibing Deployed ESP System - O shore


Introduction to ESP
Coil Tuibing Deployed ESP System - O shore

22 Coil Tuibing Deployed ESP System - O shore


Introduction to ESP
Coil Tuibing Deployed ESP System - O shore

23 Cable Suspended ESP System


Introduction to ESP
Cable Suspended ESP System
Cable Suspended ESP:
The unit is lowered in the well without using a tubing. It is suspended from a cable and the
power cable is banded to it.
A special seating element supports the pump and provides locking to avoid excessive torque
on the cable.
Di erently from the conventional installations, the motor is located above the pump.
The system produces through the annular.
It main advantage is the reduction in al costs associated with tubing pulling job, specially
o shore

24 Combination between ESP and Gas Lift


Introduction to ESP
Combination between ESP and Gas Lift
Some installations combine ESP with other arti cial lift methods
ESP and Gas lift
ESP and Jet pump
25 Introduction to ESP
ESP Components


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26 Introduction to ESP ESP Components
An ESP system can be divided into two categories:
Surface components We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to
Transformers (Primary and Secondary)
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• Switchboard or Variable Speed Drive or SoftShare
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• Junction Box
• Wellhead Buttons:
Subsurface components
Cable
Cable Guards
Cable Clamps 206
Pump
Gas Separator (Optional)
Seal Section
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Motor
Sensor (Optional)
Drain Valve
Check Valve

27 Introduction to ESP ESP Components


Power passes through a cable running from the transformer to the switchboard and junction
box, then to the wellhead.
The motor, seal, intake and pump assembly, along with the power cable, goes in the well as
the tubing is run. The well power cable is spliced to a motor cable that is connected to the
outside of the downhole assembly.
Below the pump is an intake that allows uid to enter the pump.
Below the intake is a gas separator and a protector or seal, which equalizes internal and
external pressures and protects the motor from well uids.
At the bottom is a motor that drives the pump. The assembly is positioned in the well above
the perforations; this allows uid entering the intake to ow past the motor and cool it.

28 Surface Components - Transformer


Introduction to ESP
Surface Components - Transformer
transformer system is used to step-up or step-down the voltage from the primary line to the
motor of the submersible pump. Because a range of operating voltages may be used for
submersible pump motors, the transformer must be compatible with the selection of the
motor voltage.

29 Surface Components - Switchboard


Introduction to ESP
Surface Components - Switchboard
The switchboard controls the pump motor and provides overload and underload protection.
Protection against overload is needed to keep the motor windings from burning.
Protection during underload is needed because low uid ow rates will prevent adequate
cooling of the motor.

30 Surface Components – Junction Box


Introduction to ESP
Surface Components – Junction Box
The junction box connects the power cable from the switchboard to the power cable from the
well. It provides an explosion-free vent to the atmosphere for any gas that might migrate up
the power cable from the wellbore.
31 Surface Components – Wellhead
Introduction to ESP 
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Surface Components – Wellhead
Must provide means for installing the cable with adequate seal
May include adjustable chokes, bleeding valves
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Onshore wellheads have a rubber seal and o shore have a electric mandrel
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32 Surface Components – Wellhead Buttons:


Introduction to ESP
Surface Components – Wellhead
The Safe-T-Lok is supplied with factory molded cable on both the top and the bottom. The
lower cable will be spliced to the ESP cable, and the top cable will connected to the junction
206
box.
The Safe-T-Lok is installed in the wellhead by feeding through the tubing hanger from below

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33 Subsurface Components – Check Valve
Introduction to ESP
Subsurface Components – Check Valve
A check valve is installed about two to three joints above the ESP pump to maintain a full
liquid column in the tubing string during equipment shut down periods. It prevent leaking of
the uid from the tubing down through the pump when the pump is not running.

34 Subsurface Components – Electric Cable


Introduction to ESP
Subsurface Components – Electric Cable
A power cable runs from the junction box then through the wellhead and all the way to the
bottom to supply power to the pump motor.
Cable is available in round and at styles

35 Subsurface Components – Cable Protection


Introduction to ESP
Subsurface Components – Cable Protection
Cable Guards: Used to protect the motor lead cable avoiding the direct contact of the cable
with the casing standard. Standard length 8 ft.
Cable clamps: used to tie the cable to the tubing.

