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Mohenjo-daro triangular prism is a bezel pendant worn by

an artisan to proclaim metalwork competence of the guild

This monograph discusses a remarkable triangular prism bezel (m0489) and
firmly anchors archaeological evidence of Indus Script Meluhha inscriptions
to affirm the presence of Meluhha artisans/merchants along the Persian Gulf
sites. The bezel proclamation is like utsava bera of Ancient India tradition;
the processions of animals or animals on file are a catalogue of metalwork
competence of the artisans, products which are offered for bera or by
diplaying the details of the products offered for bera 'bargain' and trade.
Meluhha 'crocodile' hieroglyph in Ancient Near East and Ancient India

The crocodile signifies in rebus Meluhha, kāru ‘artisan. Thus it is a category marker which is a
determinative for the hieroglyphs signified below the kāru 'crocodile'. The elephant, rhinoceros
shown below the crocodile on the Tell Asmar cylinder seal are metalwork catalogues of the
artisan: karibha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron' PLUS kāṇḍā 'rhinoeros'
rebus: kāṇḍā 'metalware'.

A cylinder seal showing hieroglyphs of crocodile, elephant and rhinoceros was found in Tell
Asmar (Eshnunna), Iraq. This is an example of Meluhha writing using hieroglyphs to denote the
competence of kāru ‘artisan’ -- kāru 'crocodile' (Telugu) Rebus: khar ‘blacksmith’
(Kashmiri); kāru ‘artisan’ (Marathi) He was also ibbo 'merchant' (Hieroglyph: ibha 'elephant'
Rebus: ib 'iron') and maker of metal artifacts: kāṇḍā ‘metalware, tools, pots and pans’ (kāṇḍā
mṛga 'rhinoceros' (Tamil).

I submit that this cylinder seal is emphatic archaeological attestation of the presence of Meluhha
artisans/merchants in Meluhha settlements on sites along the Persian Gulf. This is substantiated
by Briggs Buchanan in an article 'A dated seal impression connecting Babylonia and Ancient
India' (embedded).
Archaeology Vol. 20, No. 2 (APRIL 1967), pp. 104-107 (4 pages) Published by: Archaeological
Institute of America

Glazed steatite . Cylinder seal. 3.4cm high; imported from Indus valley. Rhinoceros, elephant,
crocodile.Tell Asmar (Eshnunna), Iraq. Frankfort, 1955, No. 642; Collon, 1987, Fig. 610.

Cylinder seal modern impression [elephant, rhinoceros and gharial (alligator) on the upper
register] bibliography and image source: Frankfort, Henri: Stratified Cylinder Seals from the

Diyala Region. Oriental Institute Publications 72. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, no. 642.
Museum Number: IM14674 3.4 cm. high. Glazed steatite. ca. 2250 - 2200 BCE.

karabha, ibha‘elephant’ Rebus: karba, ib 'iron', ibbo ‘merchant’, ib ‘iron’

காண்டாமிருகம் kāṇṭā-mirukam , n. [M. kāṇṭāmṛgam.] Rhinoceros; கல் யானை.
Rebus: kāṇḍā ‘metalware, tools, pots and pans’.kāru ‘crocodile’ Rebus: kāru ‘artisan’.

He was also ibbo 'merchant' (Hieroglyph: ibha 'elephant' Rebus: ib 'iron') and maker of metal
artifacts: kāṇḍā ‘metalware, tools, pots and pans’ (kāṇḍā mṛga 'rhinoceros' (Tamil).karabha,
ibha‘elephant’ Rebus: karba 'iron', ibbo ‘merchant’, ib ‘iron’காண்டாமிருகம் kāṇṭā-
mirukam , n. [M. kāṇṭāmṛgam.] Rhinoceros; கல் யானை. Rebus: kāṇḍā ‘metalware, tools,
pots and pans’.kāru ‘crocodile’ Rebus: kāru ‘artisan’. Alternative: araṇe ‘lizard’
Rebus: airaṇ ‘anvil’.

Crocodile hieroglyph in combination with other animal hieroglphs also appears on a Mohenjo-
daro triangular prism seal m0489 in the context of an erotic Meluhha hieroglyph: a
tergo copulation hieroglyph.

m0489a,b,c Mohenjo-daro prism tablet This triangular prism tablet appears in John Marshall's
archaeological report on Pl. CXVIii.10 (Museum plate 4) and on Pl. CXVI 14.

Pl. CXVIii.10 "Triangular prism…No. 14 on Pl. CXVI, Pl. CXVIII, 10 (Mus 4). Pottery.Average
size of each face, 1.6 incheslong by 0.33 in wide. (a) On one face, from left to right, there are an
elephant, a rhinoceros, a tiger on the left, and another cat-like animal. Above these animals,
which are en file, is a fish on the left, followed by a gharial with a fish in its mouth. (b) From left
to right, a file of animals. A unicorn,what seems to be a cow, a short-horned bull, and a
rhinoceros. Above the file there appear to be a jungle-fowl, and a gharial, but these figures are
somewhat indistinct. (c) From left to right, there are two goas from a tree, a jungle-fowl, a man
apparently pushing a goat or similar animal along, and finally, an antelope-like animal with two
heads, similar to those on the copper seals. A hole,0.3 in deep, at each end of this object,
suggests that it was used as a kind of revolving bezel. The animals are too close to the ends of

the impression for it to have been capped with metal.” (Marshall, J.,1931, Mohenjodaro and the
Indus Civilization, London, Arthur Probsthain, pp. 395-

Pl. CXVI 14

A bezel is a groove holding the crystal of a watch or the stone of a gem in its setting. If this
triangular prism was used as a bezel, it may have been worn as a pendant on a necklace. This is
an artisan’s proclamation of his metalwork competence.

See: Indus inscription: three-sided tablet with hieroglyphs: animals, a plant, a mountain, a
copulating couple (m489)

In mlecchita vikalpa, ‘cypher writing’ of layered rebus-metonymy, the set of hieroglyphs denote
a metalworkers’ guild. Technical specifications of the metalwork are detailed by hieroglyphs in
the set.

Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.)

Components of Mohenjo-daro prism tablet m0489 are presented in colour and with some photographic
enlargements to help identify the hieroglyphs on the inscription.

