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Five of ten दशावतार, daśāvatāra include Vāmana, dwarf,

artificer, miner, smith; Itihāsa signifiers in Indus Script

Corpora, validate decipherment
-- intimations in wealth-accounting metalwork ledgers of Indus Script

This monograph posits that five of the ten दशावतार, daśāvatāra signify metalwork, wealth-
accounting which is the core objective evidenced by Indus Script Corpora. These are Itihāsa
signifiers in Indus Script Corpora which explain how ancient India accounted for 33% of World
GDP in 1 Common Era (CE)(pace Angus Maddison):

This is an addendum to

1. Nr̥simha emerges from a pillar, pillar of flame and godhuma 'wheat chaff' Vedic caṣāla on
Skambha, Yupa. Cultural significance of Holika


2. दशावतार, daśāvatāra. Itihāsa rendered by poets (kavi) and artisans (kamar). Veda metaphors
of avatāra transformation and Indus Scrip rebus cipher of metal

Bhāgavata Purāṇa has nine chapters to the adventures of Vāmana, a dwarf, fifth avatāra of Lord
Viṣṇu; also called त्रित्रवक्रम Trivikrama which literally, "three steps",
signifying the Svarga (heaven), the earth, and the Patala (netherworld). "Aditi took Payovrata to
propitiate Lord Vishnu. As a result, Vamana was born to Aditi and Kashyapa. He is the twelfth
of the Adityas. Account of the several Manus and ManwantarasVishnu Purana, translated
by Horace Hayman Wilson, 1840, Book III: Chapter I. 265:22, at the request of the deities
Vishńu was born as a midget, Vámana, the son of Adití by Kaśyapa. By applying to Mahabali for
alms Kaśyapa was promised by the prince whatever he might demand, notwithstanding Śukra
(the preceptor of the Daityas). The dwarf demanded as much space as he could step over at three
steps and upon the assent of Mahabali he enlarged himself to such dimensions as to stride over
the three worlds. Being worshipped however by Mahabali and his ancestor Prahláda, he
conceded to them the sovereignty of Pátála... Asura King Mahābali (or simply called Bali). Bali
was the great grandson of Hiraṇyakśipu, the grand son of Prahlada and son of Virochana."

Hiraṇyakśipu, his grandson Asura King Mahābali, Hiraṇyākṣa, all three signify association with
metalwork since हिरण्य n. (ifc. f(आ). ; prob. connected with हरर , हररत् , त्रहरर) gold (orig. "
uncoined gold or other precious metal " ; in later language " coined gold " -or " money
") RV. &c; any vessel or ornament made of gold (as " a golden spoon " Mn. ii ,
29) RV. AV. VS. Kaus3.;; a gold piece or coin (generally with सुव्/अर्ण as opp. to base
metal) Br.; substance , imperishable matter.

Thus, all the five avatāra:

1. Fish: aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal';

2.Turtle, tortoise kã̄śī f. ʻ bell -- metal cymbal ʼ Rebus: kāñcana काञ्चन a. (-नी f.) [काञ्च् -ल्युट्]
Golden, made of gold; kamaṭha 'tortise' rebus: kãsā kammaṭa 'bell-metal coiner, mint, portable

3. Boar वराि m. (derivation doubtful) a boar , hog , pig , wild boar RV. &c (ifc. it denotes , "
superiority , pre-eminence " ; » g. व्याघ्रा*त्रद).

N. of त्रवष्णु in his third or boar-incarnation (cf. वराहा*वतार) TA1r. MBh. &c; (also

-क) त्रवष्णु in his 4th अवतार (cf. नर-स्°) ib. &c

baḍhi, vaḍraṅgi, vaḍlaṅgi, vaḍlavāḍu, baḍaga, vardhaki, 'worker in metal and wood'.

4. Lion Nr̥simha नृ--ह िंि m. " man-lion " , a great or illustrious man MBh. R. arye 'lion'
rebus: āra 'brass'

5. Vāmana, 'dwarf' synonym kharva (cups or vessels baked in fire); karba 'iron'

Itihāsa of sādhya, virāj, वालखिल्या, gaṇa, kubera, kharva 'dwarfs' 'wealth' in Ṛgveda Soma yāga
and Indus Script traditions

FS 68 Inscribed object in the shape of a fish (Frequency in M Corpus:

14) ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal' अय ् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe
, &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10; gold (नैघण्टु क , commented on by यास्क);steel L. ;
([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron

; Goth. eisarn ; Mod.Germ. Eisen.]) ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal'
PLUS Hieroglyph: ढाळ (p. 204) ḍhāḷa Slope, inclination of a plane. Rebus: ḍhālako = a large
metal ingot . Thus, large metal or iron ingot.

