Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 26

# Algebra is a branch of Mathematics that substitutes letters for numbers.

## An algebraic equation depicts a

scale, what is done on one side of the scale with a number is also done to either side of the scale. The
numbers are constants. Algebra also includes real numbers, complex numbers, matrices, vectors and
much more. X, Y, A, B are the most commonly used letters that represent the algebraic problems and
equation 1/b.

## Important Formulas in Algebra

Here is a list of Algebraic formulas –

 a2 – b2 = (a – b)(a + b)
 (a+b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2
 a2 + b2 = (a – b)2 + 2ab
 (a – b)2 = a2 – 2ab + b2
 (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2ac + 2bc
 (a – b – c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 – 2ab – 2ac + 2bc
 (a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3 ; (a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab(a + b)
 (a – b)3 = a3 – 3a2b + 3ab2 – b3
 a3 – b3 = (a – b)(a2 + ab + b2)
 a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 – ab + b2)
 (a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3
 (a – b)3 = a3 – 3a2b + 3ab2 – b3
 (a + b)4 = a4 + 4a3b + 6a2b2 + 4ab3 + b4)
 (a – b)4 = a4 – 4a3b + 6a2b2 – 4ab3 + b4)
 a4 – b4 = (a – b)(a + b)(a2 + b2)
 a5 – b5 = (a – b)(a4 + a3b + a2b2 + ab3 + b4)
 If n is a natural number, an – bn = (a – b)(an-1 + an-2b+…+ bn-2a + bn-1)
 If n is even (n = 2k), an + bn = (a + b)(an-1 – an-2b +…+ bn-2a – bn-1)
 If n is odd (n = 2k + 1), an + bn = (a + b)(an-1 – an-2b +…- bn-2a + bn-1)
 (a + b + c + …)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + … + 2(ab + ac + bc + ….
 Laws of Exponents (am)(an) = am+n (ab)m = ambm (am)n = amn
 Fractional Exponents a0 = 1 aman=am−n am = 1a−m a−m = 1am

##  Roots of Quadratic Equation

 For a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c where a &#8800; 0, the roots will be given by
the equation as −b±√b2−4ac/2a
 Δ = b2 − 4ac is called the discrimination.
 For real and distinct roots, Δ > 0
 For real and coincident roots, Δ = 0
 For non-real roots, Δ < 0
 If α and β are the two roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c then, α + β = (-b / a) and α ×
β = (c / a).
 If the roots of a quadratic equation are α and β, the equation will be (x − α)(x − β) = 0

 Factorials

 n! = (1).(2).(3)…..(n − 1).n
 n! = n(n − 1)! = n(n − 1)(n − 2)! = ….
 0! = 1

Basic Terms

Equation :
An equation can be defined as a statement involving symbols (variables), numbers
(constants) and mathematical operators (Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division etc)
that asserts the equality of two mathematical expressions. The equality of the two
expressions is shown by using a symbol “=” read as “is equal to”. For example: 3X + 7 = 16
is an equation in the variable X.

Variable :
A variable is a symbol that represents a quantity in an algebraic expression. It is a value
that may change with time and scope of the concerned problem. For example: in the
equation 3X + 7 = 16, X is the variable. Also in the polynomial X2+ 5XY – 3Y2, both X and Y
are variables.

## One Variable Equation :

An equation that involves only one variable is knows as a One Variable Equation. 3X + 7 =
16 is an example of it.

## Two Variable Equation :

An equation that involves two variables is knows as a Two Variable Equation. 2X + Y = 10
is a Two Variable Equation of where X and Y are variables. Please note that here both X
and Y have a power or exponent of 1. Hence it is an equation with degree 1. The degree is
equal to the highest power of the variable(s) invloved. X2 + 5XY – 3Y2 = 25 is an example of
a Two Variable Equation of degree 2.
Three Variable Equation:
An equation that comprises three variables / symbols is called a Three Variable Equation
x + y - Z = 1 -------------(1)
8x + 3y - 6z = 1 -------------(2)
-4x - y + 3z = 1 -------------(3)
The above three equations form a system of 3 equations in 3 variables X, Y and Z. Each of
these equations is a Three Variable Equation of degree 1. Also these equations are
called Linear equations in three variables.

Monomial :
A monomial is a product of powers of variables. A monomial in a single variable is of the
form xn where X is a variable and n is a positive integer. There can also be monomials in
more than one variable. For example xm yn is a monomial in two variables where m,n are
any positive integers. Monomials can also be multiplied by nonzero constant values.
24x2y5 z3 is a monomial in three variables x,y,z with exponents 2,5 and 3 respectively.