The four animals in the bottom register are

identified as from l.: one-horned young bull, zebu PLUS black drongo, short-horned bull or ox,

One-horned young bull-calf

Could the black drongo atop the bull be a semantic determinative of पोळ pōḷa 'zebu' & pōlaḍu
'black drongo' signify polad 'steel'. .Young bull-calf with two horns

Short-horned bull or ox with feeding trough


rango 'water buffalo' Rebus: rango ‘pewter’. ranga, rang pewter is an alloy of tin, lead, and
antimony (anjana) (Santali). Hieroglyhph: buffalo: Ku. N. rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ (or < raṅku --
?).(CDIAL 10538, 10559) Rebus: raṅga3 n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. [Cf. nāga -- 2, vaṅga -- 1] Pk. raṁga -- n.
ʻ tin ʼ; P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ (← H.); Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼ, gng. rã̄k; N. rāṅ, rāṅo ʻ
tin, solder ʼ, A. B. rāṅ; Or. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga;
H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; Si. ran̆ga ʻ tin ʼ.(CDIAL 10562) B. rāṅ(g)tā ʻ tinsel, copper --
foil ʼ.(CDIAL 10567)

Hieroglyph: meḍ ‘body’

Hieroglyph: Ta. meṭṭu mound, heap of earth; mēṭu height, eminence, hillock; muṭṭu rising
ground, high ground, heap. Ma. mēṭu rising ground, hillock; māṭu hillock, raised
ground; miṭṭāl rising ground, an alluvial bank; (Tiyya) maṭṭa hill. Ka. mēḍu height, rising
ground, hillock; miṭṭu rising or high ground, hill; miṭṭe state of being high, rising ground, hill,
mass, a large number; (Hav.) muṭṭe heap (as of straw). Tu. miṭṭè prominent,
protruding; muṭṭe heap. Te. meṭṭa raised or high ground, hill; (K.) meṭṭu mound; miṭṭa high
ground, hillock, mound; high, elevated, raised, projecting; (VPK) mēṭu, mēṭa, mēṭi stack of hay;
(Inscr.) meṇṭa-cēnu dry field (cf. meṭṭu-nēla, meṭṭu-vari). Kol. (SR.) meṭṭā hill; (Kin.) meṭṭ,
(Hislop) met mountain. Nk. meṭṭ hill, mountain. Ga. (S.3, LSB 20.3) meṭṭa high land. Go. (Tr. W.
Ph.) maṭṭā, (Mu.) maṭṭa mountain; (M. L.) meṭā id., hill; (A. D. Ko.) meṭṭa, (Y. Ma.
M.) meṭa hill; (SR.) meṭṭā hillock (Voc. 2949). Konḍa meṭa id. Kuwi (S.)metta hill;
(Isr.) meṭa sand hill. (DEDR 5058)
Hieroglyph: barad ‘ox’ Rebus: bharat ‘pewter, copper, tin alloy’
Hieroglyph: miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120)Rebus: meḍ
iron (Ho.) meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Munda)
Hieroglyph: kondh ‘young bull’ Rebus: kondh ‘turner’
Hieroglyph: ibha ‘elephant’ Rebus: ib ‘iron’; ibbo ‘merchant’
Hieroglyph: ranga ‘buffalo’ Rebus: ranga ‘pewter’
Hieroglyph: badhia ‘rhinoceros’ Rebus: badhi ‘carpenter’
Hieroglyph: kol ‘tiger’ Rebus: kol ‘working in iron, smelter
Hieroglyph: kol krammara ‘tiger looking back’ Rebus: kol kamar ‘iron-working artisan’
Hieroglyph: patra ‘leaf’ Rebus: pattar ‘goldsmith/artisan guild’; hierolyph: loa ‘ficus religiosa’
Rebus: loh ‘metal, copper’; Hieroglyph: kūdī, kūṭī 'bunch of twigs' (Samskritam) Rebus: kuṭhi
'smelter' (Samskritam)
ranku ‘fornication, adultery’ (Telugu) Rebus: ranku ‘tin’ (Santali)

Hierolyph: kuṭharu ‘cock’ (VS xxiv,23, MaitrS.TS.v) kōtur कोतुर् or (Gr.Gr.

58) kōturu कोतुरु &below; । कपोतः m. (sg. dat. kōtaras कोतरस् ; f. nom. kōtürü कोत् &above;रू),
a pigeon or dove (wild or tame) (El.; L. 462,kotar; Rām. 93; K. 922, 947); N. of a sept of
Kāshmīrī Brāhmaṇas. A cock pigeon is also nar-kōtur, and a hen is māda-kōtur (W. 17). kōtar-
bāz kōtar-bāz कोतर् -बाज़् m. one who trains pigeons, a pigeon-fancier (W. 111). (Kashmiri)
Rebus: kuṭhāru ‘weapons-maker, armourer, writer’ (Samskritam)
meḷh ‘goat’ (Br.) Rebus: meṛha, meḍhi ‘merchant’s clerk (G.)
ayo ‘fish’ (Munda) Rebus: aya = iron (G.); ayah, ayas = metal (Skt.)
Hieroglyph: kāru a wild crocodile or alligator (Te.) Rebus: khār a blacksmith, an iron worker (cf.
bandūka-khār) (Kashmiri)
• Combined cypher-text: ayakāra ‘fish+crocodile’ Rebus: ‘iron-smith’ (Pali)

The following glyphics of m1431 prism tablet show the association between the tiger + person
on tree glyphic set and crocodile + 3 animal glyphic set -- animals on file.

Mohenjo-daro m1431 four-sided tablet. Row of animals in file (a one-horned bull, an
elephant and a rhinoceros from right); a gharial with a fish held in its jaw above the
animals; a bird (?) at right. Pict-116: From R.—a person holding a vessel; a woman with a
platter (?); a kneeling person with a staff in his hands facing the woman; a goat with its
forelegs on a platform under a tree. [Or, two antelopes flanking a tree on a platform, with
one antelope looking backwards?] m1431A, B, C, E and Text 2805

One side (m1431B) of a four-sided tablet shows a procession of a tiger, an elephant and a
rhinoceros (with fishes (or perhaps, crocodile) on top?).

koḍe ‘young bull’ (Telugu) खोोंड [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. Rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a
lathe’ (B.) कोोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) ayakāra ‘ironsmith’ (Pali)[fish = aya (G.);
crocodile = kāru (Te.)]baṭṭai quail (N.Santali) Rebus: bhaṭa = an oven, kiln, furnace (Santali)
baṭhi furnace for smelting ore (the same as kuṭhi) (Santali) bhaṭa = an oven, kiln, furnace; make
an oven, a furnace; iṭa bhaṭa = a brick kiln; kun:kal bhaṭa a potter’s kiln; cun bhaṭa = a lime kiln;
cun tehen dobon bhaṭaea = we shall prepare the lime kiln today (Santali); bhaṭṭhā (H.) bhart = a
mixed metal of copper and lead; bhartīyā= a barzier, worker in metal; bhaṭ, bhrāṣṭra = oven,
furnace (Skt.) mẽṛhẽt baṭi = iron (Ore) furnaces. [Synonyms are: mẽt = the eye, rebus for: the
dotted circle (Santali.lex) baṭha [H. baṭṭhī (Sad.)] any kiln, except a potter’s kiln, which is called
coa; there are four kinds of kiln: cunabat.ha, a lime-kin, it.abat.ha, a brick-kiln, ērēbaṭha, a lac
kiln, kuilabaṭha, a charcoal kiln; trs. Or intrs., to make a kiln; cuna rapamente ciminaupe
baṭhakeda? How many limekilns did you make? Baṭha-sen:gel = the fire of a kiln; baṭi [H. Sad.
baṭṭhi, a furnace for distilling) used alone or in the cmpds. arkibuṭi and baṭiora, all meaning a
grog-shop; occurs also in ilibaṭi, a (licensed) rice-beer shop (Mundari.lex.) bhaṭi = liquor from
mohwa flowers (Santali)

