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5/22/2018 ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Gas Well Deliquification Workshop


Sheraton Hotel, Denver, Colorado
February 17 – 20, 2013

Intrinsically Safe Acoustic


Instrument Used in
Troubleshooting Gas Lift Wells

Lynn Rowlan, Echometer Company


Carrie-Anne Taylor, Echometer Company

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Offshore Platform Santa Barbara California


5/22/2018 ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Technician’s Van & Wellhouse: Alaska’s North Slope 


Stringent safety requirements, by major operators when fluid level
measurements are performed offshore or in enclosed wellhead spaces
such as in Alaska’s North Slope, create procedural complications. 

Feb. 17 – 20, 2013


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Denver, Colorado
 

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Intrinsically Safe
Acoustic Instruments

1. Some operators require “Safe”


instruments in certain locations, most
offshore platforms and certain fields.
2. Some Countries and States require
“Safe” instruments in all oil and gas
related operations.

3. Gas Lift is common


for high rate wells artificial lift method

Feb. 17 – 20, 2013


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Denver, Colorado
 

5/22/2018 ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Fluid Level on Gas Lifted Horizontal Well

128 BL/D
140 Mscf/D 

Liner
Top 

Liquid Level at Measured


Depth of 10061 Feet
Above Packer (10081’) and
Bottom Valve (10041’) 
Feb. 17 – 20, 2013 2013 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop 4
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Denver, Colorado
 

5/22/2018 ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Echoes from Gas Lift Mandrels Do Not Lineup

Press = 513 psig Press = 688 psig


Temp = 70Deg F Temp = 180Deg F 

Average Acoustic Velocity 1134


ft/sec from Echo off 4.5” Liner Top 

Liner Top Used for Distance to LL

Feb. 17 – 20, 2013 2013 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop 5


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Denver, Colorado
 

5/22/2018 Acoustic Velocity Increases from 1072 ft/sec @ Surface ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

to 1238 ft/sec at the 10061 ft Liquid Level Surface

Press = 688 psia


Temp = 180Deg F 

Press = 513 psia


Temp = 70Deg F

Feb. 17 – 20, 2013 2013 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop 6


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Denver, Colorado
5/22/2018 ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Anomaly Marker Analysis Method

• Purpose – Accurately calculate the distance to the


liquid level plus other downhole reflectors such as
gas lift valves, tubing collars, subsurface safety
valves and possible holes or other problems.
• Distances – Determined using echoes from gas-lift
valves at known distances from the wellhead.
• Accounts for –  Variations of acoustic velocity
commonly observed in most wellbores due to
variations of temperature, pressure and gas
composition as a function of depth.

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Denver, Colorado
 
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Anomalies are Markers in the Well at


Known Distances
• Anomaly distances are entered as Well Marker Info
• Initially based on an estimated acoustic velocity, tick
marks along the depth axis are located at distances that
would correspond to the location of the anomaly echoes.
• Anomalies don’t match echoes, relocates each tick mark
to match exactly the beginning of the echo for a specific
anomaly.
• Anomaly echoes are fixed to known depths – by starting
from the first anomaly, then from the first anomaly to the
second anomaly and so on until the distance to the
liquid level is accurately determined.

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Denver, Colorado
 
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Anomaly Analysis Example


Noisy Initial Acoustic Trace With Anomaly Echoes

Collars  Anomaly Echo

2012 Gas-Lift Workshop 4


Feb. 6 - 10, 2012
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5/22/2018 See Echoes Better by Removing Noise From Acoustic Trace
ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Scale up trace to see better .

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5/22/2018
Identify/Select Correct Liquid Level Echo
ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Move the LL marker to the “knee” of the kick.  

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5/22/2018
Liquid Level Depth is Approximate
ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

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5/22/2018
Known Depth of Anomalies
ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

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5/22/2018
Make Depth Accurate by Identifying Each Anomaly
ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

SSSV 

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5/22/2018 Next Anomaly Automatically Selected
ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

 At first glance, it appears the


automatic pick of marker is a
little to the left of the kick.

