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Unit VII – Database Development

1. What is database?
Database is an organized collection of data. Database is of two types:
(a) Flat File database – It refers to the data files that contains records, without any
relationship. Eg – Excel
(b) Relational Database – It is a type of database that stores data in several tables.
These tables are related to one other by their common fields. Eg – Oracle, Ms –
Access
2. Distinguish between DBMS and RDBMS.
DBMS ( Database Management System) is to provide the users with efficient and
reliable methods of data retrieval. RDBMS(Relational Database Management System) is
a type of database that stores data in multiple tables.
3. Define Database Server.
It refers to a server which offers database services to other computers or computer
programs as defined by the client – server model.
4. Define:
(a) Data – A database primarily contains information about the data item. Ef: Student is
the data item in school database.
(b) Field – It describes a particular attribute of the data item.eg: Roll no in student table.
(c) Record – It is a set of information that belongs to a data item.
(d) Value or Data – It is a set of characters , text or numerical that you put in while
adding information to database.
(e) Tables – Storage of data in structured manner.
(f) Queries – Retrieval of data on the basis of certain conditions.
(g) Forms – Forms are user friendly interfaces that facilitate the process of entering data
in tables and queries.
(h) Reports – It is used to display data in a printable format.
(i) Label Box – It displays descriptive text such as titles, captions or instructions.
(j) Text Box – It is a user interface component that is used to accept information from
the user. It is also called input box.
(k) List Box – It displays the items value in a list format enclosed in a scrollable box.
5. What are the features of Ms – Access?
(a) Sharing of data
(b) Data redundancy is reduced.
(c) It provides the facility to break large information into small parts.
6. Define Primary key and Foreign Key
Primary Key or Candidate Key uniquely identifies a record in a table. A foreign key can
be defined as an attribute whose value matches a primary key in another table.
7. What is relationship?
These are links that associate a field in one table with a filed in another table.
8. Explain data types
A field’s data type determines what type of data can enter into a field.
(a) Numeric Data type – It s used to enter numbers. It can be Byte, Integer, Decimal,
Single, double
(b) Alphanumeric – It is a combination of text and numbers.
(l) Text – It is for short text fields. It can contain 255 characters.
(m) Memo – It can store up to 1 GB of data.
(c) Date/ Time – It is used for entering date and time.
(d) AutoNumber – It is used for sequentially generated number.
(e) Currency – It is used for currency values.
(f) Calculated – It is a field whose value is calculated from an expression based on other
fields in the same table.
(g) Hyperlink – It stores p to 1 GB of data and can contain URL
(h) Yes / No – It can be either yes or NO
(i) OLE – Object Linking and embedding can contain embedded documents . It is limited
to 1 GB.
(j) Attachment – It contains an attachment. It is up to2 GB,
(k) Look Up Wizard – It helps to create a field whose values are chosen from the values
in another table.
9. What are SQL commands?
Specific commands which helps us in executing different tasks in a database. These
commands can be grouped in to

SQL Commands

DDL Comands DML Commands TCL Commands


DCL Commands
Create, Alter, Rename, Select, Insert, Update, Commit, Roll Back, Save
Grant, Revoke
Drop, Truncate Delete Point