ayo 'fish' Rebus: ayas 'metal'. kaṇḍa 'arrow' Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-
ware’. ayaskāṇḍa is a compounde word attested in Panini. The compound or glyphs of fish +
arrow may denote metalware tools, pots and pans.kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, alloy of
5 metals - pancaloha'. ibha 'elephant' Rebus ibbo 'merchant'; ib ‘iron'. Alternative: కరటి [ karaṭi

] karaṭi. [Skt.] n. An elephant. ఏనుగు (Telugu) Rebus: kharādī ‘ turner’
(Gujarati) kāṇḍa 'rhimpceros' Rebus:khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’. The text
on m1431 tablet: loa 'ficus religiosa' Rebus: loh 'copper'. kolmo 'rice plant' Rebus: kolami
'smithy, forge'. dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'. Thus the display of the metalware catalog
includes the technological competence to work with minerals, metals and alloys and produce
tools, pots and pans. The persons involved are krammara 'turn back' Rebus: kamar 'smiths,
artisans'. kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, working in pancaloha alloys'. పంచలోహము
pancha-lōnamu. n. A mixed metal, composed of five ingredients, viz., copper, zinc, tin, lead, and
iron (Telugu). Thus, when five svastika hieroglyphs are depicted, the depiction is of satthiya
'svastika' Rebus: satthiya 'zinc' and the totality of 5 alloying metals of copper, zinc, tin, lead and

Glyph: Animals in procession: खाां डा [khāṇḍā] A flock (of sheep or goats) (Marathi) கண்டி¹
kaṇṭi Flock, herd (Tamil) Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.

Hieroglyph: heraka ‘spy’. Rebus: eraka, arka 'copper, gold'; eraka 'moltencast, metal
infusion'; era ‘copper’. āra 'spokes' Rebus: āra 'brass'. Hieroglyph: हे र [ hēra ] m (हेरक S
through or H) A spy, scout, explorator, an emissary to gather intelligence. 2 f Spying out or
spying, surveying narrowly, exploring. (Marathi) *hērati ʻ looks for or at ʼ. 2. hēraka -- , °rika --
m. ʻ spy ʼ lex., hairika -- m. ʻ spy ʼ Hcar., ʻ thief ʼ lex. [J. Bloch FestschrWackernagel 149 ←
Drav., Kuiēra ʻ to spy ʼ, Malt. ére ʻ to see ʼ, DED 765]1. Pk. hēraï ʻ looks for or at ʼ (vihīraï ʻ
watches for ʼ); K.ḍoḍ. hērūō ʻ was seen ʼ; WPah.bhad. bhal. he_rnū ʻ to look at ʼ (bhal. hirāṇū ʻ
to show ʼ), pāḍ. hēraṇ, paṅ. hēṇā, cur. hērnā, Ku. herṇo, N. hernu, A. heriba, B. herā,
Or. heribā (caus. herāibā), Mth. herab, OAw. heraï, H. hernā; G. hervũ ʻ to spy ʼ, M. herṇẽ. 2.
Pk. hēria -- m. ʻ spy ʼ; Kal. (Leitner) "hériu" ʻ spy ʼ; G. herɔ m. ʻ spy ʼ, herũ n. ʻ spying
ʼ. Addenda: *hērati: WPah.kṭg. (Wkc.) hèrnõ, kc. erno ʻ observe ʼ; Garh. hernu ʻ to look'
(CDIAL 14165) Ko. er uk- (uky-) to play 'peeping tom'. Kui ēra (ēri-) to spy, scout; n. spying,
scouting; pl action ērka (ērki-). ? Kuwi (S.) hēnai to scout; hēri kiyali to see; (Su. P.) hēnḍ- (hēṭ-
) id. Kur. ērnā (īryas) to see, look, look at, look after, look for, wait for, examine, try; ērta'ānā to
let see, show; ērānakhrnā to look at one another. Malt. ére to see, behold, observe; érye to peep,
spy. Cf. 892 Kur. ēthrnā. / Cf. Skt. heraka- spy, Pkt. her- to look at or for, and many NIA verbs;
Turner, CDIAL, no. 14165(DEDR 903)
Rebus readings of Hieroglyphs on two Meluhha tablets: Crocodile, tiger looking back, spy
on tree

h1973B h1974B Harappa Two tablets. One side shows a person seated on a tree branch, a
tiger looking up, a crocodile on the top register and other animals in procession in the bottom

register. Obverse side (comparable to h1970, h1971 and h1972) shows an elephant, a person
strangling two tigers (jackals or foxes) and a six-spoked wheel.
The glyphic which is common to both set 1 (h1970B, h1971B and h1972B) and set 2: (h1973B
and h1974B) is: crocodile on the top register.

karā ‘crocodile’ (Telugu). Rebus: khara ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri)

Set 1: crocodile + person with foot on head of animal + spearing + bison + horned (with twig)
seated person in penance

h1971B Harappa. Three tablets with identical glyphic compositions on both sides: h1970, h1971
and h1972. Seated figure or deity with reed house or shrine at one side. Left: H95-2524; Right:

Harappa. Planoconvex molded tablet found on Mound ET. A. Reverse. a female deity battling
two tigers and standing above an elephant and below a six-spoked wheel; b. Obverse. A person
spearing with a barbed spear a buffalo in front of a seated horned deity wearing bangles and with
a plumed headdress. The person presses his foot down the buffalo’s head. An alligator with a
narrow snout is on the top register. “We have found two other broken tablets at Harappa that
appear to have been made from the same mold that was used to create the scene of a deity
battling two tigers and standing above an elephant. One was found in a room located on the
southern slope of Mount ET in 1996 and another example comes from excavations on Mound F
in the 1930s. However, the flat obverse of both of these broken tablets does not show the
spearing of a buffalo, rather it depicts the more well-known scene showing a tiger looking back
over its shoulder at a person sitting on the branch of a tree. Several other flat or twisted
rectangular terracotta tablets found at Harappa combine these two narrative scenes of a figure
strangling two tigers on one side of a tablet, and the tiger looking back over its shoulder at a
figure in a tree on the other side.” (JM Kenoyer, 1998, Ancient cities of the Indus Valley, Oxford
University Press, p. 115.)