36 Subsurface Components –ESP Bypass System


Introduction to ESP
Subsurface Components –ESP Bypass System
Wireline or coiled tubing plugs can be supplied to seat in a nipple pro le in the Y-tool to
enable intervention or logging operations without retrieval of the completion
Can be also used for installing two parallel ESPs in the well.

37 Subsurface Components – Electric Cable


Introduction to ESP
Subsurface Components – Electric Cable
The proper selection of the cable and the conductors depends on:
The expected amperage that will ow through the cable to the motor
The calculated voltage drop in the line from the surface to the pump.
The space that exists between the tubing collar and the casing (even though the cable is
banded to the tubing at selected points, there must be enough space to install and pull the
pump without damaging the cable or hanging it in the well).
The equipment operating environment - such as the operating pressure and temperature at
pump depth.


38 Subsurface Components – Download presentation
Cable Amperage
Introduction to ESP
Subsurface Components – Cable Amperage
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The rst consideration in selecting cables is amperage. The limits on amperage for cables
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containing copper conductors are as follows:
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Note that the cable with the smaller number has the larger diameter. Thus, a Number 1 cable
can carry a maximum of 115 amps. Buttons:

39 Subsurface Components – Voltage Drop


Introduction to ESP 206
Subsurface Components – Voltage Drop
The second selection consideration is the voltage drop that will occur between the wellhead
and the pump. Normally, the maximum voltage drop for an electrical cable is about 30V per
1000 feet. Cancel Download

40 ESP Operating Principles


Introduction to ESP
ESP Operating Principles
Electrical submersible pumps are multi-staged centrifugal pumps Each stage consists of a
rotating impeller and a stationary di user.
The performance of the pump depends on the stage design an size, rotational speed and uid
being pumped
The rotating movement of the motor is transferred through the shaft to the impeller
The overall length of a single pump section is limited to feet to facilitate assembly,
transportation and handling

41 ESP Operating Principles


Introduction to ESP
ESP Operating Principles
Each stage consists of an impeller and a di user
The rotating impeller takes the uids and imparts kinetic energy from the rotating shaft to the
uids
The stationary di user converts the kinetic energy of the uids into pressure

42 ESP Operating Principles


Introduction to ESP
ESP Operating Principles

43 ESP Operating Principles


Introduction to ESP
ESP Operating Principles
A pump’s impellers are designed to operate e ciently over a speci c capacity range.
Operating the pump below its design capacity causes the impeller to downthrust against the
di user, resulting in wear on the bearings and washers. Conversely, if the pump operates
above its design capacity, the impeller upthrusts against the upper part of the di user,
causing similar wear. Ideally, the impeller should oat freely, and will do so throughout its
recommended operating range. This recommended operating range will allow the pump to
run at highest e ciency

44 ESP Operating Principles


Introduction to ESP
ESP Operating Principles

45 ESP Operating Principles 


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Introduction to ESP
ESP Operating Principles

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46 Introduction to ESP ESP Classi cation
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ESPs can be classi ed into two main categories: Radial ow and Mixed ow
Radial Flow Pump Buttons:
Mixed Flow Pump

47 Subsurface Components – Gas Separator 206


Introduction to ESP
Subsurface Components – Gas Separator

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48 Subsurface Components – Gas Separator
Introduction to ESP
Subsurface Components – Gas Separator
Separates the free gas in order to reduce the quantity of gas that ows into the pump.
There are two types: static and rotary gas separator.
Static: No applying any additional mechanical force. They provide a tortuous path that turns
the uid stream and moves it down toward the inlet ports. Some of the free gas accompanies
the liquid to the intake and a portion is separated.
Dynamic gas separators, on the other hand, actually impart energy to the uid to separate the
vapor from the uid.

49 Subsurface Components – Protector or Seal


Introduction to ESP
Subsurface Components – Protector or Seal
Serves as the connection between the motor shaft and the pump shaft
• Prevents the entry of well uid into the motor
• Provides an oil reservoir to compensate for expansion and contraction of motor oil
• Support the axial thrust developed by the pump on the seal thrust bearing
• Pressure equalizer
• Use multiple redundant barrier chambers isolate the uidsto

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