Polynomial :
A polynomial is formed by a finite set of monomials that relate with each other through the
operators of addition and subtraction. The order of the polynomial is defined as the order of
the highest degree monomial present in the mathematical statement. 2x3 + 4x2 + 3x – 7 is a
polynomial of order 3 in a single variable.
Polynomials also exist in multiple variables. x3 + 4x2y + xy5 + y2 – 2 is a polynomial in
variables x and y.

Exponent :
Exponentiation is a mathematical operation written as an where a is the base and n is
called power or index or exponent and it is a positive number. We can say that in the
process of exponentiation, a number is repeatedly multiplied by itself, and the exponent
represents the number of times it is multiplied. In a3, a is multiplied with itself 3 times i.e. a x
a x a. a5 translates to a x a x a x a x a (a multiplied with itself 5 times).
Shown below is a graph that shows exponentiation for different values of bases a.
By looking at the graph we conclude that the numbers less than one approach to zero as
the exponent value grows. On the other hand, the exponentiation values tend to infinity as
exponentiation index grows for numbers greater than 1.

Types of Equations

Linear Equations
 A simple linear equation is of the form: y = mx + c
 A linear equation looks like a straight line when graphed.
 It has a constant slope value.
 The degree of a linear equation is always 1.
 Superposition principle is applicable to a system characterized by a linear equation.
 The output of a linear system is directly proportional to its input.

Non-Linear Equations
 A simple non-linear equation is of the form: ax2 + by2 = c
 A non-linear equation look like a curve when graphed.
 It has a variable slope value.
 The degree of a non-linear equation is at least 2 or other higher integer values. With the
increase in the degree of the equation, the curvature of the graph increases.
 Superposition principle does not apply to the systems characterized by non-linear
equations.
 The input and output of a non-linear system is not directly related.

Algebric Formulas

1. Binomial Theorem

(a+b)0=1(a+b)0=1
(a+b)1=a+b(a+b)1=a+b
(a+b)2=a2+2ab+b2(a+b)2=a2+2ab+b2
(a−b)2=a2−2ab+b2(a-b)2=a2-2ab+b2
(a+b)3=a3+3a2b+3ab2+b3(a+b)3=a3+3a2b+3ab2+b3
(a−b)3=a3−3a2b+3ab2−b3(a-b)3=a3-3a2b+3ab2-b3
(a+b)4=a4+4a3b+6a2b2+4ab3+b4(a+b)4=a4+4a3b+6a2b2+4ab3+b4
And so on. These formulas are easy to remember because of their symmetry and these are
used very frequently in Algebra. We will cover a number of examples that involve these
formulas.

## 2. Difference of Two Squares Formula

x2−y2=(x+y)(x−y)x2-y2=(x+y)(x-y)
This formula indicates that we can determine the difference of two squares simply my taking
a product of the sum and the difference of the variables involved.

## 3. Sum / Difference of Two Cubes

x3+y3=(x+y)(x2−xy+y2)x3+y3=(x+y)(x2-xy+y2)
x3−y3=(x−y)(x2+xy+y2)
Laws of Algebra
Let a,b,c be three variables. Then the followings are some basic rules of algebra applicable
to these variables.

a+b=b+aa+b=b+a

## Commutative Law for Multiplication

a.b=b.aa.b=b.a

a+(b+c)=(a+b)+ca+(b+c)=(a+b)+c a+(b+c)=(a+b)+ca+(b+c)=(a+b)+c

## Associative Law for Multiplication

a.(b.c)=(a.b).ca.(b.c)=(a.b).c a.(b.c)=(a.b).ca.(b.c)=(a.b).c

Distributive Law

a.(b+c)=(a.b)+(a.c)a.(b+c)=(a.b)+(a.c) a.(b+c)=(a.b)+(a.c)a.(b+c)=(a.b)+(a.c)

a+c=b+c⇔a=ba+c=b+c⇔a=b
Cancellation Law for Multiplication

a.c=b.c⇔a=ba.c=b.c⇔a=b where c != 0

## Summary of Laws Of Algebra

Distance Formula
Distance Formula, as evident from its name, is used to measure the shortest (straight-line) distance
between two points.

Pythagorean Theorem
A simple derivation of the formula can be obtained by applying this famous
theorm.According to this theorem, the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle can be obtained
by
h2=x2+y2h2=x2+y2
In the case of distance formula, we can measure the value of x by subtracting x1 from x2.
Similarly, the value of y is given by y2-y1 as shown in the figure below.