Set 2: crocodile + person seated on branch of tree + tiger looking back and up + rhinoceros +
tiger in procession.

m0489A One side of a prism tablet shows: crocodile + fish glyphic on the top register. Glyphs:
crocodile + fish Rebus: ayakāra ‘blacksmith’ (Pali)

Glyph: Animals in procession: खाां डा [khāṇḍā] A flock (of sheep or goats) (Marathi) கண்டி¹
kaṇṭi Flock, herd (Tamil) Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.

It is possible that the broken portions of set 2 (h1973B and h1974B) showed three animals in
procession: tiger looking back and up + rhinoceros + tiger.

Reverse side glyphs:

eraka ‘nave of wheel’. Rebus: era ‘copper’. āra 'spokes' Rebus: āra 'brass'.

Animal glyph: elephant ‘ibha’. Rebus ibbo, ‘merchant’ (Gujarati).

Composition of glyphics: Woman with six locks of hair + one eye + thwarting + two pouncing
tigers (jackals)+ nave with six spokes. Rebus: kola ‘woman’ + kaṇga ‘eye’
(Pego.), bhaṭa ‘six’+ dul‘casting (metal)’ + kũdā kol (tiger jumping) or lo ‘fox’
(WPah.) rebus: lōha ʻmetalʼ (Pali) + era āra (nave of wheel, six spokes), ibha (elephant).

Rebus: era ‘copper’; kũdār dul kol ‘turner, casting, working in iron’; kan ‘brazier, bell-
metal worker’; ibbo ‘merchant’.

The glyphic composition read rebus: copper, iron merchant with taṭu kanḍ kol bhaṭa ‘iron stone
(ore) mineral ‘furnace’.

lōpāka m. ʻa kind of jackalʼ Suśr., lōpākikā -- f. lex. 1. H. lowā m. ʻfoxʼ.2. Ash. ẓōki, žōkī
ʻfoxʼ, Kt. ŕwēki, Bashg. wrikī, Kal.rumb. lawák: < *raupākya -- NTS ii 228; -- Dm. rɔ̄ pak ← Ir.?
lōpāśá m. ʻfox, jackalʼ RV., lōpāśikā -- f. lex. [Cf. lōpāka -- . -- *lōpi -- ]
Wg. liwášä, laúša ʻfoxʼ, Paš.kch. lowóċ, ar. lṓeč ʻjackalʼ (→ Shum. lṓeč NTS xiii 269),
kuṛ. lwāinč; K. lośu, lōh, lohu, lôhu ʻporcupine, foxʼ.1. Kho. lōw ʻfoxʼ, Sh.gil. lótilde;i f.,
pales. lṓi f., lṓo m., WPah.bhal. lōī f., lo m.2. Pr. ẓūwī ʻfoxʼ.(CDIAL 11140-2).Rebus:lōhá ʻred,
copper -- colouredʼ ŚrS., ʻmade of copperʼ ŚBr., m.n. ʻcopperʼ VS., ʻironʼ MBh. [*rudh -- ]
Pa. lōha -- m. ʻmetal, esp. copper or bronzeʼ; Pk. lōha -- m. ʻironʼ, Gy. pal. li°, lihi, obl. elhás,
as. loa JGLS new ser. ii 258; Wg. (Lumsden) "loa" ʻsteelʼ; Kho. loh ʻcopperʼ; S. lohu m. ʻironʼ,
L. lohā m., awāṇ. lōˋā, P. lohā m. (→ K.rām. ḍoḍ. lohā), WPah.bhad. lɔ̃u n., bhal. lòtilde; n.,
pāḍ. jaun. lōh, paṅ. luhā, cur. cam. lohā, Ku. luwā, N. lohu, °hā, A. lo, B. lo, no, Or. lohā, luhā,
Mth. loh, Bhoj. lohā, Aw.lakh. lōh, H. loh, lohā m., G. M. loh n.; Si. loho, lō ʻ metal, ore, iron ʼ;
Md. ratu -- lō ʻ copper lōhá -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) lóɔ ʻironʼ, J. lohā m., Garh. loho;
Md. lō ʻmetalʼ. (CDIAL 11158).

Glyph: ‘woman’: kola ‘woman’ (Nahali). Rebus kol ‘working in iron’ (Tamil)
Glyph: ‘impeding, hindering’: taṭu (Ta.) Rebus: dhatu ‘mineral’ (Santali) Ta. taṭu (-pp-, -tt) to
hinder, stop, obstruct, forbid, prohibit, resist, dam, block up, partition off, curb, check, restrain,
control, ward off, avert; n. hindering, checking, resisting; taṭuppu hindering, obstructing,
resisting, restraint; Kur. ṭaṇḍnā to prevent, hinder, impede. Br. taḍ power to resist. (DEDR 3031)

Allograph: ‘notch’: Marathi: खाांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of
a tool or weapon).
Glyph: ‘full stretch of one’s arms’: kāḍ 2 काड् । पौरुषम् m. a man's length, the stature of a man
(as a measure of length) (Rām. 632, zangan kaḍun kāḍ, to stretch oneself the whole length of
one's body. So K. 119). Rebus: kāḍ ‘stone’. Ga. (Oll.) kanḍ, (S.) kanḍu (pl. kanḍkil)
stone (DEDR 1298). mayponḍi kanḍ whetstone; (Ga.)(DEDR 4628). (खडा) Pebbles or small
stones: also stones broken up (as for a road), metal. खडा [ khaḍā ] m A small stone, a pebble. 2 A
nodule (of lime &c.): a lump or bit (as of gum, assafœtida, catechu, sugar-candy): the gem or
stone of a ring or trinket: a lump of hardened fæces or scybala: a nodule or lump gen. CDIAL
3018 kāṭha m. ʻ rock ʼ lex. [Cf. kānta -- 2 m. ʻ stone ʼ lex.] Bshk. kōr ʻ large stone ʼ AO xviii
239. கண்டு³ kaṇṭu , n. < gaṇḍa. 1. Clod, lump; கட்டி. (தைலவ. தைல.99.) 2.
Wen; கழதலக்கட்டி. 3. Bead or something like a pendant in an ornament for the neck; ஓர்
ஆபரணவுரு. புல் லிதகக்கண்ட நாண் ஒன்றிற் கட்டின கண்டு ஒன்றும்
(S.I.I. ii, 429). (CDIAL 3023) kāṇḍa cluster, heap ʼ (in tr̥ṇa -- kāṇḍa -- Pāṇ. Kāś.). [Poss.
connexion with gaṇḍa -- 2 makes prob. non -- Aryan origin (not with P. Tedesco Language 22,
190 < kr̥ntáti). Pa. kaṇḍa -- m.n. joint of stalk, lump. काठः A rock, stone. kāṭha m. ʻ rock ʼ lex.

