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Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements

For the award of the degree



____________________________________ ENGINEERING


-------------------- (--------------)

--------------------- (---------------)

--------------------- (---------------)

DEPARTMENT OF _______________________ ENGINEERING




This is to certify that the dissertation work entitled SINGLE PHASE

REDUCING FIRING ANGLE is the work done by
_______________________________________________submitted in partial
fulfillment for the award of ‘BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING (B.E)’in
__________________________Engineering from______________ College of
Engineering affiliated to _________ University , Hyderabad .

________________ ____________
(Head of the department, ECE) (Assistant Professor)



The satisfaction and euphoria that accompany the successful completion of any
task would be incomplete without the mentioning of the people whose constant
guidance and encouragement made it possible. We take pleasure in presenting
before you, our project, which is result of studied blend of both research and

We express our earnest gratitude to our internal guide, Assistant Professor

______________, Department of ECE, our project guide, for his constant support,
encouragement and guidance. We are grateful for his cooperation and his valuable

Finally, we express our gratitude to all other members who are involved either
directly or indirectly for the completion of this project.


We, the undersigned, declare that the project entitled ‘SINGLE PHASE
REDUCING FIRING ANGLE’, being submitted in partial fulfillment for the
award of Bachelor of Engineering Degree in Electronics and Communication
Engineering, affiliated to _________ University, is the work carried out by us.

__________ _________ _________

__________ _________ _________







3.4 FILTER 24

3.5 MOC 3021

3.6 OP-AMP 45


3.8 BC547 / BC558

3.9 LED

3.10 IN4007 / 1N4148


























These Solid State Switches are phase controlled in a similar manner to a light dimmer, in
that they are turned on for a part of each cycle. The average voltage is controlled by varying the
conduction angle of the switches. Increasing the conduction angle will increase the average
output voltage. Controlling the average output voltage by means of solid state switches has a
number of advantages. One of the major advantages being the vast improvement in efficiency
relative to the primary resistance starter, due to its low on state voltage of the solid state
switches. Typically, the power dissipation in the starter, during start, will be less than 1% of the
power dissipated in a primary resistance starter during start. Another major advantage of the
solid state starter is that the average voltage can be easily altered to suit the required starting
conditions. By variation of the conduction angle, the output voltage can be reduced, and this can
be achieved automatically by the control electronics. After the motor reaches desired speed the
semi conductor switches are bypassed to feed full voltage to the motor.





1. TRANSFORMER (230 – 12 V AC)




5. MOC 3021



8. BC547 / BC558

9. LED

10.1N4007 / 1N4148





Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with a little loss of power.
Step-up transformers increase voltage, step-down transformers reduce voltage. Most power
supplies use a step-down transformer to reduce the dangerously high voltage to a safer low


The input coil is called the primary and the output coil is called the secondary. There is
no electrical connection between the two coils; instead they are linked by an alternating magnetic
field created in the soft-iron core of the transformer. The two lines in the middle of the circuit
symbol represent the core. Transformers waste very little power so the power out is (almost)
equal to the power in. Note that as voltage is stepped down and current is stepped up.
The ratio of the number of turns on each coil, called the turn’s ratio, determines the ratio
of the voltages. A step-down transformer has a large number of turns on its primary (input) coil
which is connected to the high voltage mains supply, and a small number of turns on its
secondary (output) coil to give a low output voltage.
TURNS RATIO = (Vp / Vs) = ( Np / Ns )
Vp = primary (input) voltage.
Vs = secondary (output) voltage
Np = number of turns on primary coil
Ns = number of turns on secondary coil
Ip = primary (input) current
Is = secondary (output) current.

Ideal power equation

The ideal transformer as a circuit element

If the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to flow, electrical power is
transmitted from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. Ideally, the transformer is perfectly
efficient; all the incoming energy is transformed from the primary circuit to the magnetic field
and into the secondary circuit. If this condition is met, the incoming electric power must equal
the outgoing power:

Giving the ideal transformer equation

Transformers normally have high efficiency, so this formula is a reasonable approximation.

If the voltage is increased, then the current is decreased by the same factor. The impedance in
one circuit is transformed by the square of the turns ratio. For example, if an impedance Zs is
attached across the terminals of the secondary coil, it appears to the primary circuit to have an
impedance of (Np/Ns)2Zs. This relationship is reciprocal, so that the impedance Zp of the primary
circuit appears to the secondary to be (Ns/Np)2Zp.


• Output Current up to 1A.
• Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V.
• Thermal Overload Protection.
• Short Circuit Protection.
• Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection.

The LM78XX/LM78XXA series of three-terminal positive regulators are available in the
TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a Wide
range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shutdown and safe
operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is
provided, they can deliver over 1A output Current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage
regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and

Internal Block Diagram


Absolute Maximum Ratings


A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which
periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), current that flows in only one direction, a
process known as rectification. Rectifiers have many uses including as components of power
supplies and as detectors of radio signals. Rectifiers may be made of solid state diodes, vacuum
tube diodes, mercury arc valves, and other components. The output from the transformer is fed to
the rectifier. It converts A.C. into pulsating D.C. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave
rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good stability and full
wave rectification. In positive half cycle only two diodes( 1 set of parallel diodes) will conduct,
in negative half cycle remaining two diodes will conduct and they will conduct only in forward
bias only.


Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier
and smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and

load is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied, D.C. voltage received at this
point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage.
The simple capacitor filter is the most basic type of power supply filter. The use of this
filter is very limited. It is sometimes used on extremely high-voltage, low-current power supplies
for cathode-ray and similar electron tubes that require very little load current from the supply.
This filter is also used in circuits where the power-supply ripple frequency is not critical and can
be relatively high. Below figure can show how the capacitor changes and discharges.


An induction motor or asynchronous motor is a type of alternating current motor

where power is supplied to the rotor by means of electromagnetic induction.

