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5/13/2019

Wöhler diagram - Wikipedia

Wöhler diagram

A Wöhler Diagram is a graph on a statistical basis that relates the alternating component of a fatigue cycle to the number of cycles that a specimen bears before breaking at a predetermined probability .

Typical Wöhler diagram on a logarithmic scale

Index

Construction of the Wöhler diagram

Parameters obtainable from a Wöhler curve

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Construction of the Wöhler diagram

The diagram (or curve) of Wöhler takes its name from its creator August Wöhler , who was among the first scholars to deal profitably with the study of fatigue. It was the first

formal tool available to designers for the fatigue sizing of the components and is still of fundamental importance. Its construction takes place in this way: a certain stress cycle with a specific amplitude is reconstructed in the laboratory and applied to a large number of specimens, noting the number of cycles that they bear before breaking. Fatally they, although subjected to the same load, will not all break after the same number of cycles, but there will be a dispersionof the results. Experience shows that this dispersion occurs according to a normal distribution .

The same series of experiments is then repeated at different values of the alternating sigma (alternating component of the stress cycle), and the average value of the number of cycles before failure is noted for each distribution .

The curve that connects all the average values to each is the Wöhler curve at 50% probability of breakage. This means that with regard to the tested specimens, there is a 50% probability that they, subjected to an amplitude load cycle , break before reaching the number of cycles bounded by the Wöhler curve; this simply derives from the properties of the normal distribution. Of course, it is possible to construct curves at 20%, at 10% or at any probability, joining instead of the points of the average values those that correspond to this probability value.

Given the high number of cycles that one achieves, and given that in this way the diagram can be simplified considerably from a mathematical point of view, in most cases the Wöhler curves are presented with the axes in logarithmic scale.

Parameters obtainable from a Wöhler curve

5/13/2019

Wöhler diagram - Wikipedia

is

. For many ferrous alloys (thus

excluding aluminum, copper, magnesium), it then

presents a sort of horizontal asymptote which tends to a

value of the effort called the fatigue limit : it represents

the value of the below which, even for an ideally infinite

number of cycles, the material will not break due to

fatigue. It is customary to divide the Wöhler diagram into

two regions, called LCF (Low-Cycle Fatigue, low cycle

fatigue) and HCF (High-Cycle Fatigue, high cycle fatigue),

the first for higher sigma values to the yield strength of

the material, where there are macroscopic plasticization

and consequently the life of the material is very limited;

the second for lower sigma values, where cyclic

plasticisations exist only at the microscopic level.

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Construction of a Wohler curve

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