FOIL Method
The technique used for multiplying two binomials is called FOIL method.
The letters FOIL stand for:

F - First O - Outer
I - Inner L - Last

Types of Operations

F IRST

## Multiply the "Outermost" terms of each of the two binomials

O UTER
Multiply the "Inner" terms (second term of the first binomial and the

INNER
first term of the second binomial)

L AST

## Formula of FOIL Method :

nner)+bd(Last)

The above formula for FOIL method is equivalent to a two-step distributive method. If we
use distributive property to multiply the above binomials, the formula is:

## (a+b)(c+d)=a(c+d)+b(c+d)(a+b)(c+d)=a(c+d)+b(c+d), which equals to

Midpoint Formula
The midpoint formula is used to find a point (its coordinate values) that is located exactly between
two other points in a plane. The formula finds its tremendous application in geometry.

Explanation:
While calculating the midpoint between two sets of coordinates of a line segment, if we
assume, point A is x1, y1 and x2, y2. Using the above midpoint formula, the average of the x
coordinates and y coordinates give the midpoint of Point A and Point B. It is possible to find
the midpoint of a vertical, horizontal and even a diagonal line segment using this formula.
Parentheses Rules Definition
Parentheses are used in Algebraic / Mathematical expressions primarily to modify the
normal order of operations. Therefore in an expression involving parentheses, the terms
present inside the parentheses () are evaluated first.
There are some basic parentheses Rules presented below. You must learn them by heart.
a+(−b)=a−ba+(-b)=a-b
a−(−b)=a+ba-(-b)=a+b
a⋅(−b)=−aba⋅(-b)=-ab
(−a)(−b)=ab

A quadratic equation is a polynomial of second degree in a single variable. It is expressed as
ax2+bx+c=0ax2+bx+c=0
In the above equation, a,b,c are constants where a!= 0.

The figure below shows the plot of a quadratic equation y=ax2+bx+cy=ax2+bx+c. The
values of all the three coefficients are varied one by one, i.e. while a is varied, b,c remain
fixed and so on.
From the figure, we conclude that the graph of a quadratic equation is a parabola and a
variation in the values of the 3 coefficients shifts the position of this parabola on the
coordinate axis.
The different values of the coefficients have been demonstrated by 5 different colors. In the
leftmost figure, for example, green color plot corresponds to the value of a = 1, b = 0, c=-
1/2. Similar is the case for the rest of the figures.
vAnother figure shown below is a plot of a simple quadratic equation (another parabola) and
the points where this graph intersects the x-axis is the solution to the quadratic equation:
x2−4x−5=0x2-4x-5=0

In Algebra, the use of Quadratic Equations is probably the most frequent event. Engineers,
Mathematicians, and researchers cannot proceed with their calculations without using this
equation. That is why, it is really important for you to develop a sound understanding of the
concepts related to this equation.

The quadratic formula is a method that is used to find the roots of a quadratic equation. Several
methods have been proposed for the solution of quadratic equations.
Operations With Polynomials
Polynomials
A polynomial is a mathematical expression that is constructed from one or more variables and
constants, using only the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication. The constants of the
polynomials are real numbers, whereas the exponents of the variables are positive integers.
For example, x2+5x−3x2+5x-3 is a polynomial in a single variable x.

Degree of a Polynomial:
The highest power of the variable present in a polynomial is called the degree of the
polynomial. In the above example, the degree of the polynomial is 2.

Coefficients of a Polynomial:
The constant values present in a polynomial are knows as its coefficients / coefficient
values. The constants used in the above polynomial are 1, 5 and -3.

Variables of a Polynomial:
Variables are alphabets like a,b,c, x, y, z etc that are used in a polynomial. They are called
variables because they can take up any value from a given range (thus called "vary-ables").
In the above example, x is the variable. There also exist polynomials that use more than
one variable. For example,x2+5xy−3y2x2+5xy-3y2 is a polynomial of degree 2 in two
variables x and y.

Note:
Until this point, we have only mentioned what a polynomial is. However, for many reasons it
is wise to make clear as to what is not a polynomial. Without this specification, it is likely
that you render a non-polynomial to be a polynomial.