An electric motor turns because of magnetic force exerted between a stationary

electromagnet called the stator and a rotating electromagnet called the rotor. Different types of
electric motors are distinguished by how electric current is supplied to the moving rotor. In a DC
motor and a slip-ring AC motor, current is provided to the rotor directly through sliding electrical
contacts called commutators and slip rings. In an induction motor, by contrast, the current is
induced in the rotor without contacts by the magnetic field of the stator, through electromagnetic
induction. An induction motor is sometimes called a rotating transformer because the stator
(stationary part) is essentially the primary side of the transformer and the rotor (rotating part) is
the secondary side. Unlike the normal transformer that changes the current by using time varying
flux, induction motors use rotating magnetic fields to transform the voltage. The current in the
primary side creates an electromagnetic field which interacts with the electromagnetic field of
the secondary side to produce a resultant torque, thereby transforming the electrical energy into
mechanical energy. Induction motors are widely used, especially polyphase induction motors,
which are frequently used in industrial drives.[citation needed]

Induction motors are now the preferred choice for industrial motors due to their rugged
construction, absence of brushes (which are required in most DC motors) and—thanks to modern
power electronics—the ability to control the speed of the motor.

Principle of Operation and Comparison to Synchronous Motors

The basic difference between an induction motor and a synchronous AC motor with a
permanent magnet rotor is that in the latter the rotating magnetic field of the stator will impose
an electromagnetic torque on the magnetic field of the rotor causing it to move (about a shaft)
and a steady rotation of the rotor is produced. It is called synchronous because at steady state the
speed of the rotor is the same as the speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator.

By contrast, the induction motor does not have any permanent magnets on the rotor;
instead, a current is induced in the rotor. To achieve this, stator windings are arranged around the
rotor so that when energized with a polyphase supply they create a rotating magnetic field
pattern which sweeps past the rotor. This changing magnetic field pattern induces current in the
rotor conductors. This current interacts with the rotating magnetic field created by the stator and
in effect causes a rotational motion on the rotor.

However, for these currents to be induced the speed of the physical rotor must be less
than the speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator (the synchronous frequency ns) or else
the magnetic field will not be moving relative to the rotor conductors and no currents will be

induced. If by some chance this happens, the rotor typically slows slightly until a current is re-
induced and then the rotor continues as before. This difference between the speed of the rotor
and speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator is called slip. It is unit less and is the ratio
between the relative speed of the magnetic field as seen by the rotor (the slip speed) to the speed
of the rotating stator field. Due to this, an induction motor is sometimes referred to as an
asynchronous machine.

Synchronous speed

To understand the behavior of induction motors, it is useful to understand their distinction from a
synchronous motor. A synchronous motor always runs at a synchronous speed- a shaft rotation
frequency that is an integer fraction of the supply frequency. The synchronous speed of an
induction motor is the same fraction of the supply.[citation needed]

It can be shown that the synchronous speed of a motor is determined by the following formula:

Where ns is the (synchronous) speed of the rotor (in rpm), f is the frequency of the AC supply (in
Hz) and p is the number of magnetic poles per phase.[16]

For example, a 6 pole motor operating on 50 Hz power would have a speed of:

Note on the use of p - some texts refer to number of pole pairs per phase instead of number of
poles per phase. For example a 6 pole motor, operating on 60 Hz power, would have 3 pole pairs.
The equation of synchronous speed then becomes:

With P being the number of pole pairs per phase.



The slip is a ratio relative to the synchronous speed and is calculated using:


s is the slip, usually between 0 and 1

nr = rotor rotation speed (rpm)

ns = synchronous rotation speed (rpm)

The stator consists of wound 'poles' that carry the supply current to induce a magnetic field that
penetrates the rotor. In a very simple motor, there would be a single projecting piece of the stator
(a salient pole) for each pole, with windings around it; in fact, to optimize the distribution of the
magnetic field, the windings are distributed in many slots located around the stator, but the
magnetic field still has the same number of north-south alternations. The number of 'poles' can
vary between motor types but the poles are always in pairs (i.e. 2, 4, 6, etc.).

Induction motors are most commonly built to run on single-phase or three-phase power,
but two-phase motors also exist. In theory, two-phase and more than three phase induction
motors are possible; many single-phase motors having two windings and requiring a capacitor
can actually be viewed as two-phase motors, since the capacitor generates a second power phase
90 degrees from the single-phase supply and feeds it to a separate motor winding. Single-phase
power is more widely available in residential buildings, but cannot produce a rotating field in the
motor (the field merely oscillates back and forth), so single-phase induction motors must
incorporate some kind of starting mechanism to produce a rotating field. They would, using the
simplified analogy of salient poles, have one salient pole per pole number; a four-pole motor
would have four salient poles. Three-phase motors have three salient poles per pole number, so a
four-pole motor would have twelve salient poles. This allows the motor to produce a rotating
field, allowing the motor to start with no extra equipment and run more efficiently than a similar
single-phase motor.

There are three types of rotor:

Squirrel-cage rotor

The most common rotor is a squirrel-cage rotor. It is made up of bars of either solid copper (most
common) or aluminum that span the length of the rotor, and those solid copper or aluminium
strips can be shorted or connected by a ring or some times not, i.e. the rotor can be closed or
semiclosed type. The rotor bars in squirrel-cage induction motors are not straight, but have some
skew to reduce noise and harmonics.

Slip ring rotor

A slip ring rotor replaces the bars of the squirrel-cage rotor with windings that are connected to
slip rings. When these slip rings are shorted, the rotor behaves similarly to a squirrel-cage rotor;
they can also be connected to resistors to produce a high-resistance rotor circuit, which can be
beneficial in starting

Solid core rotor

A rotor can be made from solid mild steel. The induced current causes the rotation.

Starting of Single phase induction motors

In a single phase induction motor, it is necessary to provide a starting circuit to start

rotation of the rotor. If this is not done, rotation may be commenced by manually giving a slight
turn to the rotor. The single phase induction motor may rotate in either direction and it is only the
starting circuit which determines rotational direction.

