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Sirach

The Book of the All-Virtuous Wisdom of Yeshua ben Sira,[1] commonly called the Wisdom of Sirach /ˈsaɪræk/ or simply Sirach,
and also known as theBook of Ecclesiasticus/ɪˌkliːziˈæstɪkəs/ (abbreviated Ecclus.)[2] or Ben Sira,[3] is a work of ethical teachings,
from approximately 200 to 175 BCE, written by the Jewish scribe Ben Sira of Jerusalem, on the inspiration of his father Joshua son
of Sirach, sometimes called Jesus son of Sirach or Y
eshua ben Eliezer ben Sira.

In Egypt, it was translated into Greek by the author's unnamed grandson, who added a prologue. This prologue is generally
considered the earliest witness to a canon of the books of the prophets, and thus the date of the text is the subject of intense scrutiny.
The book itself is the largest wisdom book from antiquity to have survived.[4]

Contents
Canonical status
Structure
On Doctors and Medicine
Contents
Authorship and translation
Language and alternative titles
Date and historical significance
Manuscripts
Theological significance
Influence in Jewish doctrine and liturgy
New Testament
Messianic interpretation by Christians
References in pre-modern texts
References in culture
See also
Notes
Sources
External links

Canonical status
Sirach is accepted as part of the Christian biblical canons by Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, and most of Oriental Orthodox. The
Anglican Church does not accept Sirach as protocanonical, and says it should be read only "for example of life and instruction of
manners; but yet doth not apply them to establish any doctrine."[5] Similarly, the Lutheran Churches do not include it in their
lectionaries but as a book proper for reading, devotion, and prayer. It was cited in some writings in early Christianity. There are
claims that it is cited in the Epistle of James, and also the non-canonical Didache (iv. 5) and Epistle of Barnabas (xix. 9). Clement of
Alexandria and Origen quote from it repeatedly, as from a γραφή, or holy book. The Catalogue of Cheltenham, Pope Damasus I[6],
the Councils of Hippo (393) and Council of Carthage (397), Pope Innocent I, the second Council of Carthage (419), the Council of
Florence (1442)[7] and Augustine all regarded it as canonical, although Jerome, Rufinus of Aquileia and the Council of Laodicea
ranked it instead as an ecclesiastical book. The Apostolic Canons (not recognized by the Catholic Church) stated as venerable and
sacred the Wisdom of Sirach.[8] Pope Innocent I officially confirmed the canon of the Bible shortly after the Third Council of
Carthage.[6] The Roman Catholic Church then finally confirmed Sirach and the other deuterocanonical books in 1546 during the
fourth session of the Council of Trent.[9]

Sirach is not part of theJewish canon, once thought to have been established at
the hypothetical Council of Jamnia, perhaps due to its late authorship,[10]
although it is not clear that the canon was completely "closed" at the time of
Ben Sira.[11] Others have suggested that Ben Sira's self-identification as the
author precluded it from attaining canonical status, which was reserved for
works that were attributed (or could be attributed) to the prophets,[12] or that it
was denied entry to the canon as a rabbinical counter-reaction to its embrace
by the nascent Christian community.[13]

Some Jews in the diaspora considered Sirach scripture. For instance, the Greek
translation made by Ben Sira's grandson was included in the Septuagint, the
2nd-century BCE Greek version of the Jewish scriptures used by Diaspora
Jews, through which it became part of the Greek canon. The multiplicity of
"Alle Weiſsheit ist bey Gott dem Herren..." manuscript fragments uncovered in the Cairo Genizah evidence its
[14]
authoritative status among Egyptian Jewry until the Middle Ages.
(modern spelling: Alle Weisheit ist bei Gott
dem Herrn) (Sirach, first chapter, German
translation), anonymous artist 1654 Because it was excluded from the Jewish canon, Sirach was not counted as
being canonical in Churches originating from the Reformation, although they
retained the book in theApocrypha.

