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Name (English and Greek), transliteration, capital and small form, pronunciation first/second declension third declension

masc fem neut masclfem neut


UA¢a a a a as in fgther C; V C;
S~'ta b b as in B.ible u U OC; oe;
t
yalllla g Y g as in gone
v v v a/v
8£A'Ta d 8 d as in Qog
£ \lflAOV e E e as in m~t EC; a
~V ~V WV wv
(~'ta z z as in daze
te; tC; 0t(V) 0t(V)
n'ta e 11 e as in ob~y UC; C; ac; a
e~'ta th e th as in 1bing
tw'ta i as in intrigue oC; a Tl OV e;
Kan:n:a k K K k as in kitchen ou ac; TlC; ou OC; oC;
A 1 as in law ~ ~ 1;1 ~ t
OV av Tlv ov a/v
m M ill as in mother
vu n N v n as in new m a EC; a
~v ~v WV wv
x x as in axiom
mc; OtC; 0t(v) 0t(V)
o IltKpOV o o o as in nQt ouc; aC; ac; a
p p as in 12each
Stems ending in a or Tl are in the first declension, stems ending in 0
Rho pw r P r as in rod are in the second , and consonantal stems are in the third.
Sigma 01Ylla s 0/e; s as in .study Every neuter word has the same form in the nominative and accusa­
tive.
Tau 'tau as in lalk
Almost all neuter words end in a in the nominative and accusative
U \lflAOV u/y u u as the German ii plural.
¢i ph ph as in phone In the dative singular, the t subscripts if possible. (Because an t can
subscript only under a vowel-in which case the vowel lengthens-it
Xt ch ch as in loch
subscripts only in the first and second declensions.)
\1f t ps ps as in lil?S. Vowels often change their length ("ablaut") .
In the genitive and dative, the masculine and neuter will always be
identical.
The Square of Stops

masc fem neut masc fem neut Labial n: ¢


o Tl 'TO oc; Tl o Velar K X
'to'\) 't11<; 'TOU oil ~C; oil Dental 't e
't~ 't1) 'T~ ~ ~ ~
'tov 't11V 'to ov TlV o • Labials + 0 form \If; velars plus 0 form ~; dentals plus 0 form 0.
8. A't cannot stand at the end of a word and will drop off (ovOlla'T
Ot at 'ta Ot at OVOIlU'T • ovolla).
'tWV 'twv 'tWV WV WV
'tOLe; 'Tate; 'tOte; Ote;
'tOUe; 'ta c; 'to:
Un:Ep (acc)

ETCl

wpa. ypa¢-n 8o~o: n:PO¢-n'tl1<; AOyOC; EPYOV an:o


gen sg wpa c; ypa¢ll<; 8o~11<; n:po¢-n'tou AOYOD EPYOU
datsg wp ~ ypa¢~ 80~1) n:pO¢n'Tl:J AOY~ £py~ 8ux (gen)
acc sg wpav ypa¢11v 8o~o:v n:pO¢n'TllV AOYOV EPYOV
EK
d)pat ypa¢O:l
ypa¢wv
un:o (acc)
EYCD GU aU'w e; aU1: 11 aU1:O o{noc; aU1:11 1:0U1:0 n aGne; lln<; on
~OU , E~OU GOD , GOU au'wu aU1:11e; aU1:OU 1:0U1:0U 1:aU1:11e; 1:0U1:0U n vOe; nvoe; o{ntVOe; ~GnVOe; o-0nvoe;
~ ot , E~O l Got, Got aU1:qJ aU1:1J aln q> 1:0U1:qJ 1:am lJ 1:0mc.p n vt nvt ~nvl ~nvt ~nvl
~E, E~E GE, GE aU1:OV aU1: 11V (1)'to 1: 0 U'"CO V 1:aU1:1lV 1:0U1:0 nva ovnva llvnva on

alno\. aU1:O'.t aU1:a 0-01:0t a{nal 1:aU1:a n VEe; nva OtnVEe; atnVEe; anva
aU1:WV aU1:CDV aU1:CDV 1:0U1:WV 1:0U1:WV 1:0U1:CDV n vCDV nvCDV wvnvCDv wvnvCDv wvn vCDv
aU1:0tC; aU1:ale; aU1:ote; 1:0U1:ote; 1:aU1:ale; 1:OU1:01e; 1:1Gt (v) 1:lm (v) OtG1:Wt (v) a'wnm (v) o'wnGt (v)
aU1:ac; aU1:a 1:aU1:ac; 1:aU1:a nva anva