For small motors of a few watts, the start rotation is done by means of one or two single
turn(s) of heavy copper wire around one corner of the pole. The current induced in the single turn
is out of phase with the supply current and so causes an out-of-phase component in the magnetic
field, which imparts to the field sufficient rotational character to start the motor. These poles are
known as shaded poles. Starting torque is very low and efficiency is also reduced. Such shaded-
pole motors are typically used in low-power applications with low or zero starting torque
requirements, such as desk fans and record players.


Larger motors are provided with a second stator winding which is fed with an out-of-
phase current to create a rotating magnetic field. The out-of-phase current may be derived by
feeding the winding through a capacitor or it may derive from the winding having different
values of inductance and resistance from the main winding.

In some designs, the second winding is disconnected once the motor is up to speed,
usually either by means of a switch operated by centrifugal force acting on weights on the motor
shaft or by a positive temperature coefficient thermistor which, after a few seconds of operation,
heats up and increases its resistance to a high value thereby reducing the current through the
second winding to an insignificant level. Other designs keep the second winding continuously
energized when running, which improves torque.


A lot of electronic equipment nowadays is using optocoupler in the circuit. An

optocoupler or sometimes refer to as optoisolator allows two circuits to exchange signals yet
remain electrically isolated. This is usually accomplished by using light to relay the signal. The
standard optocoupler circuits design uses a LED shining on a phototransistor-usually it is a npn
transistor and not pnp. The signal is applied to the LED, which then shines on the transistor in
the IC.

The light is proportional to the signal, so the signal is thus transferred to the photo-
transistor. Optocouplers may also comes in few module such as the SCR, photodiodes, TRIAC
of other semiconductor switch as an output, and incandescent lamps, neon bulbs or other light

In this project we have an opto-coupler MOC3021 an LED diac type combination.
Additionally while using this IC with microcontroller and one LED can be connected in series
with IC LED to indicate when high is given from micro controller such that we can know that
current is flowing in internal LED of the opto-IC. When logic high is given current flows
through LED from pin 1 to 2. So in this process LED light falls on DIAC causing 6 & 4 to close.
During each half cycle current flows through gate, series resistor and through opto-diac for the
main thyristor / triac to trigger for the load to operate.

The optocoupler usually found in switch mode power supply circuit in many electronic
equipment. It is connected in between the primary and secondary section of power supplies. The
optocoupler application or function in the circuit is to:

1. Monitor high voltage

2. Output voltage sampling for regulation
3. System control micro for power ON/OFF
4. Ground isolation

If the optocoupler IC breakdown, it will cause the equipment to have low power, blink, no
power, erratic power and even power shut down once switch on the equipment. Many
technicians and engineers do not know that they can actually test the optocoupler with their

analog multimeter. Most of them thought that there is no way of testing an IC with an analog

This is the principle used in Opto−Diacs, which are readily available in Integrated circuit
(I.C.) form, and do not need very complex circuitry to make them work. Simply provide a small
pulse at the right time to the Light Emitting Diode in the package. The light produced by the
LED activates the light sensitive properties of the diac and the power is switched on. The
isolation between the low power and high power circuits in these optically connected devices is
typically several thousand volts.

Pin Description:


A silicon-controlled rectifier (or semiconductor-controlled rectifier) is a four-layer solid
state device that controls current. The name "silicon controlled rectifier" or SCR is General
Electric's trade name for a type of thyristor. The SCR was developed by a team of power
engineers led by Gordon Hall and commercialized by Frank W. "Bill" Gutzwiller in 1957.

Construction of SCR
An SCR consists of four layers of alternating P and N type semiconductor materials.
Silicon is used as the intrinsic semiconductor, to which the proper dopants are added. The
junctions are either diffused or alloyed. The planar construction is used for low power SCRs (and
all the junctions are diffused). The mesa type construction is used for high power SCRs. In this
case, junction J2 is obtained by the diffusion method and then the outer two layers are alloyed to
it, since the PNPN pellet is required to handle large currents. It is properly braced with tungsten
or molybdenum plates to provide greater mechanical strength. One of these plates is hard
soldered to a copper stud, which is threaded for attachment of heat sink. The doping of PNPN
will depend on the application of SCR, since its characteristics are similar to those of the
thyratron. Today, the term thyristor applies to the larger family of multilayer devices that exhibit
bistable state-change behaviour,that is switching either ON or OFF.

Modes of operation
In the normal "off" state, the device restricts current to the leakage current. When the
gate-to-cathode voltage exceeds a certain threshold, the device turns "on" and conducts current.
The device will remain in the "on" state even after gate current is removed so long as current
through the device remains above the holding current. Once current falls below the holding
current for an appropriate period of time, the device will switch "off". If the gate is pulsed and
the current through the device is below the holding current, the device will remain in the "off"
If the applied voltage increases rapidly enough, capacitive coupling may induce enough charge
into the gate to trigger the device into the "on" state; this is referred to as "dv/dt triggering." This
is usually prevented by limiting the rate of voltage rise across the device, perhaps by using a
snubber. "dv/dt triggering" may not switch the SCR into full conduction rapidly and the
partially-triggered SCR may dissipate more power than is usual, possibly harming the device.
SCRs can also be triggered by increasing the forward voltage beyond their rated breakdown
voltage (also called as break over voltage), but again, this does not rapidly switch the entire
device into conduction and so may be harmful so this mode of operation is also usually avoided.
Also, the actual breakdown voltage may be substantially higher than the rated breakdown
voltage, so the exact trigger point will vary from device to device. This device is generally used
in switching applications.

Reverse Bias
SCR are available with or without reverse blocking capability. Reverse blocking
capability adds to the forward voltage drop because of the need to have a long, low doped P1
region. Usually, the reverse blocking voltage rating and forward blocking voltage rating are the
same. The typical application for reverse blocking SCR is in current source inverters.
SCR incapable of blocking reverse voltage are known as asymmetrical SCR, abbreviated
ASCR. They typically have a reverse breakdown rating in the 10's of volts. ASCR are used
where either a reverse conducting diode is applied in parallel (for example, in voltage source
inverters) or where reverse voltage would never occur (for example, in switching power supplies
or DC traction choppers).
Asymmetrical SCR can be fabricated with a reverse conducting diode in the same package.
These are known as RCT, for reverse conducting thyristor.