[Cf. kānta -- 2 m. ʻ stone ʼ lex.]Bshk. kōr ʻ large stone ʼ AO xviii 239.(CDIAL 3018). অয়সঠন [
aẏaskaṭhina ] as hard as iron; extremely hard (Bengali)

Glyph: ‘one-eyed’: काण a. [कण् निमीलिे कततरर घञ् Tv.] 1 One-eyed; अक्ष्णा काणः Sk; काणेि
चक्षुषा नकों वा H. Pr.12; Ms.3.155. -2 Perforated, broken (as a cowrie) <kaNa>(Z) {ADJ} ``^one-
^eyed, ^blind''. Ju<kaNa>(DP),,<kana>(K) {ADJ} ``^blind, blind in one eye''. (Munda) Go.
(Ma.) kanḍ reppa eyebrow (Voc. 3047(a))(DEDR 5169). Ka. kāṇ (kaṇḍ-) to see; Ko. kaṇ-/ka·ṇ-
(kaḍ-) to see; Koḍ. ka·ṇ- (ka·mb-, kaṇḍ-) to see; Ta. kāṇ (kāṇp-, kaṇṭ-) to see; Kol.kanḍt,
kanḍakt seen, visible. (DEDR 1443). Ta. kaṇ eye, aperture, orifice, star of a peacock's
tail. (DEDR 1159a) Rebus ‘brazier, bell-metal worker’: கை்ைாை் kaṉṉāṉ , n. < கை்¹.
[M. kannān.] Brazier, bell-metal worker, one of the divisions of the Kammāḷa caste;
செம் புசகாட்டி. (திவா.) Ta. kaṉ copper work, copper,
workmanship; kaṉṉāṉ brazier. Ma. kannān id. (DEDR 1402). கை்¹ kaṉ , n. perh. கை்மம் . 1.
Workmanship; வவனலப்பாடு. கை்ைார் மதில் சூழ் குடந்னை (திவ் . திருவாய் . 5,
8, 3). 2. Copper work; கை்ைார் சைாழில் . (W.) 3. Copper; செம் பு. (ஈடு, 5, 8, 3.) 4. See
கை்ைை்ைட்டு. (நை். 217, விருை்.) கை்² kaṉ , n. < கல் . 1. Stone; கல் . (சூடா.) 2.
Firmness; உறுதிப்பாடு. (ஈடு, 5, 8, 3.)

kã̄ḍ 2 कााँ ड् m. a section, part in general; a cluster, bundle, multitude (Śiv. 32). kã̄ḍ 1 कााँ ड् ।
काण्डः m. the stalk or stem of a reed, grass, or the like, straw. In the compound with dan 5 (p.
221a, l. 13) the word is spelt kāḍ.
kō̄̃da कोाँद । कुलालानदकनदु ः f. a kiln; a potter's kiln (Rām. 1446; H. xi, 11); a brick-kiln (Śiv. 133);
a lime-kiln. -bal -बल् । कुलालानदकनदु स्थािम् m. the place where a kiln is erected, a brick or
potter's kiln (Gr.Gr. 165). -- । कुलालानदकनदु यथावद्भावः f.inf. a kiln to arise; met. to become like
such a kiln (which contains no imperfectly baked articles, but only well-made perfectly baked
ones), hence, a collection of good ('pucka') articles or qualities to exist.
kāru ‘crocodile’ (Telugu). Rebus: artisan (Marathi) Rebus: khar ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri)
kola ‘tiger’ Rebus: kol ‘working in iron’. Heraka ‘spy’ Rebus: eraka ‘copper’. khōṇḍa ‘leafless
tree’ (Marathi). Rebus: kõdār’turner’ (Bengali)
Looking back: krammara ‘look back’ Rebus: kamar ‘smith, artisan’.

Pict-97: Person standing at the center pointing with his right

hand at a bison facing a trough, and with his left hand pointing to the sign

2841 Obverse: A tiger and a rhinoceros in file. Pict-48 A tiger and a rhinoceros in file

kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, alloy of 5 metals - pancaloha'. ibha 'elephant' Rebus ibbo
'merchant'; ib 'iron'. kāṇḍa 'rhimpceros' Rebus:khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.
The text on m0489 tablet: loa 'ficus religiosa' Rebus: loh 'copper'. kolmo 'rice plant' Rebus:
kolami 'smithy, forge'. dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'. Thus the display of the metalware
catalog includes the technological competence to work with minerals, metals and alloys and

produce tools, pots and pans. The persons involved are krammara 'turn back' Rebus: kamar
'smiths, artisans'. kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, working in pancaloha
alloys'. పంచలోహము pancha-lōnamu. n. A mixed metal, composed of five ingredients, viz.,
copper, zinc, tin, lead, and iron (Telugu). Thus, when five svastika hieroglyphs are depicted, the
depiction is of satthiya 'svastika' Rebus: satthiya 'zinc' and the totality of 5 alloying metals of
copper, zinc, tin, lead and iron.

Sign 1 mē̃ḍ 'body' rebus: mē̃ḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.)

Sign 15 reads: Sign 12 kuṭi 'water-carrier' (Telugu) Rebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter

furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546) PLUS Sign 342 kanda kanka 'rim of
jar' कानणतक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe,
account' karṇī 'supercargo',कनणत क helmsman'. Thus, the composite hypertext of Sign 15
reads: kuṭhi karṇika 'smelter helmsman/scribe/supercargo'.

Fig. 24 Line drawing showing the seal impression on this tablet. Illustration by Abdallah Kahil.
Proto-Cuneiform tablet with seal impressions. Jemdet Nasr period, ca. 3100-2900 BCE.
Mesopotamia. Clay H. 5.5 cm; W.7 cm.

Source: Kim Benzel, Sarah B. Graff, Yelena Rakic and Edith W. Watts, 2010, Art of the
Ancient Near East, a resource for educators, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
The blurb n the catalogue of Metropolitan Museum of Art says, "The seal impression depicts a
male figure guiding two dogs on a leash and hunting or herding boars in a marsh
environment."The imagery of the cylinder seal records information. A male figure is guiding
dogs (?Tigers) and herding boars in a reed marsh. Both tiger and boar are Indus writing
hieroglyphs, together with the imagery of a grain stalk. All these hieroglyphs are read rebus in
Meluhha (mleccha),of Indian sprachbund in the context of metalware catalogs of bronze age.
kola 'tiger'; rebus: kol 'iron'; kāṇḍa 'rhino'; rebus: kāṇḍa 'metalware tools, pots and
pans'. Ka. (Hav.) aḍaru twig; (Bark.) aḍïrï small and thin branch of a tree; (Gowda) aḍəri small
branches. Tu. aḍaru twig.(DEDR 67) Rebus: aduru gan.iyinda tegadu karagade iruva aduru =
ore taken from the mine and not subjected to melting in a furnace (Ka. Siddhānti Subrahmaṇya’
Śastri’s new interpretation of the AmarakoŚa, Bangalore, Vicaradarpana Press, 1872, p.330)
Alternative rebus: If the imagery of stalk connoted a palm-frond, the rebus readings could have

1. a tiger, a fox on leashes held by a man kol 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, alloys' lo ‘fox’
(WPah.) Rebus: lōha ʻmetalʼ (Pali)

2. a procession of boars (rhinoceros?) and tiger in two rows kāṇṭā 'rhinoceros.