Structure
As with other wisdom books, there is no easily recognizable structure in Sirach; in many parts it is difficult to discover a logical
progression of thought or to discern the principles of arrangement.[4] However, a series of six poems about the search for and
attainment of wisdom (1:1–10, 4:11–19; 6:18–37; 14:20–15:10; 24:1–33; and 38:24–39:11) divide the book into something
resembling chapters, although the divisions are not thematically based.[4] The exceptions are the first two chapters, whose reflections
on wisdom and fear of God provide the theological framework for what follows, and the last nine chapters, which function as a sort
of climax, first in an extended praise of God's glory as manifested through creation (42:15–43:33) and second in the celebration of the
[4]
heroes of ancient Israel's history dating back to before theGreat Flood through contemporary times (see previous section).

Despite the lack of structure, there are certain themes running through the Book that reappear at various points. The New Oxford
Annotated Apocrypha identifies ten major recurring topics:

1. The Creation (16:24–17:24, 18:1–14; 33:7–15; 39:12–35; and 42:15–43:33);


2. Death (11:26–28; 22:11–12; 38:16–23; and 41:1–13);
3. Friendship (6:5–17; 9:10–16: 19:13–17; 22:19–26: 27:16–21; and 36:23–37:15);
4. Happiness (25:1–11; 30:14–25; and 40:1–30);
5. Honor and shame (4:20–6:4; 10:19–11:6; and 41:14–42:8);
6. Money matters (3:30–4:10; 11:7–28; 13:1–14:19; 29:1–28; and 31:1–11);
7. Sin (7:1–17; 15:11–20; 16:1–17:32; 18:30–19:3; 21:1–10; 22:27–23:27; and 26:28–28:7);
8. Social justice (4:1–10; 34:21–27; and 35:14–26);
9. Speech (5:6,9-15; 18:15–29; 19:4–17; 20:1–31; 23:7–15; 27:4–7; 27:11–15; and 28:8–26); and
10. Women (9:1–9; 23:22–27; 25:13–26:27; 36:26–31; and 42:9–14).[4]

On Doctors and Medicine


Ecclus. 38: 1-15 For the first and only time in Biblical teaching recommendation for being treated by a physician is introduced. This
is a direct challenge against the traditional idea that illness and disease was seen as penalty for sin. In 2 Chron. 16:12 King Asa
, sacrifice and repentance.[15]
resorted to physicians for gangrene rather than prayer
Contents
The Wisdom of Sirach is a collection of ethical teachings. Thus Ecclesiasticus
closely resembles Proverbs, except that, unlike the latter, it is presented as the work
of a single author, not an anthology of maxims drawn from various sources,
presented in verse form. The question of which apothegms actually originated with
Sirach is open to debate, although scholars tend to regard him as a compiler or
anthologist.[4]

The teachings are applicable to all conditions of life: to parents and children, to
husbands and wives, to the young, to masters, to friends, to the rich, and to the poor.
Many of them are rules of courtesy and politeness; and a still greater number contain
advice and instruction as to the duties of man toward himself and others, especially
the poor, as well as toward society and the state, and most of all toward God.

Wisdom, in Ben Sira's view, is synonymous with the fear of God, and sometimes is
identified in his mind with adherence to the Mosaic law. The maxims are expressed
in exact formulas, and are illustrated by striking images. They show a profound
knowledge of the human heart, the disillusionment of experience, a fraternal
sympathy with the poor and the oppressed.

By contrast, Sirach exhibits little compassion for either women or slaves. He


Illustration for Sirach, c. 1751.
advocates distrust and possessiveness over women,[16] and the harsh treatment of
slaves (which presupposes the validity of slavery as an institution),[17] positions
which are not only difficult for modern readers, but cannot be completely reconciled with the social milieu at the time of its
composition.[18]

As in Ecclesiastes, two opposing tendencies war in the author: the faith and the morality of olden times, which are stronger than all
argument, and an Epicureanism of modern date. Occasionally Sirach digresses to attack theories which he considers dangerous; for
example, that man has no freedom of will, and that God is indifferent to the actions of mankind and does not reward virtue. Some of
the refutations of these views are developed at considerable length.