Application of SCR’s
SCRs are mainly used in devices where the control of high power, possibly coupled with
high voltage, is demanded. Their operation makes them suitable for use in medium to high-
voltage AC power control applications, such as lamp dimming, regulators and motor control.

3.8 LM339

The LM339 consists of four independent precision

voltage comparators, with an offset voltage specification as low

as 20㎷ max for each comparator, which were designed

specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide

range of voltages. Operation from split power supplies is also
possible and the low power supply current drain is independent
of the magnitude of the power supply voltage.

These comparators also have a unique characteristic in that the input common-mode
voltage range includes ground, even though they are operated from a single power supply
voltage. The LM339 series was designed to directly
interface with TTL and CMOS. When operated from
both plus and minus power supplies, the LM339 series
will directly interface with MOS logic where their low
power drain is a distinct advantage over standard

● Wide single supply voltage range 2.0VDC TO
36VDC or dural supplies ±1.0VDC to ±18VDC

● Very low supply current drain (0.8㎃) independent

of supply voltage (1.0㎽/comparator at 5.0VDC)

● Low input biasing current 25㎁

● Low input offset current ±5㎁ and offset voltage

● Input common-mode voltage range includes ground

● Differential input voltage range equal to the power
supply voltage

● Low output 250㎷ at 4㎃ saturation voltage

● Output voltage compatible with TTL, DTL, ECL, MOS

and CMOS logic system

● Moisture Sensitivity Level 3

● A/D Converters
● Wide range VOC
● MOS clock generator
● High voltage logic gate
● Multivibrators

3.9 LM324
General Description
The LM324 series consists of four independent, high gain, internally frequency
compensated operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a single
power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from split power supplies is also possible
and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply
Application areas include transducer amplifiers, DC gain blocks and all the conventional
op amp circuits which now can be more easily implemented in single power supply systems. For
example, the LM324 series can be directly operated off of the standard +5V power supply
voltage which is used in digital systems and will easily provide the required interface electronics
without requiring the additional ±15V power supplies.

Connection Diagrams:

Unique Characteristics
 In the linear mode the input common-mode voltage range includes ground and the output
voltage can also swing to ground, even though operated from only a single power supply
 The unity gain cross frequency is temperature compensated

 The input bias current is also temperature compensated

 Eliminates need for dual supplies
 Four internally compensated op amps in a single package
 Allows directly sensing near GND and VOUT also goes to GND
 Compatible with all forms of logic
 Power drain suitable for battery operation
 Internally frequency compensated for unity gain
 Large DC voltage gain 100 dB
 Wide bandwidth (unity gain) 1 MHz (temperature compensated)
 Wide power supply range: Single supply 3V to 32V or dual supplies ±1.5V to ±16V
 Very low supply current drain (700 μA)—essentially independent of supply voltage
 Low input biasing current 45 nA (temperature compensated)
 Low input offset voltage 2 mV and offset current: 5 nA
 Input common-mode voltage range includes ground
 Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage
 Large output voltage swing 0V to V+ − 1.5V

3.10 BC547


The BC547 transistor is an NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor. The BC547 transistor is a
general-purpose transistor in small plastic packages. It is used in general-purpose switching and
amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100 mA NPN general-purpose transistors.


We know that the transistor is a "CURRENT" operated device and that a large current
(Ic) flows freely through the device between the collector and the emitter terminals. However,
this only happens when a small biasing current (Ib) is flowing into the base terminal of the
transistor thus allowing the base to act as a sort of current control input. The ratio of these two
currents (Ic/Ib) is called the DC Current Gain of the device and is given the symbol of hfe or
nowadays Beta, (β). Beta has no units as it is a ratio. Also, the current gain from the emitter to
the collector terminal, Ic/Ie, is called Alpha, (α), and is a function of the transistor itself. As the
emitter current Ie is the product of a very small base current to a very large collector current the
value of this parameter α is very close to unity, and for a typical low-power signal transistor this
value ranges from about 0.950 to 0.999.

An NPN Transistor Configuration

3.11 BC557


The BC557 transistor is an PNP Epitaxial Silicon Transistor. The BC557 transistor is a
general-purpose transistor in small plastic packages. It is used in general-purpose switching and
amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100 mA PNP general-purpose transistors.

An PNP Transistor Configuration

The BC557 transistor is an PNP bipolar transistor, in which the letters "P" and "N" refer
to the majority charge carriers inside the different regions of the transistor. Most bipolar
transistors used today are PNP, because electron mobility is higher than hole mobility in
semiconductors, allowing greater currents and faster operation. PNP transistors consist of a layer
of N-doped semiconductor (the "base") between two P-doped layers. A small current entering the
base in common-emitter mode is amplified in the collector output. In other terms, an PNP
transistor is "on" when its base is pulled high relative to the emitter.

The arrow in the PNP transistor symbol is on the emitter leg and points in the direction of
the conventional current flow when the device is in forward active mode. One mnemonic device
for identifying the symbol for the PNP transistor is "not pointing in." An PNP transistor can be
considered as two diodes with a shared anode region. In typical operation, the emitter base
junction is forward biased and the base collector junction is reverse biased.

In an PNP transistor, for example, when a positive voltage is applied to the base emitter
junction, the equilibrium between thermally generated carriers and the repelling electric field of
the depletion region becomes unbalanced, allowing thermally excited electrons to inject into the
base region. These electrons wander (or "diffuse") through the base from the region of high
concentration near the emitter towards the region of low concentration near the collector. The

electrons in the base are called minority carriers because the base is doped p-type which would
make holes the majority carrier in the base.