mase fem neut mase fem neut mase fem neut maselfem neut mase fem neut
aylOC; ayta aylOv nae; naGa nay no A:Ue; nOAA11 nOAu eXA1l8 nc; eXA1l8Ee; El~ ~ta EV
aYlOU aytac; aylOU nanoc; naGl1C; naV1:0C; nOAAou nOAAne; nOAAou eXA1l8ouC; eXA1l80ue; EVOe; ~ tae; EVOe;
ayu.p <;y~ q. ay u~ navn naGlJ navn noAAcJ.l nOAA~ nOAA.cJ.l eXA1l8ci eXA118et EVl ~t q. EVl
aylOv aytav aytOv naV1:a naGav nay nOAuv .noAA~v no AU eXA1l8n eXA1l8EC; Eva ~ taV EV

aylOl aytal ayta nanEe; naGat naV1:a nOAAOt nOAAat nOAAa eXA1l8EtC; eXA1l8 11

aytWV ayUJJV aytwv naV1:WV naGWV naV1:WV no AAoo v no AAoo v nOAA.ooV eXA1l8oov eXA1l8oov

aYlOtC; aytatC; aytOtC; nam (v) naGau; nam (v) nOAAOte; nOAAate; nOAAOte; eXA1l8Em (v) eXA1l8EGl (v)

aylOUC; aytac; ayta nanae; naGae; nana nOAAOUe; nOAAac; nOAAa eXA1l8cie; eXA1l8 11

Third Declension
Gap~ ovo~a xapt ~ Q>ooe; fAnie; ntG1:te; SaGtAEUC; na1:11P aVllP u8CDp apxCDV
GapKOC; ovo~a1:0C; Xa pt1:0C; Q>CD1:0C; fAni8 0c; ntG1:£WC; SaGtA£We; na1:pOC; eXv8poC; u8a1:0c; apxov1:0C;
GapKl ovo~a n Xapt n Q>CD1:i fAni8 t nW1:Et SaGtAEl na1:pt eXv8p l u8an apxovn
GapKa ovo~a xa pt1:a Q>ooC; fAni8 a nwn v SaGtAEa na1:Epa av8pa u8CDp apxov1:a

GapKEC; OVo~a1:a xapt1:EC; Q>oo1:a fAni8 £e; nW1:Ele; SaGtAEte; na1:EpEc; av8pEC;

GapKWV OVo~a1:WV xapt1:Wv Q>W1:WV fAni8 wv nW1:EWV SaGtAEWV na1:EpWV eXv8poov u8a1:CDv apXOV1:WV

Gap~t (v) ovo~am (v) xaptm (v) Q>oom (v) fAn tm (v) n1G1:Ecrt (v) SaGtAEum (v) na1:paGt (v) eXv8paOt (v) u8am (v) a" pxoum (v)

GaPKae; OVo~a1:a Q>oo1:a fAn18 0:<; nW1:Ete; SaGtAEte; na1:Epae; av8pac; u8a1:a apxov1:ae;

primary secondary Aug/ Tense Tense Conn. Personal I st sing


AU CD (- ) EAUOV (v) Redup stem form. vowel endings paradigm
AUEle; (e;) EAuEe; (C;)

AUEl (t)
f AUE(V) (-)
pres olE prim act AUCD
AUO~lEV (~EV) EAU O~lEV (~EV) Present mid/pas pres olE prim midlpas Auo~al

AU£1:€ (1:E)
fAUE1:£ (1:E) Impeifeet act pres olE sec act f.AUOV

Auoum (v) (VGt)


EAua v (v)
pres olE sec midlpas
Impeifeet mid/pas EAUO!lllV
fut act G olE prim act AUOW
AuO~lat EAUO~lllV (~llV)
AU 1J fAuau (Go)
Liquidfut act fut act EG olE prim act ~EVoo
Au£'(al
£AU£,(O (1:0) fut act G olE prim midlpas nOpEU G O ~al