## Caution: What is not a polynomial?

 A polynomial cannot have negative values of exponents. E.g. 4x-2 can not be a polynomial
term.
 A polynomial term can not have the variable in the denominator. E.g. 4/x is not a
polynomial term.
 A polynomial term cannot have a variable inside the radical sign. 3xsqrtx is therefore not a
polynomial term.

Each part of a polynomial that is being added or subtracted is called a "term". So the
polynomial has three terms.

Shown above is a simple example of the polynomial, and this is how polynomials are
usually expressed. The term having the largest value of exponent (2 in this case) is written
first, and is followed by the term with the next lower value of exponent which in turn is
followed by a term with the next lower exponent value and so on. The term with the
maximum value of exponent is called the "Leading Term" and the value of its exponent is
called the "degree of the polynomial".
1. Polynomial of Degree 0

The graph of the polynomial function f(x) = 0 is the x-axis.Also the graph of a polynomial
function f(x) = c is a horizontal line as shown below.

Polynomial of Degree 0

2. Polynomial of Degree 1
The graph of a polynomial function of the form f(x) = mx + c is a straight line. The
slope of this line is m, whereas c is the y-intercept of the line as shown in the figure
below.

Polynomial of Degree 1

3. Polynomial of Degree 2

The graph of a quadratic polynomial function is a parabola. This type of function has
a form f(x)=a2x2+a1x+a0f(x)=a2x2+a1x+a0 . A graph of such a function is shown in the
figure below.
Polynomial of Degree 2

4. Polynomial of Degree 3

Similarly the graphs of a few higher degree polynomial functions have been shown below.
Polynomial of Degree 3

5. Polynomial of Degree 4
Polynomial of Degree 4

6. Polynomial of Degree 5
Polynomial of Degree 5

7. Polynomial of Degree 6
Polynomial of Degree 6

## Flow Rate Formula

The flow rate of a liquid is how much fluid passes through an area in a particular time. Flow rate can
be articulated in either terms of velocity and cross-sectional area, or time and volume. As liquids are
incompressible, the rate of flow into an area must be equivalent to the rate of flow out of an area.
This is identified as the equation of continuity.
Flow rate is the quantity of fluid flowing in the specified time. It is expressed in liters per
meter (lpm) or gallons per meter (gpm) . It is articulated as

Where,
the flow area is A and
the flow velocity is v.
Flow rate can also be articulated as in a given time (t) the capacity of fluid stored (C) . It is also
articulated as
Where,
the capacity of fluid stored is C and
the time taken to flow is t
Flow rate formula has extensive applications in fluid dynamics to compute the velocity, area or flow
rate.
Flow Rate Solved Examples
Provided underneath are the questions grounded on flow rate which may be useful for you.
Problem 1: Compute the flow rate of fluid if it is moving with the velocity of 20 m/s through a tube of
diameter 0.03 m.

Problem 2: A tank of capacity 500 m3 is being filled in half an hour. Compute its flow rate.

## Math Formula Chart

The Math Formula Chart has all the basic math formulas. A Math Formula Chart is given below:

Perimeter 1. Square 1. P = 2a
2. Rectangle 2. P = 4(l+b)

## Circumference 1. Circle 1. C = 2 (pi) r

Area 1. Square 1. A = a2
2. Rectangle 2. A=lxb
3. Triangle 3. A = ½(b x h)
4. Trapezoid 4. A = ((b1 +b2 ) x h) / 2
5. Circle 5. A = pi x r 2

## Surface Area 1. Cube 1. S = 6l2

2. Cylinder 2. S = 2 x pi x r x h
3. Cone 3. S = pi x r x l
4. Sphere 4. S = 4 x pi x r 2

Volume 1. Cylinder 1. V = bh
2. Cone 2. V = bh/3
3. Sphere 3. V = 4 x pi x r3 / 3

Pythagoras a2 + b2 = c2
Theorem

## Algebraic Formula 1. Pythagorean theorem 1. a 2 + b2 = c 2

2. slope-intercept form of the 2. y = mx + c
equation of a line 3. d = rt
3. distance formula 4. total cost = (number of units) ×
4. total cost (price per unit)
5. quadratic formula 5. X = [-b ± sqrt(b2 – 4ac)] /2a
6. Laws of Exponents 6. am x b m = (a x b)m
7. Fractional Exponents
am x a n = (a)m+n

7. a1/2 = sqrt a
Trigonometric 1. Sine Function 1. Sin x = Opposite/ hypotenuse
Formulas 2. Cosine Function 2. Cos X = Adjacent/ Hypotenuse
3. Tangent Function 3. Tan x = opposite / Hypotenuse