Through these moralistic chapters runs the prayer of Israel imploring God to gather together his scattered children, to bring to
fulfilment the predictions of the Prophets, and to have mercy upon his emple
T and his people. Thebook concludes with a justification
of God, whose wisdom and greatness are said to be revealed in all God's works as well as in the history of Israel. These chapters are
completed by the author's signature, and are followed by two hymns, the latter apparently a sort of alphabetical acrostic.

Of particular interest to biblical scholars are Chapters 44–50, in which Ben Sira praises "men of renown, and our fathers in their
generation", starting from the antediluvian Enoch and continuing through to "Simon, the high priest, son of Onias" (300–270 BCE).
Within this recitation, Ben Sira identifies, either directly or indirectly, each of the books of the Old Testament that would eventually
become canonical, with the apparent exception of only Ezra, Daniel, Ruth, Esther, and perhaps Chronicles.[19] The ability to date the
composition of Sirach within a few years given the autobiographical hints of Ben Sira and his grandson (author of the introduction to
[20]
the work) provides great insight regarding the historical development and evolution of the Jewish canon.

Authorship and translation


Joshua ben Sirach, or, according to the Greek text "Jesus the son of Sirach of Jerusalem", was a Jewish scribe who had been living in
Jerusalem, and may have authored the work in Alexandria, Egypt ca. 180–175 BCE, where he is thought to have established a
school.[4] Ben Sirach is unique among all Old Testament and Apocryphal writers in that he signed his work.
[21]

The Prologue, attributed to Ben Sira's grandson and dated to 132 BCE, is generally considered the earliest witness to a canon of the
[22][23][24]
books of the prophets. Thus the date of the text, has been the subject of intense scrutiny by biblical scholars.
Joshua ben Sirach's grandson was in Egypt, translating and editing after the usurping
Hasmonean line had definitively ousted Simon's heirs in long struggles and was
finally in control of the High Priesthood in Jerusalem. Comparing the Hebrew and
Greek versions shows that he altered the prayer for Simon and broadened its
application ("may He entrust to us his mercy"), in order to avoid having a work
centered around praising God's covenanted faithfulness that closed on an
unanswered prayer.[24]

The Greek translator states in his preface that he was the grandson of the author, and
that he came to Egypt in the thirty-eighth year of the reign of "Euergetes". This
epithet was borne by only two of the Ptolemies. Of these, Ptolemy III Euergetes
reigned only twenty-five years (247–222 BCE) and thus Ptolemy VIII Euergetes
must be intended; he ascended the throne in the year 170 BCE, together with his
brother Ptolemy VI Philometor, but he soon became sole ruler of Cyrene, and from
146 to 117 BCE held sway over all Egypt. He dated his reign from the year in which
he received the crown (i.e., from 170 BCE). The translator must therefore have gone
Illustration of the high priest Jesus to Egypt in 132 BCE.[25]
Sirach in the Secret Book of Honour
of the Fugger by Jörg Breu the 1 BCE[26]
The translation into Greek is believed to have been done after 17
Younger, 1545–1549

Language and alternative titles


The "Book of ben Sirach" (‫ספר בן סירא‬, Sefer ben Siraʼ) was originally written in Hebrew, and was also known in Hebrew as the
"Proverbs of ben Sirach" (‫משלי בן סירא‬, Mišley ben Siraʼ) or the "Wisdom of ben Sirach" (‫חכמת בן סירא‬, Ḥokhmat ben Siraʼ). The
book was not accepted into the Hebrew Bible and the original Hebrew text was not preserved in the Jewish canon. However, various
original Hebrew versions have since been recovered, including fragments recovered within the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Cairo
[27]
Genizah, the latter of which includes fragments from six separate manuscripts.