Liq uid fut mid fut act EG olE prim midlpas ~EVOU ~al

AUO!lE8a (~E8a)
fAu6~lE8a (~8a)
I st future pas aor pas olE prim midlpas Au811GO ~lal
AU Ecr8E (G8E) EAuEa8E (G8E)
AUOV1:CXl EAUOV1"O (no) 2nd future pas aor pas olE prim midlpas eXnOG1:aAllaO ~lal
I st aorist act aor act Ga sec act f Auaa
Liquid aorist act aor act a sec act E ~lva

2nd aorist act aor act olE sec act €Aa~O V


Pattern I: Root not modified
I st aorist mid aor act Ga sec midlpas f Au(J(J.~t llV
(eXKOUCD, nOtECD, SAEnCD, ~EVCD)
2nd aorist mid aor act olE sec midlpas EyEVO!lllV

Pattern 2: Root modified regularly I st aorist pas aor pas 811 sec act f AU 8 ll V
(San1:1SCD, 1:apaGGCD, SaAACD, a'lpCD) 2nd aorist pas aor pas 11 sec act €ypaQ>ll v
1st peifeet act perf act Ka prim act AEAu Ka
Pattern 3: Different roots 2nd peifeet act perf act a prim act yq ova
(£pxo~at, A£yCD, opaCD) Peifect mid/pas perf pas prim midlpas A£AWlat
present imperfect future 1st aorist 2nd aorist perfect present imperfect future
£t~l
.,
11 ~'1V EG O ~Len

€Aa~O V £t" 11<; ~a D


EAUOV ADaw EAucra AE AU Ka .,
£a'tl (V) llV Eatal
2 sg AD£le; EAU £e; ADan e; EAuaw; € Aa~rc; AfAUKW:;
3 sg ADEl EAU £(V) ADa£t EAUCl£ (V) EAa~£(v) AfAUKE (V) EG~LEV ~~L€V, ~~l£9a £a6~EOa
Ea'tE ~'tE EaEG9E
1 pI ADO~EV EADO~lEV ADcrO~EV £AD(J(y'~£V £Aa~o~EV AfAD Ka~EV Etat (v) llaav EaoV'tUt
ADElE EAD£t€ ADaE'tE EADaa't£ EAa~EtE AEAD KatE "
ouaa, ov
ADOU<Jl(V) EAuov ADaoucrt(v) €AUaa V EAa~o v AE AD KUcrt (V)

middle indicative
ADO~at EAU6~11V nopEu a O ~at £Aucra.~l11V £yEvo ~llv AEAU ~at
AD T) f ADOU nopEua 1J EADaw EyEvOU AEAU aat ayanw nOLW nAllPW
ADEtat EADE'tO nopEUa£tat f ADaatO EYEv£,tO AEAU'tat ayanq.c; not£te; nAllPOte;
ayan~ nOtEI nAllPOt
Au6~L£8a £Au6~lEOU nopEua6~l£Oa EAucra~E9u fy£v6~E8a AE AD~EeU ayanw~lEv nOtOu ~l€V nAllPou~EV
AD€cr9€ £ADEG8E nop€Da€a8£ f AD acxaOE fy£VEG8€ AfAuaOE ayanatE nOtEt't£ nAllPoun:
ADOVtat EADOV'tO nop€ucrOVtat EAD aCX VtO EYEVOV'tO AEAU Vtat ayanwal (V) nOtOuat (v) nAllPOU<Jl (V)

passive indicative
ADO ~at EAU6~11v AuenaO~at £AD91lY fypa<j> llV Af AU~(n
llycxnoov EnOtOUv £nA~pouv
AD1J EADOU Au811<J1J f AD8lle; fypa<j> 11 e; AfAu aCXl
lw anac; r nou::u; fnA~pOUe;
AD €tat f ADE'W Au811a£'tat f ADen fypa<j>ll AfAU'tat
lw ana EnOt£t EnA~pou

Au6~lE8cx fAU6~£8u fypa<j> l1~l£v A.EAD~l£Oa l wanw ~£v £ notOu ~£v

ADEG8E EADEG8£ fypa<j>lltE AfAu a8E lw anatE EnOLEL't£

Master Nonindicative Verb Chart


Subjunctive future active future middle aorist active
Tense Aug/ Tense Tense Conn, Personal 1st sing ~EVoo ~EVOu~lat E ~£tVCX