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5/22/2018 Fine Tune Location of Selected Anomaly
ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

But we also see a kick to


the left of the marker.
Some quick calculations
tell us that this is not a
repeat  .

Select Interval Left to get a


clear picture of the
reflection located just
below the 6 second mark.

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5/22/2018 Examine the Acoustic Trace and Select Correct Echo
ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

This is a much more likely


position for the placement
of the next marker.

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5/22/2018 Continue Down Trace Selecting Anomaly Echoes
ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

If the correct marker is not


selected, then move window to see
the marker echo.

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5/22/2018 Continue Down Trace Selecting Anomaly Echoes
ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

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5/22/2018 Continue Down Trace Selecting Anomaly Echoes
ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Scale UP if needed to verify


that this is the last marker
before the liquid level.

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 Anomaly Echoes Below the Liquid Level are Negligible
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Gas Lift Mandrel 8 and the


Packer are below the liquid
level marker so these last two
markers can be skipped.

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5/22/2018
 Accurate Distance to Liquid Level Using Anomaly Depths
ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

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5/22/2018 ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Discussion of Anomaly Analysis

• New Technology Does the Calculations on


the Acoustic Trace for You
• Identifying Anomaly Echoes is Simplified

• Marker Depths are Automatically Determined


• Manual Adjustments Required For Accuracy
• Data is digital and not on a Strip of Paper, so
Safe Backup of Information is Done
• Recall of Data and Re-analysis is a Straight
Forward Process
Feb. 17 – 20, 2013 2013 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
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5/22/2018 ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Intrinsically Safe Equipment

  Intrinsically safe equipment and wiring


shall n o t b e c a p a b l e   of releasing sufficient
electrical or thermal energy under normal
or abnormal conditions t o c au s e ig n i ti o n  
 
of a specific atmospheric mixture in its
most easily ignited concentration.

Feb. 17 – 20, 2013 2013 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop 24


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Denver, Colorado 24/35
 
5/22/2018
Classification of Hazardous Zones
ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Rod Pumped Well: API-RP500

Division 1 Zone – 

In the sump;
Hydrocarbon gases
heavier than air may
accumulate.

Division 2 Zone – 

Surrounding the tree,


stuffing box, and a
portion of the flowline.

Feb. 17 – 20, 2013 25


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Explosion Prevention Methods

• Explosion-Proof Enclosures
• Purging or Pressurization
• Encapsulation
• Oil Immersion or Powder Filling

• Intrinsic Safety

Feb. 17 – 20, 2013 2013 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop 26


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Requirements for Intrinsic Safety
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• Simple Apparatus
 – Thermocouples, RTD’s, switches, LED’s 
 – Strain Gage type pressure transducer,
dynamometer load cell transducers
• Intrinsically Safe Certified Apparatus
 – Transmitters, current to pressure
converters, solenoid valves,
piezoelectric microphones
 – Intrinsic Safety Barrier
Feb. 17 – 20, 2013 2013 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop 27
Denver, Colorado
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Intrinsically Safe Field Devices

Gas Gun Acoustic Instruments


 – Microphones used in the wellhead attachments
include piezoelectric crystals. Special intrinsic
safety barrier microphones are manufactured.

 – Solenoid device on the remotely fire gas guns must


be Encapsulated and power line must be
Pressurized for intrinsic certification.

 – So often the acoustic instrument will be manually


operated and fired.
Feb. 17 – 20, 2013 2013 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop 28
Denver, Colorado
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5/22/2018 Intrinsically Safe 5000 psi Gas Gun ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Often used to Shoot Gas Lift Wells

5000 psi rated Gas Gun is


modified, as shown by the
engravings, with a special
microphone for use in
hazardous areas.