The Greek translation was accepted in the Septuagint under the (abbreviated) name of the author: Sirakh (Σιραχ). Some Greek
manuscripts give as the title the "Wisdom of Iēsous Son of Sirakh" or in short the "Wisdom of Sirakh". The older Latin versions were
based on the Septuagint, and simply transliterated the Greek title in Latin letters: Sirach. In the Vulgate the book is called Liber Iesu
filii Sirach ("Book of Joshua Son of Sirach").

The Greek Church Fathers also called it the "All-Virtuous Wisdom", while the Latin Church Fathers, beginning with Cyprian,[28]
termed it Ecclesiasticus because it was frequently read inchurches, leading the early Latin Fathers to call it liber ecclesiasticus (Latin
and Latinised Greek for "church book"). Similarly, the Nova Vulgata and many modern English translations of the Apocrypha use the
title Ecclesiasticus, literally "of the Church" because of its frequent use in Christian teaching and worship.

The Babylonian Talmud occasionally cites Ben-Sira (Sanhedrin 100b; Hagigah 13a, Baba Bathra 98b, etc.), but even so, it only
paraphrases his citations, without quoting from him verbatim. This is shown by comparing fragmented texts of the original Hebrew
"Book of Wisdom" (Ecclesiastus) discovered inQumran with the same quotes as given in the Babylonian T
almud.

Date and historical significance


Considering the average length of two generations, Sirach's date must fall in the first third of the 2nd century BCE. Furthermore,
Sirach contains a eulogy of "Simon the High Priest, the son of Onias, who in his life repaired the House" (50:1). Festschrift M.Gilbert
and other scholars posit that this seems to have formed the original ending of the text, and that Chapters 50 (from verse 2) and 51 are
later interpolations.[29] Under this theory, the second High Priest Simon (died 196 BCE) would have been intended, and the
composition would have concluded shortly thereafter, given that struggles between Simon's successors (175–172 BCE) are not
alluded to in the book, nor is the persecution of the Jews byAntiochus IV Epiphanes(168 BCE).[30][31]
Manuscripts
[32]
The work of Sirach is presently known through various versions, which scholars still struggle to disentangle.

[32]
The Greek version of Sirach is found in many codices of the Septuagint.

As early as 1896, several substantial Hebrew texts of Sirach, copied in the 11th and 12th centuries, were found in the Cairo geniza (a
synagogue storage room for damaged manuscripts). Although none of these manuscripts is complete, together they provide the text
for about two-thirds of the Wisdom of Sirach. According to scholars including Solomon Schechter and Frederic Kenyon, this shows
.[33][34]
that the book was originally written in Hebrew

In the 1950s and 1960s three copies of portions of Sirach were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls. The largest scroll was discovered
at Masada, the Jewish fortress destroyed in 73 CE. The earliest of these scrolls (2Q18) has been dated to the second part of the 1st
century BCE, approximately 150 years after Sirach was first composed. These early Hebrew texts are in substantial agreement with
the Hebrew texts discovered in Cairo, although there are numerous minor textual variants. iW
th these findings, scholars are now more
[35][36]
confident that the Cairo texts are reliable witnesses to the Hebrew original.

Theological significance

Influence in Jewish doctrine and liturgy


Although excluded from the Jewish canon, Sirach was read and quoted as
authoritative from the beginning of the rabbinic period. There are numerous citations
to Sirach in the Talmud and works of rabbinic literature (as "‫"ספר בן סירא‬, e.g.,
Hagigah 13a, Niddah 16b; Ber. 11b). Some of those (Sanhedrin 100b) record an
unresolved debate between R'Joseph and Abaye as to whether it is forbidden to read
the Sirach, wherein Abaye repeatedly draws parallels between statements in Sirach
cited by R'Joseph as objectionable and similar statements appearing in canonical
books.[37]