Redup stem form . vowel endings paradigm ~EV£t C; ~EV 1J E ~£tvcxe;

pres will prim act ADW ~EVEt ~EVE1 'tat E~£tVE (V)
Present mid/pas pres will prim midlpas AD W~lat ~EV OU ~EV ~EvoD~E8a E ~£tva ~L£v
1st aorist act aor act a(a) will prim act ADa oo ~EVEtaO£ E ~EtVa tE

1st aorist mid aor act a(a) will prim midlpas AD aW~at ~EVOU Vtat

1st aorist pas aor pas 0(11) will prim act Au 8w


2nd aorist act aor act will prim act Aa~w
2nd aorist mid aor act will prim mid/pas YEVW ~at
Overview of Subjunctive
2nd aorist pas aor pas will prim act ypa<j>w
present 1 aorist 2 aorist
Infinitive ADW AD aw Aa~w
present 1st aorist 2nd aorist perfect present 1 aorist 2 aorist perfect
ADD<; Ie D<JlJe; Aa~De;
EtV aat £tv vat AD£lV Aucra l Aa~£lV AEAU KE vat
AD1J ADm) Aa~D
EG8m aaa8m Ea8en aem ADEcr8at ADacxa8m Aa~Ea8at AEAUa8at
ADW~lEV AD crw~Ev Aa~oo~lEv
EG8en 811vm llvm aOm ADEa8at Au8n vCXl ypa<j>nVCXt ),EAua8al
AD 11't£ AD crll 'tE Aa~lltE
ADWcrt(V) AD aooClt (v ) Aa~w crt ( v )
Imperative
active middle/passive present 1st aorist 2nd aorist
present mid/pas aorist passive
? ? active 2 sg AUf AuaOv Aa~E
1 sg ADw~lat Au8w ypa<j>w
'too a8w 3 sg Au£too AucrateJJ Aa~EtW
AD D AUO~e; ypa<j>~e;
't£ a8E 2 pl ADEtE AD cran : AaSEt£ ADlltat AuOD ypa<j> ~
'twaav a8waav 3 pl Au£tWaUv Aumirwacxv AaSEtooa(Y. V
AuoS~lE8a leU8 W~EV ypa<j> w ~Ev
ADllaOE Au8ntE ypa<j>rl1:E
middle 2 sg ADOU Au aat YEVOU
ADoo Vtat AUeW<Jl(V) ypa<j>w<Jl (v)
3 sg Au£aOoo Auaaaeoo YEv£aOoo
2 pl ADEG8E Avacxa8E Yfv£aO£ present active of contract verbs
3 pl Aut a8waav Auaacr8wcrav YEv£a8wacxv 1 sg YEVVoo now) <j>avEpw
YEVVq.e; notD<; <j>avEpOt C;
passive 2 sg ADOU AD 811 tl ypa<j> 11 tl y£vv~ nOllJ <j>av£pot
3 sg Au£aOw Au811'tWV ypa<j>lltW YEVVW ~£V nOtW ~Ev <j>apEp W~LEV
2 pl ADEa8£ AD811t£ ypa<j>11 tE
Au811'twauv
Principal Parts of Common Verbs O£XO~at, O£~O~CXt, Eo£~a~llv, -, O£Oty~at, AUW, AU<JW , £AU<Ja, -, A£AU~at, EAu811V
ayanaw, ayan~<Jw, ~ya1t11<Ja, ~yanllKa, Eo£X811V ~ap'Tup£w, ~ap'Tup~<Jw, E~ap'TUPll<Ja,
~yanll~at, ~yan~811v
OtOa<JKw, Otoa~w, Eoioa~a, -, -, EOtOax811v ~£~ap'TUPllKa, ~£~ap'TUPll~at:
ayw, a~w, llYayov, -, ~y~at, ~x811V
oiow~t, oW<Jw, £owKa, o£owKa, O£OO~at, E~ap'Tup~811V
atpw, apw, ~pa, ~pKa, ~p~at , ~p811V
Eo0811V ~£AAW, ~£AA~<JW, -, -, -, ­
at'T£w, at'T~<Jw, D'Tll<Ja, D'TllKa, D'Tll~at, ­ OOK£W, oo~w, £oo~a, - , -, ­ ~£VW, ~£vw, £~£t va, ~£~£vllKa,
aKoAou8£w, aKo~ou8~<J~, ~KoA~u811<Ja,
oo~asw, oo~a<Jw, Eoo~a<Ja, -, o£oo~a<J~at, oloa, £tO~<J((), ijO£tv, -, -, ­
~KoAou811Ka, -, ­ Eoo~a<J811v
opaw, O\jfOllat, £tOOV, £wpaKa, -, w<j>811V
, I , I "