Rebus: āṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Gujarati)

3. a stalk/twig, sprout (or tree branch) kūdī, kūṭī bunch of twigs (Sanskrit) Rebus: kuṭhi
‘smelting furnace‘ (Santali)

Thanks to Abdallah Kahil for the line drawing which clearly demonstrates that the narrative is
NOT 'a hunting with dogs or herding boars in a marsh environment.' Traces of hieroglyphs are
found on both sides of the tablet which also contains a proto-cuneiform inscription. It is
noteworthy that cuneiform evolved TOGETHER WITH the use of Indus writing hieroglyphs on
tablets, cylinder seals and other artifacts. I wish every success for efforts at decoding proto-
elamite script using Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) System (see below).

Ku. N. tāmo (pl. ʻ young bamboo shoots ʼ), A. tām, B. tã̄bā, tāmā, Or. tambā, Bi tã̄bā, Mth. tām,
tāmā, Bhoj. tāmā, H. tām in cmpds., tã̄bā, tāmā m. (CDIAL 5779) Rebus: tāmrá ʻ dark red,
copper -- coloured ʼ VS., n. ʻ copper ʼ Kauś., tāmraka -- n. Yājñ. [Cf. tamrá -- . -- √tam?] Pa.
tamba -- ʻ red ʼ, n. ʻ copper ʼ, Pk. taṁba -- adj. and n.; Dm. trāmba -- ʻ red ʼ (in trāmba -- lac ̣uk ʻ
raspberry ʼ NTS xii 192); Bshk. lām ʻ copper, piece of bad pine -- wood (< ʻ *red wood ʼ?); Phal.
tāmba ʻ copper ʼ (→ Sh.koh. tāmbā), K. trām m. (→ Sh.gil. gur. trām m.), S. ṭrāmo m., L. trāmā,
(Ju.) tarāmã̄ m., P. tāmbā m., WPah. bhad. ṭḷām n., kiũth. cāmbā, sod. cambo, jaun. tã̄bō (CDIAL
5779) tabāshīr तबाशीर् । त्वक्््क्षीरी f. the sugar of the bamboo, bamboo-manna (a siliceous
deposit on the joints of the bamboo) (Kashmiri)

Late Uruk and Jemdet Nasr seal; ca. 3200-3000 BC; serpentine; cat.1; boar and bull in
procession; terminal
plant; heavily pitted surface beyond plant

Indus Script hieroglyphs read rebus: baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: baḍhi ‘a caste who
work both in iron and wood’ Hieroglyph: dhangar 'bull' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'. kuṭi 'tree'
rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter'.

Were the Daimabad artisan guilds carrying these bronze models as standards in processions on a
festival day celebrating their work and advertising their professional metallurgical competence?
Maybe, these processions are a celebration of Pola, cattle festival, an annual festivity continued
even today.

oy animals made for the Pola festival especially celebrated by the Dhanoje Kunbis. (Bemrose,
Colo. Derby - Russell, Robert Vane (1916). The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of
India: volume IV. Descriptive articles on the principal castes and tribes of the Central Provinces.
London: Macmillan and Co., limited. p. 40).

One side of a triangular terracotta tablet (Md 013); surface find at Mohenjo-daro in 1936. Dept.
of Eastern Art, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

Hieroglyph: kamaḍha 'penance' (Prakrit) kamaḍha, kamaṭha, kamaḍhaka, kamaḍhaga,

kamaḍhaya = a type of penance (Prakrit)

Rebus: kamaṭamu, kammaṭamu = a portable furnace for melting precious metals; kammaṭīḍu = a
goldsmith, a silversmith (Telugu) kãpṛauṭ jeweller's crucible made of rags and clay
(Bi.); kampaṭṭam coinage, coin, mint (Tamil)
kamaṭhāyo = a learned carpenter or mason, working on scientific principles; kamaṭhāṇa [cf.
karma, kām, business + sthāna, thāṇam, a place fr. Skt. sthā to stand] arrangement of one’s
business; putting into order or managing one’s business (Gujarati)

The composition of two hieroglyphs: kāru 'crocodile' (Telugu) + kamaḍha 'a person seated in
penance' (Prakrit) denote rebus: khar ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri); kāru ‘artisan’ (Marathi)
+ kamaṭa 'portable furnace'; kampaṭṭam 'coinage, coin, mint'. Thus, what the tablet conveys is the
mint of a blacksmith. A copulating crocodile hieroglyph -- kāru 'crocodile' (Telugu) + kamḍa,
khamḍa 'copulation' (Santali) -- conveys the same message: mint of a
blacksmith kāru kampaṭṭa 'mint artisan'.

m1429B and two other tablets showing the typical composite hieroglyph of fish + crocodile.
Glyphs: crocodile + fish ayakāra ‘blacksmith’ (Pali) kāru a wild crocodile or alligator (Telugu)
aya 'fish' (Munda) The method of ligaturing enables creation of compound messages through
Indus writing inscriptions. kārua wild crocodile or alligator (Telugu) Rebus: khar ‘blacksmith’
(Kashmiri); kāru ‘artisan’ (Marathi).

Pali: ayakāra ‘iron-smith’. ] Both ayaskāma and ayaskāra are attested in Panini (Pan. viii.3.46;
ii.4.10). WPah. bhal. kamīṇ m.f. labourer (man or woman) ; MB. kāmiṇā labourer (CDIAL
2902) N. kāmi blacksmith (CDIAL 2900).