Sirach may have been used as a basis for two important parts of the Jewish liturgy.
In the Mahzor (High Holiday prayer book), a medieval Jewish poet may have used
Sirach as the basis for a poem, KeOhel HaNimtah, in the Yom Kippur musaf
("additional") service for the High Holidays.[38] Yosef Tabori questioned whether
this passage in Sirach is referring at all to Yom Kippur, and thus argued it cannot
form the basis of this poem.[39] Some early 20th Century scholars also argued that
the vocabulary and framework used by Sirach formed the basis of the most
important of all Jewish prayers, the Amidah, but that conclusion is disputed as
well.[40]

Current scholarship takes a more conservative approach. On one hand, scholars find Hebrew translation of Sirach, 1814
that "Ben Sira links Torah and wisdom with prayer in a manner that calls to mind the
later views of the Rabbis", and that the Jewish liturgy echoes Sirach in the "use of
hymns of praise, supplicatory prayers and benedictions, as well as the occurrence of [Biblical] words and phrases [that] take on
special forms and meanings."[41] However, they stop short of concluding a direct relationship existed; rather, what "seems likely is
[41]
that the Rabbis ultimately borrowed extensively from the kinds of circles which produced Ben Sira and the Dead Sea Scrolls ...."

New Testament
Some people claim that there are several allusions to the Wisdom of Sirach in the New Testament. These include the Virgin Mary's
Magnificat in Luke 1:52 following Sirach 10:14; the description of the seed in Mark 4:5, 16-17 following Sirach 40:15; the statement
by Jesus in Matthew 7:16,20 following Sirach 27:6; and James 1:19 quoting Sirach 5:11.[42]

The distinguished patristic scholar Henry Chadwick has claimed that in Matthew 11:28 Jesus was directly quoting Sirach 51:23,[43]
as well as comparing Matthew 6:12 "And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors." (KJV) with Sirach 28:2 "Forgive your
[43]
neighbor a wrong, and then, when you petition, your sins will be pardoned."

Messianic interpretation by Christians


Some Christians regard the catalogue of famous men in Sirach as containing several
messianic references. The first occurs during the verses on David. Sir 47:11 reads
"The Lord took away his sins, and exalted his power for ever; he gave him the
covenant of kings and a throne of glory in Israel." This references the covenant of 2
Sam 7, which pointed toward the Messiah. "Power" (Heb. qeren) is literally
translated as horn. This word is often used in a messianic and Davidic sense (e.g.
Ezek 29:21, Ps 132:17, Zech 6:12, Jer 33:15). It is also used in the Benedictus to
refer to Jesus ("and has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his
servant David").[44]
Jesus Ben Sirach, 1860 woodcut by
Another verse (47:22) that Christians interpret messianically begins by again Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld, a
referencing 2 Sam 7. This verse speaks of Solomon and goes on to say that David's Lutheran
line will continue forever. The verse ends telling us that "he gave a remnant to Jacob,
and to David a root of his stock." This references Isaiah's prophecy of the Messiah:
"There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his roots"; and "In that day the root of Jesse
shall stand as an ensign to the peoples; him shall the nations seek…"Is( 11:1, 10).[45]

References in pre-modern texts


(Verse numbers may vary slightly between versions)

Aesop's fable of The Two Pots referenced at Sirach 13:2–3[46]


The Egyptian Satire of the Trades (written during the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, between 2025 and 1700 BCE), or
another work in that tradition[47] referenced at Sirach 38:24–39:11
The Ethiopian King Zärˀa Yaˁəqob's treatises on the nature and power of the Virgin Mary quotes Sirach 3:30, "Water
extinguishes a burning fire and almsgiving atones for sin." [48]

References in culture
The opening lines of Chariots of Fire, Best Picture at the 1982 Academy Awards, is from Sirach 44:1: "Let us now
praise famous men, and our fathers that begat us." [49]

In "Canon Alberic's Scrap-Book", the first ghost story in his first published collection,M. R. James has his
protagonist, Dennistoun, quote lines from Ecclesiasticus 39:28: "Some spirits there be that are created for
vengeance, and in their fury lay on sore strokes."
The title of James Agee and Walker Evans's book Let Us Now Praise Famous Menis taken from Sirach 44:1.