aKOUW, aKOU<JW, llKOU<Ja, aKllKoa, -, ouva~at, ouv~<JO~at, -, -, -, ~ouv~811V


n£t8w, n£\<Jw, £n£t<Ja, n£not8a, n£n£w~at,
~Kou<J811v Ey£~P<;;>, Ey£PW'" lly£tpa, -, Ey~y£p~at, ~y£p811v
En£1.<J811v
£tilt, £<Jo~at, llllllV, -, -, ­
~v~~aivw, ,ava~~<Jo~a:, ~V£~llV, , , n£~nw , ~£Il\jfW, £n£~,\jfa, -, -, En,£~<j>811V
aVW'Tll~t, ava<J'Tll<JW, aV£<J'Tll<Ja, aV£<J'TllKa,
£PXO~at, EA£U<JOllat, ~A80v, EA~Au8a, -, ­
E<J8iw, <j>ayollat, £<j>ayov, -, , n£ptna'T£W, n£pma'Tll<JW, n£pt£na'Tll<Ja, -, ­
aV£<J'Tll~at, aV£<J'Ta811v
n£pt£na'T~811v
avoiyw, -, av£q>~a, -, -, aV£q}x811V
£uaYY£Atsw, - , £ullYY£Awa, -, £UllYY£AW~at,
£ullYY£Ai<J811V n1.vw, nio~at, £nwv, n£nwKa, -, En0811v
an08vD<JKW, an08avou~at, an£8avov, -
nin'Tw, n£<Jou~at, £n£<Jov, n£1t'TWKa, -, ­
£Upt<JKW, £uP~<JW, E'lJpOV, £uPllKa, -, £up£811V
anoKpivo~at , -, an£KptVa~l)v, -, -,