LEDs are semiconductor devices. Like transistors, and other diodes, LEDs are made out of
silicon. What makes an LED give off light are the small amounts of chemical impurities that are
added to the silicon, such as gallium, arsenide, indium, and nitride. When current passes through
the LED, it emits photons as a byproduct. Normal light bulbs produce light by heating a metal
filament until its white hot. Because LEDs produce photons directly and not via heat, they are far
more efficient than incandescent bulbs. Not long ago LEDs were only bright enough to be used
as indicators on dashboards or electronic equipment. But recent advances have made LEDs
bright enough to rival traditional lighting technologies. Modern LEDs can replace incandescent
bulbs in almost any application.
LEDs are based on the semiconductor diode. When the diode is forward biased (switched
on), electrons are able to recombine with holes and energy is released in the form of light. This
effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light is determined by the energy gap of
the semiconductor. The LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2) with integrated optical
components to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection.

LEDs present many advantages over traditional light sources including lower energy
consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size and faster switching. However,
they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than
traditional light sources.
Applications of LEDs are diverse. They are used as low-energy and also for replacements
for traditional light sources in well-established applications such as indicators and automotive

lighting. The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be
developed, while their high switching rates are useful in communications technology. So here the
role of LED is to indicate the status of the components like relays and power circuit etc.

3.13 IN4007

Diodes are used to convert AC into DC these are used as half wave rectifier or full wave
rectifier. Three points must he kept in mind while using any type of diode.
1.Maximum forward current capacity
2.Maximum reverse voltage capacity
3.Maximum forward voltage capacity

Fig: 1N4007 diodes

The number and voltage capacity of some of the important diodes available in the market
are as follows:
 Diodes of number IN4001, IN4002, IN4003, IN4004, IN4005, IN4006 and IN4007 have
maximum reverse bias voltage capacity of 50V and maximum forward current capacity of 1
 Diode of same capacities can be used in place of one another. Besides this diode of more
capacity can be used in place of diode of low capacity but diode of low capacity cannot be used
in place of diode of high capacity. For example, in place of IN4002; IN4001 or IN4007 can be
used but IN4001 or IN4002 cannot be used in place of IN4007.The diode BY125made by
company BEL is equivalent of diode from IN4001 to IN4003. BY 126 is equivalent to diodes
IN4004 to 4006 and BY 127 is equivalent to diode IN4007.

Fig:PN Junction diode


Now that you are familiar with P- and N-type materials, how these materials are joined
together to form a diode, and the function of the diode, let us continue our discussion with the
operation of the PN junction. But before we can understand how the PN junction works, we must
first consider current flow in the materials that make up the junction and what happens initially
within the junction when these two materials are joined together.

Current Flow in the N-Type Material

Conduction in the N-type semiconductor, or crystal, is similar to conduction in a copper

wire. That is, with voltage applied across the material, electrons will move through the crystal
just as current would flow in a copper wire. This is shown in figure 1-15. The positive potential
of the battery will attract the free electrons in the crystal. These electrons will leave the crystal
and flow into the positive terminal of the battery. As an electron leaves the crystal, an electron
from the negative terminal of the battery will enter the crystal, thus completing the current path.
Therefore, the majority current carriers in the N-type material (electrons) are repelled by the
negative side of the battery and move through the crystal toward the positive side of the battery.

Current Flow in the P-Type Material

Current flow through the P-type material is illustrated. Conduction in the P material is by
positive holes, instead of negative electrons. A hole moves from the positive terminal of the P
material to the negative terminal. Electrons from the external circuit enter the negative terminal
of the material and fill holes in the vicinity of this terminal. At the positive terminal, electrons
are removed from the covalent bonds, thus creating new holes. This process continues as the
steady stream of holes (hole current) moves toward the negative terminal

3.14 1N4148

The 1N4148 is a standard small signal silicon diode used in signal processing. Its name
follows the JEDEC nomenclature. The 1N4148 is generally available in a DO-35 glass package
and is very useful at high frequencies with a reverse recovery time of no more than 4ns. This
permits rectification and detection of radio frequency signals very effectively, as long as their

amplitude is above the forward conduction threshold of silicon (around 0.7V) or the diode is

 VRRM = 100V (Maximum Repetitive Reverse Voltage)
 IO = 200mA (Average Rectified Forward Current)
 IF = 300mA (DC Forward Current)
 IFSM = 1.0 A (Pulse Width = 1 sec), 4.0 A (Pulse Width = 1 uSec) (Non-Repetitive Peak
Forward Surge Current)
 PD = 500 mW (power Dissipation)
 TRR < 4ns (reverse recovery time)

 High-speed switching

 1) Glass sealed envelope. (GSD)
 2) High speed.
 3) High Reliability

 Silicon epitaxial planar

A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component designed to oppose an electric current by
producing a voltage drop between its terminals in proportion to the current, that is, in accordance
with Ohm's law:
V = IR
Resistors are used as part of electrical networks and electronic circuits. They are extremely
commonplace in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various
compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as

The primary characteristics of resistors are their resistance and the power they can
dissipate. Other characteristics include temperature coefficient, noise, and inductance. Less well-
known is critical resistance, the value below which power dissipation limits the maximum
permitted current flow, and above which the limit is applied voltage. Critical resistance depends
upon the materials constituting the resistor as well as its physical dimensions; it's determined by
Resistors can be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits, as well as integrated
circuits. Size, and position of leads (or terminals) are relevant to equipment designers; resistors
must be physically large enough not to overheat when dissipating their power.
A resistor is a two-terminal passive electronic component which implements electrical
resistance as a circuit element. When a voltage V is applied across the terminals of a resistor, a
current I will flow through the resistor in direct proportion to that voltage. The reciprocal of the
constant of proportionality is known as the resistance R, since, with a given voltage V, a larger
value of R further "resists" the flow of current I as given by Ohm's law:

Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are
ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds

and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel-
chrome). Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits, particularly analog devices,
and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits.
The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common
commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than 9 orders of magnitude. When
specifying that resistance in an electronic design, the required precision of the resistance may
require attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor, according to its specific
application. The temperature coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some
precision applications. Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power rating
which must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in a particular circuit: this is
mainly of concern in power electronics applications. Resistors with higher power ratings are
physically larger and may require heat sinking. In a high voltage circuit, attention must
sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of the resistor.
The series inductance of a practical resistor causes its behavior to depart from ohms law;
this specification can be important in some high-frequency applications for smaller values of
resistance. In a low-noise amplifier or pre-amp the noise characteristics of a resistor may be an
issue. The unwanted inductance, excess noise, and temperature coefficient are mainly dependent
on the technology used in manufacturing the resistor. They are not normally specified
individually for a particular family of resistors manufactured using a particular technology. A
family of discrete resistors is also characterized according to its form factor, that is, the size of
the device and position of its leads (or terminals) which is relevant in the practical manufacturing
of circuits using them.