See also
Roy Kinneer Patteson, Jr.
David Kohn
Development of the Hebrew Bible canon
Notes
1. Or "…of Joshua son of Sirach", the literal translation ofben.
2. MLA citation. Gigot, Francis.Ecclesiasticus. (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05263a.htm) The Catholic
Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909
3. "Book of Ben Sira" (http://www.biblestudytools.com/nrsa/ben-sira/). BibleStudyTools.com. Salem Communications
Corporation. Retrieved 2013-10-25.
4. Daniel J. Harrington (2001). Michael Coogan (ed.).The New Oxford Annotated Bible: With the
Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books(4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 99–101. ISBN 0-19-528478-
X.
5. "Canon VI. Of the Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for salvation. The Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion"(http://www.ch
urchsociety.org/issues_new/doctrine/39a/iss_doctrine_39A_Arts06-08.asp). Church Society. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
6. Westcott, Brooke Foss (2005).A general survey of the history of the canon of the New estament
T Page 570 (6th
ed.). Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock.ISBN 1597522392.
7. Session 11–4 February 1442(https://www.ewtn.com/library/COUNCILS/FLORENCE.HTM)
8. in Trullo, Council. The Apostolic Canons. Canon 85(http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/3820.htm). newadvent.
Retrieved 12 October 2016.
9. Council of Trent, Session IV, 1546
10. Manhardt,Laurie, Ph.D., Come and See Wisdom: Wisdom of the Bible, p. 173 (Emmaus Road Publishing 2009),
ISBN 978-1-931018-55-5.
11. Ska, Jean Louis, The Exegesis of the Pentateuch: Exegetical Studies and Basic Questions
, pp. 184–195 (Mohr
Siebeck Tübingen 2009),ISBN 978-3-16-149905-0.
12. Mulder, Otto, Simon the High Priest in Sirach 50, p. 3 fn.8 (Koninkliijke Brill nv 2003),ISBN 978-90-04-12316-8 ("The
highly esteemed book of Ben Sira is not sacred Scripture [because] 'the author was known to have lived in
comparatively recent times, in an age when, with the death of the last prophets, the holy spirit had departed from
Israel.").
13. Sulmasy, Daniel P., M.D. The Rebirth of the Clinic: An Introduction to Spirituality in Health Care
, p. 45 (Georgetown
Univ. Press 2006), ISBN 978-1-58901-095-6.
14. Harrington, Daniel J. (1999).Invitation to the Apocrypha(https://books.google.com/books?id=L6zJG-9BZMQC&pg=P
A90&lpg=PA90&focus=viewport&vq=%22The+book+of+Sirach+is+regarded+as+canonical%22&dq=Invitation+to+th
e+Apocrypha+1999#v=onepage&q=%22The%20book%20of%20Sirach%20is%20regarded%20as%20canonical%2
2&f=false). Grand Rapids, Mich. [u.a.]: Eerdmans. p. 90.ISBN 0-8028-4633-5.
15. Eccleciasticus, The Cambridge Bible Commentary on the New English Bible, commentary by John G. Snaith,
Cambridge University Press (1974)
16. e.g, see: Sirach 42:12–14 ("Do not look upon any one for beauty,and do not sit in the midst of women; [13] for from
garments comes the moth,and from a woman comes woman's wickedness. [14] Better is a man's harshness than a
woman's indulgence, a frightened daughter than any disgrace."); Sir. 22:3 ("the birth of a daughter is a loss").But
see Sirach 7:27 ("With all your heart honor your father
,and do not forget the birth pangs of your mother ."); Sir. 36:24–
25 ("He who acquires a wife gets his best possession,a helper fit for him and a pillar of support.[25] Where there is
no fence, the property will be plundered;and where there is no wife, a man will wander about and sigh."). See