hw, £~w, £<JXov, £<JXllKa, -, ­ nt<J'T£UW, -, Ent<J'T£u<Ja, n£nt<J'T£UKa,


, an,£Kpi8~v ~" Sll'T£W, Sll'T~<JW, ES~'Tll<Ja, -, -, ESll'T~811V n£ni<J'T£u~at, Enw'T£u811V
anOK'T£tVW, anOK'T£VW, an£K'T£tva, -, ­
8£AW, 8£A~<JW, ~8£All<Ja, -, -, ~8£A~811V nAllPOW, nAllPW<JW, EnA ~pw<Ja, n£nA ~pwKa,
an£K'Tav811V
t<J'Tllllt, <J'T~<Jw, £<J'Tll<Ja, £<J'Tl)Ka, £<J'Ta~at, , n£nA~~W~at,' E~AllPw811V ,
anoAA u~ t, anoA£<Jw, anwA£<Ja, anoAwAa, -,­
E<J'Ta811V nOt£W, nOtll<JW, £nOtll<Ja, n£nOtllKa,
ano<J'T£AAW, ano<J'T£AW, an£<J'T£tAa, Ka811~at, Ka8~<J0Ilat, - , -, -, - n£noill~at, Enot~811v
an£<J'TaAKa, an£<J'TaA~at, an£<J'TaAllV KaA£w, KaA£<Jw, EKaA£<Ja, K£KAllKa,
, , ,
nop£UOllat, nop£U<Jollat, - , -, n£nop£u~at,
apxw, ap~o~at, DP~a~llv, -, -, ­ K£KAll~at, EKA~811V
a<Jnaso~at, -, ~<Jna<Ja~llv, -, -, ­
Enop£u811V
Ka'Ta~atvw, Ka'Ta~~<Jo~at, Ka'T£~llv, -, , npo<J£uXOllat, npo<J£u~O~at, npo<Jllu~a~ llV,
a<j>ill~t, a<j>~<Jw, a<j>llKa, -, a<j>£w~at, a<j>£811v KllPU<J<JW, KllPU~W, EK~pu~a, -, K£K~pUy~at,
~aAAw, ~aAw, £~aAov, ~£~AllKa, ~£~All~at, EKllPUX811V
E~A~811V <Jq}SW, <Jw<Jw, £<Jw<Ja, <J£<JWKa, <J£<Jq><J~at ,
KpaS<;J, Kpa~w" £Kp~~a" K£Kpaya, -', ­
~an'Tisw, ~an'Ti<Jw, E~ann<Ja, -, ~£~ann<J~at, E<Jw811V
Kpa'T£W, Kpa'Tll<Jw, £Kpa'Tll<Ja, K£Kpa'TllKa,
E~an'Ti<J811v 'TllP£W, 'TllP~<JW, E'T~Pll<Ja, 'T£'T~PllKa,
, K£Kpa'Tp~,t, - , ,
. ~~£nw, ~A£\jf~, £~A£\jf,a, ',' , KptVW, KptVW, £Kpt va, K£KptKa, K£KPt~at, 'T£'T~Pll~at, E'TllP~811V
yt VO~at, y£Vll<JO~at, £y£vollllv, y£yova, EKpt811V 'Ti.811~t, 8~<Jw, £811Ka, 'T£8£tKa, 'T£8£tllat,
Y£Y£Vllllat, Ey£v~811V AaA£w, AaA~<Jw, EAaAll<Ja, A£AaAllKa, £'T£811V
yt VW<JKW, yvw<Jo~at , fyVWV, fyVWKa, A£AaAl)~at, EAaA~811v <j>£pw, Ot<Jw, llvtyKa, £v~voxa, £v~v£y~at,
£yvw<J~at , Eyvw<J811v Aa~~avw, A~~\jfO~at, £Aa~ov, £tAll<j>a, ~v£x811V
ypa<j>w, ypa\jfW, fypa\jfa, y£ypa<j>a , £tAll~~at, EA~~<j>811V <j>o~£o~at, -,, -, -, -, £<j>0~~811V
, ,
y£ypallllat, Eypa<j>llv A£YW, EPW, ttnov, £tPllKa, £tPll~at, Epp£811V Xatpw, xapll<Jo~at, -, -, -, £xapllV

present active indicative


morpheme tense/voice case endings
I sg W'Tll ~Lt 'Tt811~ll OtOWl-tt
V'T all active (aorist passive) 3-1-3 W'Tll<'; 'Tt811<'; OtOWC;
O'T perfect active 3-1-3 t<J'Tll<Jt (V) 'Tt81l<Jt(v) OtOW<Jt (v)
~£volr] all middle/passive (all middle) 2-1-2 W'Ta~l£V 'Ti8q ll': v otOOf.l£V
W'Ta'T£ 'Tt8£'T£ 01.00'T£
tense & voice, reduplication, stem, tense formative or connecting vowel, morpheme, nom. plural, memory forms l.<J'Ta<Jl(v) n8£u<Jt (v) Otoou<Jt (V)
pres 0 v'T/ou<Ja A£YOV'T£S WV, oU<Ja , ov second aorist active indicative I aorist
OV'T Oe;, OU<Jlle;, OV'T Oe; £<J'TllV E811V r OW Ka
pres mid/pas pres 0 ~£VO/ll A£YO~£VOt O ~Voe; , O ~£Vll , o ~vov £<J'TllC; £811C; EOW Kae;
o ~vou , O ~£v lle; , O ~£VOU
£<J'Tl) E811 £OW KE(V)
aor act <Ja V'T/<Ja AU<JaV'T£e; <Jae;, <Ja<Ja , <Ja v £<J'Tl)f.lEV E8£~EV i:ow Kaf.l£v
<JaV'T Oe;, <Ja<Jlle;, <Jav'T Oe; £<J'Tll'TE E8H £ r OWKCH E
1 aor mid aor act <Ja ~£vO/ll AU<Ja~£VOt <Ja ~£voc; ...
£<J'Tll<Jav E8£a<Jav EOW Ka v
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