Feb. 17 – 20, 2013 2013 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop 29


Denver, Colorado
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5/22/2018

Intrinsically Safe Fluid Level ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Instruments

Computerized Recorder or Strip Chart
Recorder

 Modified with safety circuits to limit


electrical energy output in the event of a
component malfunction.

 Must be installed in a safe area when


used with the certified gas guns that are
located in a hazardous area.

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Denver, Colorado
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Installation Drawing for Instrument with
5/22/2018 ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Intrinsic Safety Barrier

Intrinsic
Safety
Barrier

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Intrinsically Safe Fluid Level Instrument
5/22/2018 ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Located in Hazardous Area

When
installed
correctly and
used in
conjunction
with a
certified field
device is
approved for
use inside
hazardous
environments.

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5/22/2018 ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Conclusion

Intrinsically Safe Field Instruments
 – 1500psi Compact Gas Gun
 – 5000psi Gas Gun, also design/construction materials meet
MR-01-75 to allow use in corrosive CO2 and H2S environments

• Intrinsically Safe Fluid Level Instruments


 – Model M Chart Recorder (Install and operate within Safe Zone)
 – Model H Digital Recorder (Can be operated within Hazardous
Zone)

• Intrinsically Safe Computerized Well Analyzer


 – Model E (Install and operate within Safe Zone)
 – Pressure Transducer, Strain Gage Dynamometer transducers
considered Simple Apparatus
Feb. 17 – 20, 2013 2013 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop 33
Denver, Colorado
 

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5/22/2018 ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Copyright

Rights to this
author(s) presentation
listed are owned
on the title page. by the company(ies)
By submitting and/or to
this presentation
the Gas Well Deliquification Workshop, they grant to the Workshop,
the Artificial Lift Research and Development Council (ALRDC), and
the Southwestern Petroleum Short Course (SWPSC), rights to:
 – Display the presentation at the Workshop.
 – Place it on the www.alrdc.com web site, with access to the site to be
as directed by the Workshop Steering Committee.
 – Place it on a CD for distribution and/or sale as directed by the
Workshop Steering Committee.
Other use of this presentation is prohibited without the expressed
written permission of the author(s). The owner company(ies) and/or
author(s) may publish this material in other journals or magazines if
they refer to the Gas Well Deliquification Workshop where it was
first presented.

Feb. 17 – 20, 2013 2013 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop 34


Denver, Colorado
 

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5/22/2018 ECHOMETER PPT - slide pdf.c om

Disclaimer
The following disclaimer shall be included as the last page of a Technical Presentation or
Continuing Education Course. A similar disclaimer is included on the front page of the Gas Well
Deliquification Web Site.
The Artificial Lift Research and Development Council and its officers and trustees, and the Gas
Well Deliquification Workshop Steering Committee members, and their supporting organizations
and companies (here-in-after referred to as the Sponsoring Organizations), and the author(s) of
this Technical Presentation or Continuing Education Training Course and their company(ies),
provide this presentation and/or training material at the Gas Well Deliquification Workshop "as is"
without any warranty of any kind, express or implied, as to the accuracy of the information or the
products or services referred to by any presenter (in so far as such warranties may be excluded
under any relevant law) and these members and their companies will not be liable for unlawful
actions and any losses or damage that may result from use of any presentation as a consequence
of any inaccuracies in, or any omission from, the information which therein may be contained.
The views, opinions, and conclusions expressed in these presentations and/or training materials
are those of the author and not necessarily those of the Sponsoring Organizations. The author is
solely responsible for the content of the materials.
The Sponsoring Organizations cannot and do not warrant the accuracy of these documents
beyond theThe
sources. source documents,
Sponsoring although we
Organizations do make
provide every
these attempt to and/or
presentations work from authoritative
training materials as
a service. The Sponsoring Organizations make no representations or warranties, express or
implied, with respect to the presentations and/or training materials, or any part thereof, including
any warrantees of title, non-infringement of copyright or patent rights of others, merchantability, or
fitness or suitability for any purpose.

Feb 17 20 2013 2013 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop 35

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