Kashmiri glosses:

khār 1 खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारि् ,
which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker
(cf. bandūka-khār, p. 111b, l. 46; K.Pr. 46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.). This word is often a part of
a name, and in such case comes at the end (W. 118) as in Wahab khār, Wahab the smith (H. ii,
12; vi, 17). khāra-basta khāra-basta खार-बस्््त । चमतप्रसे नवका f. the skin bellows of a
blacksmith. -büṭhü -ब&above;ठू&below; । लोहकारनिनतः f. the wall of a blacksmith's furnace or
hearth. -bāy -बाय् । लोहकारपत्नी f. a blacksmith's wife (Gr.Gr. 34). -dŏkuru लोहकारायोघिः m. a
blacksmith's hammer, a sledge-hammer. -gȧji or -güjü - लोहकारचु ल्लः f. a blacksmith's furnace
or hearth. -hāl -हाल् । लोहकारकनदु ः f. (sg. dat. -höjü -हा&above;जू &below;), a blacksmith's
smelting furnace; cf. hāl 5. -kūrü लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter. -koṭu -
लोहकारपुत्रः m. the son of a blacksmith, esp. a skilful son, who can work at the same profession. -
küṭü लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter, esp. one who has the virtues and qualities properly
belonging to her father's profession or caste. -më˘ʦü 1 - लोहकारमृनतका f. (for 2, see [khāra 3] ),
'blacksmith's earth,' i.e. iron-ore. -nĕcyuwu लोहकारात्मजः m. a blacksmith's son. -nay -िय् ।
लोहकारिानलका f. (for khāranay 2, see [khārun] ), the trough into which the blacksmith allows
melted iron to flow after smelting. -ʦañĕ । लोहकारशान्ताङ्गाराः charcoal used by blacksmiths
in their furnaces. -wānवाि् । लोहकारापणः m. a blacksmith's shop, a forge, smithy (K.Pr. 3). -
waṭh -वठ् । आघाताधारनशला m. (sg. dat. -waṭas -वनि), the large stone used by a blacksmith as an

Thus, kharvaṭ may refer to an anvil. Meluhha kāru may refer to a crocodile; this rebus reading of
the hieroglyph is.consistent with ayakāra ‘ironsmith’ (Pali) [fish = aya (G.);
crocodile = kāru (Telugu)]
Locations of Meluhha, Saar, Failaka, Qal'at al-Bahrain, Barbar in Persian or Arabian Gulf
Map of Meluhha and Southwest Asia (inset Bahrain) (After Fig. 1 Eric Olijdam, 2008, A
possible Central Asian origin for the seal-impressed jar from the Temple Tower' at Failaka),
in:Eric Olijdam & RH Spoor, eds, Intercultural relations between South and Southwest Asia,
Studiesin Commemoration of ECL During Caspers (1934-1996), BAR Intrnational Series 1826
(2008): 268-287). "It is only in the last decade that Central Asian elements have been correctly
identified in the archaeological record of the Arabian Gulf. Up until her untimely death, E.C.L.
During Caspers had been one of the leading experts in this field. I am therefore pleased to
dedicate my contribution to one of Inez’ last passions, viz. the intercultural/mercantile
connections between the Arabian Gulf and the Bactrian-Margiana Archaeological Complex
(BMAC) —or the Murghabo-Bactrian Archaeological Complex as she used to call it."

A massive building called the 'Temple Tower' in Failaka City, was excavated dated to ca. 1900
BCE. A seal impression was found impressed on a large jar, just underneath the shoulder. In two
scenes, the narrative of the impression shows a bird of prey (eagle) devouring a slaim bovine.
Eagle's talons are clearly shown and wings are extended. The filling motifs include a coiled
snake and a rosette next to a crescent moon.

I suggest that these are Indus Script Hypertexts, as this monograph demonstrates.
Drawing of a Cylinder seal-impressed jar from the 'Temple Tower', Failaka (F88.2270, Kuwait
National Museum no. 5827; drawing after Calvet, Y. & M. Pic, 1996, Un nouveau batiment de
'l'Age du Bronze sur le Tell F6, in Y. Calvet & JF Salle, eds., Failaka, Fouilles Francaise 1984-
1985 (TMO 12), Lyon,: Fig. 3)

In Gonur I South excavations, a complette storage jar, linked to a temple complex, was
unearthed. The seal impression shows a standing winged birdman holding a dead caprid in each
of its hands. In the field above the caprid, a heraldic eagle is shown.

करडे ल karaḍēla n (करडई & तेल) Oil of Carthamus or safflower.Rebus: karaḍa 'hard alloy'

‫ مر‬ḳamar A ‫ قمر‬ḳamar, s.m. (9th) 'The moon'. Rebus: kamar 'blacksmith'.

Hieroglyph: śyena 'falcon' Rebus: aśáni 'thunderbolt' rebus‫ آهن ګر‬āhan gar, 'blacksmith'

Hieroglyph: dām m. ʻ young ungelt ox ʼ: damya ʻ tameable ʼ, m. ʻ young bullock to be tamed ʼ

Mn. [~ *dāmiya -- . -- √dam]Pa. damma -- ʻ to be tamed (esp. of a young bullock) ʼ; Pk. damma -
- ʻ to be tamed ʼ; S. ḍ̠amu ʻ tamed ʼ; -- ext. -- ḍa -- : A. damrā ʻ young bull ʼ, dāmuri ʻ calf ʼ;
B.dāmṛā ʻ castrated bullock ʼ; Or. dāmaṛī ʻ heifer ʼ, dāmaṛiā ʻ bullcalf, young castrated bullock
ʼ, dāmuṛ, °ṛi ʻ young bullock ʼ.Addenda: damya -- : WPah.kṭg. dām m. ʻ young ungelt ox
ʼ.(CDIAL 6184). This is a phonetic determinative of the 'twisted rope'
hieroglyph: dhāī˜ f.dāˊman1 ʻ rope ʼ (Rigveda) Hence, signifies: dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a class of iron --
smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron smelting'
Cylinder seal-impressed jar from Gonur I South, Turkmenistan, A. Design of the cylinder seal
(after Sarianidi. V.,1993, Excavations at Southern Gonur, Iran XXXI:25-37, Pl. IV-X, Fig.9)

Hieroglyph: śyena 'falcon' Rebus: aśáni 'thunderbolt' rebus‫ آهن ګر‬āhan gar, 'blacksmith'

'markhor' Wkh. merg f. 'ibex' (CDIAL 9885) Tor. miṇḍ 'ram', miṇḍā́ l 'markhor' (CDIAL 10310)
Rebus:meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet 'iron' (Munda.Ho.).

A second speciment was found on the surface of Taip depe 'at the southeastern edge of the
settlement'...This very large segment, consisting of two matching fragments, shows the imprint
of two different cylinder seals and possibly that of a stamp seal. (After Masimov, IS, 1981, New
finds of the Bronze Age seals from the Lower Murghab (in Russian), Sovjetskaya
Arkheologiya 1981: 132-150, Figs. 10-12).

Drawings of First cylinder-seal impressed jar from Taip 1, Turkmenistan (After Collon, D.,
1987, First Impressions, Cylinder seals in the Ancient Near East, London, nos. 600, 599).
Predatory bird attacking an animal is also shown on a cylinderal seal of BMAC.