The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI unit of electrical resistance, named after Georg Simon
Ohm. An ohm is equivalent to a volt per ampere. Since resistors are specified and manufactured
over a very large range of values, the derived units of milliohm (1 mΩ = 10−3 Ω), kilohm (1 kΩ =
103 Ω), and megohm (1 MΩ = 106 Ω) are also in common usage.
The reciprocal of resistance R is called conductance G = 1/R and is measured in Siemens
(SI unit), sometimes referred to as a mho. Thus a Siemens is the reciprocal of an ohm: S = Ω − 1.

Although the concept of conductance is often used in circuit analysis, practical resistors are
always specified in terms of their resistance (ohms) rather than conductance.

Theory of operation
Ohm's law
The behavior of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship specified in Ohm's law:

Ohm's law states that the voltage (V) across a resistor is proportional to the current (I) passing
through it, where the constant of proportionality is the resistance (R).
Equivalently, Ohm's law can be stated:

This formulation of Ohm's law states that, when a voltage (V) is present across a resistance (R), a
current (I) will flow through the resistance. This is directly used in practical computations. For
example, if a 300 ohm resistor is attached across the terminals of a 12 volt battery, then a current
of 12 / 300 = 0.04 amperes (or 40 milliamperes) will flow through that resistor.

Series and parallel resistors

In a series configuration, the current through all of the resistors is the same, but the
voltage across each resistor will be in proportion to its resistance. The potential difference
(voltage) seen across the network is the sum of those voltages, thus the total resistance can be
found as the sum of those resistances:

As a special case, the resistance of N resistors connected in series, each of the same resistance R,
is given by NR.

Resistors in a parallel configuration are each subject to the same potential difference (voltage),
however the currents through them add. The conductances of the resistors then add to determine
the conductance of the network. Thus the equivalent resistance (Req) of the network can be

The parallel equivalent resistance can be represented in equations by two vertical lines "||" (as in
geometry) as a simplified notation. For the case of two resistors in parallel, this can be calculated

As a special case, the resistance of N resistors connected in parallel, each of the same resistance
R, is given by R/N.
A resistor network that is a combination of parallel and series connections can be broken up into
smaller parts that are either one or the other. For instance,

However, some complex networks of resistors cannot be resolved in this manner, requiring more
sophisticated circuit analysis. For instance, consider a cube, each edge of which has been
replaced by a resistor. What then is the resistance that would be measured between two opposite
vertices? In the case of 12 equivalent resistors, it can be shown that the corner-to-corner
resistance is 5⁄6 of the individual resistance. More generally, the Y-Δ transform, or matrix
methods can be used to solve such a problem. One practical application of these relationships is
that a non-standard value of resistance can generally be synthesized by connecting a number of
standard values in series and/or parallel. This can also be used to obtain a resistance with a
higher power rating than that of the individual resistors used. In the special case of N identical
resistors all connected in series or all connected in parallel, the power rating of the individual
resistors is thereby multiplied by N.

Power dissipation
The power P dissipated by a resistor (or the equivalent resistance of a resistor network) is

calculated as:
The first form is a restatement of Joule's first law. Using Ohm's law, the two other forms can be
The total amount of heat energy released over a period of time can be determined from the
integral of the power over that period of time:

Practical resistors are rated according to their maximum power dissipation. The vast
majority of resistors used in electronic circuits absorb much less than a watt of electrical power
and require no attention to their power rating. Such resistors in their discrete form, including
most of the packages detailed below, are typically rated as 1/10, 1/8, or 1/4 watt.
Resistors required to dissipate substantial amounts of power, particularly used in power supplies,
power conversion circuits, and power amplifiers, are generally referred to as power resistors; this
designation is loosely applied to resistors with power ratings of 1 watt or greater. Power resistors
are physically larger and tend not to use the preferred values, color codes, and external packages
described below.
If the average power dissipated by a resistor is more than its power rating, damage to the
resistor may occur, permanently altering its resistance; this is distinct from the reversible change
in resistance due to its temperature coefficient when it warms. Excessive power dissipation may
raise the temperature of the resistor to a point where it can burn the circuit board or adjacent
components, or even cause a fire. There are flameproof resistors that fail (open circuit) before
they overheat dangerously.
Note that the nominal power rating of a resistor is not the same as the power that it can
safely dissipate in practical use. Air circulation and proximity to a circuit board, ambient
temperature, and other factors can reduce acceptable dissipation significantly. Rated power
dissipation may be given for an ambient temperature of 25 °C in free air. Inside an equipment
case at 60 °C, rated dissipation will be significantly less; a resistor dissipating a bit less than the
maximum figure given by the manufacturer may still be outside the safe operating area and may
prematurely fail.

Resistor marking
Electronic color code

Most axial resistors use a pattern of colored stripes to indicate resistance. Surface-mount
resistors are marked numerically, if they are big enough to permit marking; more-recent small
sizes are impractical to mark. Cases are usually tan, brown, blue, or green, though other colors
are occasionally found such as dark red or dark gray.
Early 20th century resistors, essentially uninsulated, were dipped in paint to cover their entire
body for color coding. A second color of paint was applied to one end of the element, and a color
dot (or band) in the middle provided the third digit. The rule was "body, tip, dot", providing two
significant digits for value and the decimal multiplier, in that sequence. Default tolerance was
±20%. Closer-tolerance resistors had silver (±10%) or gold-colored (±5%) paint on the other end.