(a) DDL ( Data Definition Language ) – It helps in defining and modifying the structure of
various database objects.
Create – It creates new table
Alter – It modifies the structure of table
Drop – Delete table
Truncate – removes all table records including allocated table spaces
Rename – rename the table
(b) DML (Data Manipulation Language) – It manipulates data in database.
Select – retrieves data from a table
Insert – insert data in to a table
Update – Update the existing data with new data with in a table
(c) DCL(Data Control Language) – It includes commands which helps in maintaining the
rights, permission and security of a database.
Grant – It gives privileges to the users to access the database.
Revoke – It withdraws the privileges given by the Grant Command
Comment – It is used to write a comment
(d) TCL (Transaction Control Language) – It control and manage the changes that effect
the data present in the database.
Commit – It is used to permanently save work in a database.
Roll Back – It restores the transaction an case of any error occurs.
Save Point – Sets a save point with in a transaction
Set Transaction – It sets the transaction properties
10. Name two vies of a table in MS – Access
Design View and Data Sheet View
Design View – Creating a structure of a table.
Data Sheet View – WE enter records in a table.
11. Fill in the blanks:
(a) Primary Key is a part of tools group and is present on Design tab.
(b) You can add tables to an existing database in the design and datasheet view.
(c) When creating table, the object window consist of two panes, Field entry pane and
field property pane.
(d) Relationship option is present in Relationship Button from Relationship Group in
Database tools.
12. Name the three views in which a form is displayed.
Form View – It is used to enter or edit data.
Design View – It is used to adjust the design of form.
Layout View – It is used to change the look and feel of a form.
13. What are the different types of queries that can be created in Access.
Select Query – It retrieves data from one or more tables using criteria and displays the
record set in a datasheet.
Cross Tab Query – It uses row headings and column headings so that you can see your
data in terms of two categories at once.
Action Query – It is a query that makes changes to or moves many records in just one
operation. There are four types of queries – Append, Update, Make Table, Delete.
14. Define Criteria.
It is a string that may consist of field references, operators and constants.
15. How is the result of a query displayed?
It is displayed in the form of a table.
16. What is the procedure to add field to a query, while using the design grid?
The bottom pane of the query Design view displays the design grid. You can add fields to
the query b dragging them from the field list area to the Design Grid or by double
clicking on the field in the Field list Area.
17. How do you format a report?
To format a report, change the view of your report to Design View, click on label in the
Page Header section of the report and select the desired font size, and fill color from the
font group on the Format tab. Apply the same procedure to format all the labels.
18. What are the different report sections?
Report Header – It contains the information such as logo, title. It appears at top of each
page.
Page Header – It contains the information that is to be displayed at the top of the
report.
Detail – It is where you place the controls that make up the main body of the report.
Page Footer – It is printed at the end of every page.
Report Footer – It appears on the last page of the report and displays the summary of
the entire report.

Assignment –

1. Write steps to create form in Ms – ACCESS.


2. Write the submenus of MS – ACCESS window.
3. Create queries for the following:
(a) Display entire data from student table.
Ans - SELECT * from “Student”
(b) Display all records from student table from class 10
Ans – Select * from “Student” where “Class” = ‘10’
(c) Display all records from student table in an ascending order of roll No.
Ans – SELECT * from “Student” order by “roll no” ASC;
(d) Insert a record in Maths table. Fields RNO and Marks will have 113 and 65
respectively.
Ans - INSERT INTO “Maths” (“RNO”, “Marks”) VALUES (‘113’, ‘65’)
(e) Change the city of student with roll no 12 to New Delhi
Ans -UPDATE “Student” set “city” = “NEW DELHI” where “roll no” = ‘12’
(f) Delete the student with roll no 12 from student table.
Ans -Delete from “Student” where “roll No “ = ‘12’
(g) Create table Library with column Name Book No of integer type and Book Name of
text type with length 60.
Ans -CREATE TBALE “Library” (“Book NO” INTEGER, “Book Name” VARCHAR (60))
4. Fill in the blanks:
1. ____________________ is the file extension of Ms- Access.
2. A __________ is an organized collection of data.
3. A ________________ is a software package that can be used for creating and managing
4. databases.
5. A __________________________ is a database management system that is based on
the relational model.
6. T hree popular DBMS software are ________________, ___________________, &
_________________________.
7. A ___________ is a set of data elements that is organized using a model of vertical
columns and horizontal rows.
8. A _________ is a set of data values of a particular simple type, one for each row of the
table.
9. A ___________ represents a single, data item in a table.
10. _____________ are used to identify which type of data we are going to store in the
database.
11. A ____________ is a unique value that identifies a row in a table.
12. T ypes of languages used for creating and manipulating the data in the Database are
___________________ & ________________.
13. A ____________________ is a standard for commands that define the different
structures in a database.
16. A ______________ is a language that enables users to access and manipulate data in a
database.
17. A _____________ is a part of DML involving information retrieval only.
18. A popular data manipulation language is _________________.
19. Common DDL statements are _________, ___________ and __________ .
20. __________ are the basic building blocks of a database.
21. T o design a table, you need to select __________ _______in _________ _______
option available under Task.
22. A _______ helps the user to systematically store information in the database.
23. A ________ enables users to view, enter, and change data directly in database objects
such as tables.
24. T o create a form you need to select _________ option available under Database
section.
25. A __________ is helps to collect specific information from the pool of data in the
database.
26. _________ statement retrieves zero or more rows from one or more database tables or
database views.
27. __________ statement is used to add one or more records to a database.
28. __________ statement is used for modifying records in a database.
29. __________ statement is used to remove one or more records in a database.
30. __________ statement is used for creating a database or a table in any RDBMS
Software.
31. A ____________ is used to generate the overall work outcome in a clear format.
32. T o create reports you need to select ___________________ option available under
Tasks.