पोळा [ pōḷā ] zebu, bos indicus, rebus: पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'magnetite, Fe3O4'
pōlaḍu, 'black drongo' rebus pōlaḍ 'steel'

Hieroglyph: śyena 'falcon' Rebus: aśáni 'thunderbolt' rebus‫ آهن ګر‬āhan gar, 'blacksmith'

kõdā 'young bull' rebus: kõdā 'to turn in a lathe'(B.) कोोंद kōnda 'engraver, lapidary setting or
infixing gems' (Marathi) kō̄̃ da कोाँद 'furnace, kiln'

मेढा [mēḍhā] 'twist, curl'. rebus: meD,med 'iron, copper,metal' medha 'yajna',
dhanam.) meḍhi 'plait' (twisted rope) rebus: meḍ 'iron'

BMAC - Indus hybrid cylinder seal with predatory bird attacking a rhinoceros (Collon, 1987,
opcit., no. 614). This seal is part of the De Clerq collection and attributed to the Indus
Civilisation (Corbiau, S., 1936, An Indo-Sumerian Cylinder, Iraq III: 100-103, p.,101).

bhaṭa 'warrior' Rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace

Hieroglyph: śyena 'falcon' Rebus: aśáni 'thunderbolt' rebus‫ آهن ګر‬āhan gar, 'blacksmith'

gaṇḍa 'rhinoceros'; rebus:khaṇḍa 'tools, pots and pans and metal-ware'.

goṭā 'round pebble' Rebus gō̃ṭu an ornamental appendage to the border of a cloth,
fringe' गोिी gōṭī f (Dim. of गोिा) A roundish stone or pebble. 2 A marble. 3 A large lifting stone.
Used in trials of strength among the Athletæ. 4 A stone in temples described at length under
उचला 5 fig. A term for a round, fleshy, well-filled body. 6 A lump of silver: as obtained by
melting down lace or fringe. goṭa 'laterite, ferrite ore' khoṭa 'ingot, wedge'. गोटी [ gōṭī ] 'round
pebbles, stones' rebus: गोटी [ gōṭī ] 'A lump of silver'.

kolmo 'rice-plant' rebus; kolimi 'smithy, forge'

kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' PLUS dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting'

Hieroglyph: leaping tigers: Kui pānja (pānji-) to fly, leap; n. act of flying, flight; (DEDR 4087),
dspanja 'claw of beast, feline paw' rebus: panja 'kiln' (Semantic determinative).

Bronze compartmented seal. BMAC(Bactria-Margiana Archeological Complex), 2000-1500

BCE. Garuda, Naga.
Compartmented seal with two coiled snakes attacking crescent moons (Baghestani, 1997, opcit.,
no. 456).A copper/bronze compartmented seal consists of a mirror image of a coiled snake with a
crescent moon (Baghestani, S.,1997, Metallene Comparimentsiegel aus Os-Iran, Zentralasien
und Nord-China, Archologie in Iran and Turan, Bd. 1, Rahden,: no.456). The heads of both
animals are towards a crescent moon.
phaḍa 'throne, hood of cobra' rebus: फड, phaḍa 'metalwork artisan guild'
dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. Thus, metalcaster guild'
‫ مر‬ḳamar A ‫ قمر‬ḳamar, s.m. (9th) 'The moon'. Rebus: kamar 'blacksmith'.
Dilmun seal from Afghanistan (Sarianidi 1986, Die Kunst des alten Afghanistan, Leipzig:
drawing on p. 231)."Two seals found in Afghanistan...may be indicative of direct contact with
Babylonia and Dilmun during the latter stages of the BMAC. The first is a cylinder seal found in
the hills near Herat...Even more spectacular is the Dilmun stamp seal published in drawing by
Sarianidi...The design seems to consist of two rampant bulls with merging bodies, rendered
back-toback. In the field between the bulls a stylised plant (?) can be discerned, the bottom right
appears to have a crescent moon...The design is very similar to that of a Dilmun seal found at the
Harappan port site of Dwarka (Crawford, HEW, 1998, Dilmun and its Gulf neighbours,
Cambridge, Fig. 5.7)...the decoration on a copper/bronze cosmetic vial is particularly interesting.
Its design shows several animals engaged in human activities. The central scene consists of a
monkey standing before a seated ibex, holding in its hand a vessel commonly found in BMAC
ceramic assemblages. A low table is situated between the two animals and on it lays a flat object.
It seems likely that the design depicts a ritual in which the monkey is offering food and drink to
the ibex." (Eric Olidjam, opcit, pp.281 to 283).

kolmo 'rice plant' rebus; kolimi 'smithy, forge'

dula 'two' rebus; dul 'metal casting'

barad, barat 'ox' rebus: bharat, baran 'mixed alloys' (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin)

Obverse of seal

kolom 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'

Hieroglyph: Dotted circle: dāya 'throw of one in dice' rebus: dhāi, dhātu 'mineral ore'.
High-relief decoration on the body of a BMAC copper/bronze cosmetic vial (Aftter Sarianidi, V.,
1994, Aegean-Anatolian Motifs in the Glyptic Art of Bactria and Margiana, Bulletin of the Asia
Institute 8: 27-36, Fig. 7)

All the seals, seal impressions and artifacts with images discussed by Eric Olidjam are explained
as Indus Script Hypertexts which signify wealth-accounting ledgers, metalwork catalogues.

kuṭhāru 'a monkey' (Sanskrit) Rebus: kuṭhāru 'armourer or weapons'

OP. koṭhārī f. ʻ crucible ʼ, P. kuṭhālī f., H. kuṭhārī f.; -- Md. koṭari ʻ room ʼ A semantic
determinative for kuṭhāru 'armourer or weapons'.

Dm. mraṅ m. ‘markhor’ Wkh. merg f. ‘ibex’ (CDIAL 9885) Tor. miṇḍ ‘ram’, miṇḍā́l ‘markhor’
(CDIAL 10310) Rebus: meḍ(Ho.); mẽṛhet ‘iron’ (Munda.Ho.)

tagaraka 'tabernae montana' rebus: tagara 'tin'.

DEDR 1179 Kur. kaṇḍō a stool. Malt. kanḍo stool, seat. గడమంచె gaḍa-manche. n. A wooden
frame like a bench to keep things on. గంపలు మొదలగువాటిని ఉంచు మంచె.
Rebus: khaṇḍa 'equipment'.

Dilmun seals should be included in Indus Script Corpora, artisans and seafaring merchants of
Sarasvati Civiization in Qal'at al-Bahrain, 2050 BCE

I suggest that Dilmun seals should be included in the Indus Script Corpora based on the
following argument:

Qal`at al-Bahrain – Ancient Harbour and Capital of Dilmun 26°14′01″N 50°31′14″E
Excavation 520 at Qal’at al-Bahrain, reported Dilmun seals made using the same Indus
seal technology. This indicates seaward movement of seafaring merchants and artisans
from Sarasvati Civilition into Qal'at.
during_the_City_IIa-c_Period_c._2050-1800_BC _


Vol. 20, No. 2 (APRIL 1967), pp. 104-107 (4 pages)
Published by: Archaeological Institute of America


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