Four-band resistors
Four-band identification is the most commonly used color-coding scheme on resistors. It
consists of four colored bands that are painted around the body of the resistor. The first two
bands encode the first two significant digits of the resistance value, the third is a power-of-ten
multiplier or number-of-zeroes, and the fourth is the tolerance accuracy, or acceptable error, of
the value. The first three bands are equally spaced along the resistor; the spacing to the fourth
band is wider. Sometimes a fifth band identifies the thermal coefficient, but this must be
distinguished from the true 5-color system, with 3 significant digits.
For example, green-blue-yellow-red is 56×104 Ω = 560 kΩ ± 2%. An easier description
can be as followed: the first band, green, has a value of 5 and the second band, blue, has a value
of 6, and is counted as 56. The third band, yellow, has a value of 104, which adds four 0's to the
end, creating 560,000 Ω at ±2% tolerance accuracy. 560,000 Ω changes to 560 kΩ ±2% (as a
kilo- is 103).
Each color corresponds to a certain digit, progressing from darker to lighter colors, as
shown in the chart below.
Color 1st band 2nd band 3rd band (multiplier) 4th band (tolerance) Temp. Coefficient
Black 0 0 ×100
Brown 1 1 ×101 ±1% (F) 100 ppm
Red 2 2 ×102 ±2% (G) 50 ppm

Orange 3 3 ×103 15 ppm
Yellow 4 4 ×104 25 ppm
Green 5 5 ×105 ±0.5% (D)
Blue 6 6 ×106 ±0.25% (C)
Violet 7 7 ×107 ±0.1% (B)
Gray 8 8 ×108 ±0.05% (A)
White 9 9 ×109
Gold ×10−1 ±5% (J)
Silver ×10−2 ±10% (K)
None ±20% (M)
There are many mnemonics for remembering these colors.

A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors
separated by a dielectric. When a voltage potential difference exists between the conductors, an
electric field is present in the dielectric. This field stores energy and produces a mechanical force
between the plates. The effect is greatest between wide, flat, parallel, narrowly separated

An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, which is
measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential
difference between them. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of
leakage current. The conductors and leads introduce an equivalent series resistance and the
dielectric has an electric field strength limit resulting in a breakdown voltage.
The properties of capacitors in a circuit may determine the resonant frequency and
quality factor of a resonant circuit, power dissipation and operating frequency in a digital logic
circuit, energy capacity in a high-power system, and many other important aspects.
A capacitor (formerly known as condenser) is a device for storing electric charge. The
forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two conductors separated by a
non-conductor. Capacitors used as parts of electrical systems, for example, consist of metal foils
separated by a layer of insulating film.
Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while
allowing alternating current to pass, in filter networks, for smoothing the output of power

supplies, in the resonant circuits that tune radios to particular frequencies and for many other
A capacitor is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated
by a dielectric (insulator). When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors, a
static electric field develops in the dielectric that stores energy and produces a mechanical force
between the conductors. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value,
capacitance, measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the
potential difference between them.
The capacitance is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of
conductor, hence capacitor conductors are often called "plates", referring to an early means of
construction. In practice the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage
current and also has an electric field strength limit, resulting in a breakdown voltage, while the
conductors and leads introduce an undesired inductance and resistance.

Theory of operation

Charge separation in a parallel-plate capacitor causes an internal electric field. A dielectric

(orange) reduces the field and increases the capacitance.

A simple demonstration of a parallel-plate capacitor
A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region. The non-
conductive region is called the dielectric or sometimes the dielectric medium. In simpler terms,
the dielectric is just an electrical insulator. Examples of dielectric mediums are glass, air, paper,
vacuum, and even a semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the conductors. A
capacitor is assumed to be self-contained and isolated, with no net electric charge and no
influence from any external electric field. The conductors thus hold equal and opposite charges
on their facing surfaces, and the dielectric develops an electric field. In SI units, a capacitance of
one farad means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt
across the device.
The capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits. An ideal
capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C, defined as the ratio of charge ±Q
on each conductor to the voltage V between them:

Sometimes charge build-up affects the capacitor mechanically, causing its capacitance to vary. In
this case, capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes:

Energy storage
Work must be done by an external influence to "move" charge between the conductors in a
capacitor. When the external influence is removed the charge separation persists in the electric
field and energy is stored to be released when the charge is allowed to return to its equilibrium
position. The work done in establishing the electric field, and hence the amount of energy stored,
is given by:

Current-voltage relation
The current i(t) through any component in an electric circuit is defined as the rate of flow of a
charge q(t) passing through it, but actual charges, electrons, cannot pass through the dielectric
layer of a capacitor, rather an electron accumulates on the negative plate for each one that leaves
the positive plate, resulting in an electron depletion and consequent positive charge on one
electrode that is equal and opposite to the accumulated negative charge on the other. Thus the
charge on the electrodes is equal to the integral of the current as well as proportional to the
voltage as discussed above. As with any antiderivative, a constant of integration is added to
represent the initial voltage v (t0). This is the integral form of the capacitor equation,

Taking the derivative of this, and multiplying by C, yields the derivative form,

The dual of the capacitor is the inductor, which stores energy in the magnetic field rather than the
electric field. Its current-voltage relation is obtained by exchanging current and voltage in the
capacitor equations and replacing C with the inductance L.



The circuit uses standard power supply comprising of a step-down transformer from
230Vto 12V and 4 diodes forming a Bridge Rectifier that delivers pulsating dc which is then
filtered by an electrolytic capacitor of about 470µF to 1000µF. The filtered dc being
unregulated, IC LM7812 is used to get 12V DC constant at its pin no 3 irrespective of input DC
varying from 9V to 14V. The input dc shall be varying in the event of input ac at 230volts
section varies in the ratio of V1/V2=N1/N2.
The regulated 12V DC is further filtered by a small electrolytic capacitor of 10µF for any
noise so generated by the circuit. One LED is connected of this 5V point in series with a resistor
of 1KΩ to the ground i.e., negative voltage to indicate power supply availability.