Trenchard, Warren C. Ben Sira's View of Women, Brown Judaic Studies, No. 38 (Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1982).
17. See: Sirach 33:24–28 ("Fodder and a stick and burdens for an ass;bread and discipline and work for a servant.[25]
Set your slave to work, and you will find rest;leave his hands idle, and he will seek liberty
. [26] Yoke and thong will
bow the neck,and for a wicked servant there are racks and tortures...Set him to work, as is fitting for him,and if he
does not obey, make his fetters heavy."). But see: Sir. 33:30–31 ("If you have a servant, let him be as
yourself,because you have bought him with blood.[31] If you have a servant, treat him as a brother ,for as your own
soul you will need him.")
18. Harrington, pp. 89–90.
19. Marttila, Marko. Foreign Nations in the Wisdom of Ben Sira: A Jewish Sage between Opposition and Assim
ilation,
pp. 196–199 (Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. 2012), ISBN 978-3-11-027010-5.
20. Perspectives on Hebrew Scriptures II, Volume 5, Ehud Ben Zvi ed., pp. 179–190 (Gorgias Press LLC 2007),
ISBN 978-1-59333-612-7.
21. "Sirach, The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of"(http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13785-sirach-the-wisdom-of-jesus-
the-son-of). Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906.
22. Williams, David Salter (1994) "The Date of Ecclesiasticus"Vetus Testamentum 44(4): pp. 563–566
23. DeSilva, David Arthur (2002) "Wisdom of Ben Sira"Introducing the Apocrypha: Message, Context, and Significance
Baker Academic, Grand Rapids, p. 158,ISBN 0-8010-2319-X
24. Guillaume, Philippe (2004)."New Light on the Nebiim from Alexandria: A Chronography to Replace the
Deuteronomistic History"(http://www.jhsonline.org/Articles/article_39.pdf) (PDF). Journal of Hebrew Scriptures(5:
Section: 3. The Date of Ben Sira).
25. Baxter, J. Sidlow (1968). The Strategic Grasp of the Bible. Zondervan. p. 46.
26. Sirach, Introduction (http://www.usccb.org/bible/scripture.cfm?bk=Sirach&ch=) – United States Conference of
Catholic Bishops Bible
27. See generally The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at Leiden
University, 11–14 December 1995, Volume 26 (T. Muraoka & J.F. Elwolde eds.), ISBN 90-04-10820-3.
28. Testimonia, ii. 1; iii. 1, 35, 51, 95,et passim
29. Mulder, p. 11. However, other scholars take the position that Sirach started with chapters 1–23 and 51, with the
intermediate sections being inserted thereafter
. Mulder, pp. 30–31.
30. 1 Maccabees 1:20–25, see"Polyglot Bible. 1 Maccabees" (http://www.sacred-texts.com/bib/poly/ma1001.htm).
Retrieved 2009-08-05.
31. Flavius Josephus. "How the City Jerusalem W as Taken, and the Temple Pillaged. As Also Concerning the Actions of
the Maccabees, Matthias and Judas; and Concerning the Death of Judas". In William Whiston (ed.).The Wars of the
Jews (http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?layout=&doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0148&query=whiston%
20chapter%3D%232&loc=1.1).
32. Stone, Michael E. (ed.) (1984)Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period: Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, Qumran,
sectarian writings, Philo, JosephusVan Gorcum, Assen, Netherlands,p. 290 (https://books.google.com/books?id=2z
ffXWORVUcC&pg=PA290), ISBN 0-8006-0603-5
33. See for example the account of Schechter's work on the Geniza manuscripts in Soskice, Janet (2010)
Sisters of
Sinai: How Two Lady Adventurers Found theHidden Gospels. London: Vintage, 240 –249