How an op-amp can be used as a comparator?

Potential dividers are connected to the inverting and non inverting inputs of the op-amp
to give some voltage at these terminals. Supply voltage is given to +Vss and –Vss is connected
to ground. The output of this comparator will be logic high (i.e., supply voltage) if the non-
inverting terminal input is greater than the inverting terminal input of the comparator.
i.e., Non inverting input (+) > inverting input (-) = output is logic high

If the inverting terminal input is greater than the non-inverting terminal input then the
output of the comparator will be logic low (i.e., gnd)

i.e., inverting input (-) > Non inverting input (+)

= output is logic low


A SCR is said to be as an AC controlled switch. It has three terminals A1, A2 & gate. A
SCR, lamp and a supply voltage are connected in series. When supply is ON at +ve cycle then
the current flows through lamp, a resistor (R1), switch (diac), gate and reaches the supply and
then lamp glows. In –ve cycle then it is triggered in reverse direction.



A single phase induction motor is connected in series with two anti-parallel SCR’S and
supply. The gates of the respective SCR’S are fed from two Opto-isolator LED’S are connected
in series which are driven by a transistor BC558 IN series with another external LED. One quard
operational amplifier LM339/ LP339 is used as comparators for developing zero voltage
reference at its pin1, that passes through a driving transistor BC547. To charge and discharge
2.2uf capacitor through resistor10k thus at the collector of transistor BC547 a saw tooth voltage
is developed which is fed to pin4 of LM339, being the inverting input. A level voltage derived
from the soft start of LM324 output through a diode IN4148 is given to the non-inverting input
pin5 of LM39. The level voltage at the time of switch ON remains rely high as a result the output
pin2 of LM339 remains high to reverse bias the transistor BC558 thus depriving the input to the
Opto-isolator’s through the series Red LED. This level voltage gradually falls which while
compared with saw-tooth voltage develops a varying duly cycle with in 10msec time duration
synchronised with the mains supply frequency. Therefore the varying duly cycle from 10% to
100% happening over couple of seconds results in slow power build up by the motor as the
SCR’S are triggered slowly from 180 to 0 degrees. The soft start circuit that uses LM324 and a
transistor BC558 works at the time of switch ON by a charging a capacitor 2.2mf through 10k
resistor. Thereafter this capacitor discharges through 100k and 470k, the midpoint of which are
given to a non-inverting pin of LM324. Thus as a capacitor gets fully charged during switch ON
and gets gradually discharge. Pin 1 of LM324 output slowly falling from high to low thus as
explained above. The motor gets slowly from minimum power to maximum power to enable a
soft start condition for a motor.


Fig.5: Layout Diagram



3 R1-R3 1K
1 R4 2.2K
1 R5 3.3K
3 R6-R8 4.7K
4 R9-R12 10K
2 R13,R14 22K
3 R15-R17 100K
1 R18 470K
2 R19,R20 560R
1 R21 100R/2W
1 C1 470UF
1 C2 10UF
2 C3,C4 2.2UF
1 C5 0.1UF
1 C6 0.1UF/400V
7 D1-D5 IN4007
3 D6,D7 IN4148
1 U1 7812
1 U2 LM339
1 U3 LM324
2 U4,U5 MOC3021
2 14-PIN
2 Q1-Q2 BC558
1 Q3 BC547


In electronics, a continuity test is the checking of an electric circuit to see if current flows
(that it is in fact a complete circuit). A continuity test is performed by placing a small voltage
(wired in series with an LED or noise-producing component such as a piezoelectric speaker)
across the chosen path. If electron flow is inhibited by broken conductors, damaged components,
or excessive resistance, the circuit is "open".
Devices that can be used to perform continuity tests include multi meters which measure
current and specialized continuity testers which are cheaper, more basic devices, generally with a
simple light bulb that lights up when current flows.
An important application is the continuity test of a bundle of wires so as to find the two ends
belonging to a particular one of these wires; there will be a negligible resistance between the
"right" ends, and only between the "right" ends.
This test is the performed just after the hardware soldering and configuration has been
completed. This test aims at finding any electrical open paths in the circuit after the soldering.
Many a times, the electrical continuity in the circuit is lost due to improper soldering, wrong and
rough handling of the PCB, improper usage of the soldering iron, component failures and
presence of bugs in the circuit diagram. We use a multi meter to perform this test. We keep the
multi meter in buzzer mode and connect the ground terminal of the multi meter to the ground.
We connect both the terminals across the path that needs to be checked. If there is continuation
then you will hear the beep sound.


This test is performed to check whether the voltage at different terminals is according to
the requirement or not. We take a multi meter and put it in voltage mode. Remember that this test
is performed without ICs. Firstly, if we are using a transformer we check the output of the
transformer; whether we get the required 12V AC voltage (depends on the transformer used in
for the circuit). If we use a battery then we check if the battery is fully charged or not according
to the specified voltage of the battery by using multimeter.

Then we apply this voltage to the power supply circuit. Note that we do this test without
ICs because if there is any excessive voltage, this may lead to damaging the ICs. If a circuit
consists of voltage regulator then we check for the input to the voltage regulator (like 7805,
7809, 7815, 7915 etc) i.e., are we getting an input of 12V and a required output depending on the
regulator used in the circuit.
EX: if we are using 7805 we get output of 5V and if using 7809 we get 9V at output pin and so

This output from the voltage regulator is given to the power supply pin of specific ICs.
Hence we check for the voltage level at those pins whether we are getting required voltage.
Similarly, we check for the other terminals for the required voltage. In this way we can assure
that the voltage at all the terminals is as per the requirement.





 www.beyondlogic.org
 www.wikipedia.org
 www.howstuffworks.com
 www.alldatasheets.com