34. Adams, A.W (1958) Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 83
35. Elizur, Shulamit, "A New Fragment from the Hebrew Text of the Book of Ben Sira", Tarbiz76 (2008) 17–28 (in
Hebrew)
36. Egger-Wenzel, Renate "Ein neues Sira-Fragment des MS C", Biblische Notizen 138(2008) 107–114.
37. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 100b(http://dtorah.com/otzar/shas_soncino.php?ms=Sanhedrin&df=100b)
38. See: M.R. Lehmann, "The Writings of Ben Sira, the Dead Sea Scrolls and Temple Worship in the Liturgy of Yom
Kippur", in Piyyut in Tradition, vol. 2 (eds. B. Bar-Tikva and E. Hazan [Hebrew]; Ramat Gan: Bar-Ilan Univ., 2000),
pp. 13–18.
39. Tabori, Yosef (1996). Moʻade Yiśraʼel bi-teḳufat ha-Mishnah ṿeha-Talmud (Mahad. 2. metuḳenet u-murḥevet. ed.).
Yerushalayim: Hotsaʼat sefarim ʻa. sh. Y.L. Magnes, ha-Universiṭah ha-ʻIvrit. p. 260 n.4. ISBN 9652238880.
40. Reif, Stefan C. Prayer in Ben Sira, Qumran and Second Temple Judaism: A Comparative Overview, in Ben Sira's
God: Proceedings of the International Ben Sira Conference, Durham, Renate Egger-W
enzel ed., p. 322 (Walter de
Gruyter GmbH & Co. 2002),ISBN 3-11-017559-2.
41. Reif, p. 338.
42. Scripture Catholic – Deuterocanonical Books In The New estament
T (http://www.scripturecatholic.com/deuterocano
n.html)
43. Chadwick, Henry.(2001) The Church in Ancient Society: From Galilee to Gregory the GreatClarendon Press,
Oxford, England, page 28 (https://books.google.com/books?id=nLic1cabc8gC&pg=P A28), ISBN 0-19-924695-5
44. Skehan, Patrick (1987)The Wisdom of Ben Sira: a new translation with notes(Series: The Anchor Bible volume 39)
Doubleday, New York, p. 524, ISBN 0-385-13517-3
45. Skehan, p. 528
46. See footnote to the Biblical passage inThe Jerusalem Bible, Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1966
47. Rollston, Chris A. (April 2001). "Ben Sira 38:24–39:11 andThe Egyptian Satire of the Trades". Journal of Biblical
Literature. 120 (Spring): 131–139. doi:10.2307/3268597 (https://doi.org/10.2307%2F3268597).
48. Zärˀa Yaˁəqob. 1992. "Revelation of the Miracle of Mary according to John Son of Thunder (Raˀəyä Täˀammər)." In
The Mariology of Emperor Zära Yaˁqob of Ethiopia: Texts and Translations, edited by Getatchew Haile, 70-145.
Rome, Italy: Pontificium Institutum Studiorum Orientalium.
49. Colin Welland (July 17, 2015)."Chariots of Fire Script"(http://wiscreenwritersforum.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/
Chariots-of-Fire.pdf) (PDF).

Sources
Askin, Lindsey A. (2018)Scribal Culture in Ben SiraE.J. Brill, Leiden ISBN 978-90-04-37286-3
Beentjes, Pancratius C. (1997)The Book of Ben Sira in Hebrew: A Text Edition of All Extant Hebrew Manuscripts
and a Synopsis of All Parallel Hebrew Ben Sira eTxts E.J. Brill, Leiden, ISBN 90-04-10767-3
Toy, Crawford Howell and Lévi, Israel (1906)"Sirach, The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of"entry in the Jewish
Encyclopedia
Amidah, entry in (1972) Encyclopedia Judaica Jerusalem, Keter Publishing, Jerusalem,OCLC 10955972

External links
Sirach (Ecclesiasticus)– Latin Vulgate with Douay-Rheims version side-by-side
BenSira.org, original Hebrew manuscripts
"Ecclesiasticus" Catholic Encyclopedia
Ecclesiasticus, "Biblical Proportions"
Sirach – Bibledex video overview
Sirach 2012 Translation with Audio
The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach, Jewish Encyclopedia (1906 ed.).

Roman Catholic Old Testament


Preceded by Succeeded by
Book of Wisdom Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Isaiah
see Deuterocanon

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