Signs 59, 67 ayo, aya 'fish' PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal'
PLUS kammaTa 'mint'

Cluster analysis of Indus writing system design principle, of 33 sāṅgāḍī 'joined parts'; Field
symbols for samgaha wealth categories catalogues for accounting

Cluster Tortoise, turtle clusters, bronze classifiers in Indus Script Corpora

FS 69 Inscribed object in the shape of a tortoise.

FS 56 (Frequency in M Corpus: 9) dula 'duplicated, mirror image'

rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS


A giant turtle (of what was thought to be an extinct species) has been found on Pacific island in
2010 CE !!

किं [p= 241,1] mn. ( √कम् Un2. iii , 62), a vessel made of metal , drinking vessel , cup ,
goblet AV. x , 10 , 5 AitBr. S3Br. &c; a metal , tutanag or white copper , brass , bell-metal

"Front view of Meiolania

platyceps fossil
Meiolania ("small roamer") is an extinct genus of cryptodire
turtle from the Oligocene to Holocene, with the last relict populations at New Caledonia which
survived until 2,000 years ago.
The animal was rather large, measuring 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) in length, making it the second-largest
known nonmarine turtle or tortoise, surpassed only by Colossochelys atlas from Asia, which
lived in the Pleistocene. It lived in Australia and New Caledonia. Remains have also been found
on the island of Efate in Vanuatu, associated with settlements from the Lapitaculture...When the
first fossil remains (a vertebra) were found, they were originally thought to be from a
large monitor lizard, similar to, but smaller than Megalania, so the genus was named
accordingly. Later, when more remains were found, it was realized that the "small roamer" was
actually a turtle, and not a lizard. Synonyms include Miolania and Ceratochelys."

There are examples of copper plates with the pictorial motifs of large turtles combined back to
back, as a pair to signify: dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'.

See: The world's earliest coin, Lydia electrum coin with ि डों khōṇḍa 'unicorn, young bull' rebus
kundaṇa 'pure gold' (Tulu) is an invention by an Indus Script smith, kundār, ि दर् 'engraver,
turner, scribe'

Frieze on staircase wall, Persepolis.

Procession of lions, unicorns (auroch or urus) at Persepolis.

The juxtaposition signifier on Lydian electrum (gold-silver compound) coins between a young
bull's profile and a lion's profile signies a metallurgical challenge between 1.kundaṇa 'fine
gold',+ goṭī 'silver', i.e., electrum gold and 2. āra 'brass' + arka 'gold', i.e.golden
brass. panja 'feline paw' rebus: panja 'kiln, furnace; juxtaposeskoḍ 'horn'
rebus: koḍ 'workshop' kunda 'young bull' rebus: yajñakuṇḍa 'fire altar, furnace'; kũdār 'turner'
The joined animal parts constituting hypertext on Kyzikos electrum coins is signify a unified
guild formation, a phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all
accounts, registers' -- of mintwork in gold, silver, copper, brass, alloy metals.
1. One-horned bull kunda 'young bull' rebus: kundaṇa 'fine gold' kũdār 'turner (artisan)'
2. Lion arye 'lion' rebus: āra 'brass' (epithets of आत्रदत्य अयण , sun, lord)
3. Sun with multiple rays arka 'sun' rebus: arka 'gold', eraka 'moltencast copper'
4. Global protuberance above nose ग टी [ gōṭī ] f (Dim. of ग टा) 'round stone, pebble' rebus: goṭī
f. ʻlump of silver'; goṭi = silver; koḍ ‘workshop’ (Gujarati).
5. Round stones, pebbles, ग टी [ gōṭī ] f (Dim. of ग टा) 'round stone, pebble' rebus: goṭī f. ʻlump
of silver'; goṭi = silver; koḍ ‘workshop’ (Gujarati).
6. Fish ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas 'alloyed metal'(R̥gveda) khambhaṛā 'fish
fin' rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage'
7. Goat Brahui. mēḻẖ is without etymology; see MBE 1980a.] Ka. mēke she-goat; mē the
bleating of sheep or goats. Te. mek̄̃ a, mēka goat. Kol. me·ke id. Nk. mēke id. Pa. mēva,
(S.) mēya she-goat. Ga. (Oll.) mēge, (S.) mēge goat. Go. (M) mekā, (Ko.) mēka id. ? Kur. mēxnā
(mīxyas) to call, call after loudly, hail. Malt. méqe to bleat. [Te. mr̤ēka (so correct) is of
unknown meaning. / Cf. Skt. (lex.)meka- goat.(DEDR 5087)
Rebus: meluhha (milakkhu, mleccha, 'copper' (Pali.Saskrtam) (merchant).
8. Cobra hood phaṭā फटा (Samskrtam), phaḍā फडा (Marathi), paṭam (Tamil.
Malayalam), paḍaga (Telugu) 'cobra hood' rebus: bhaṭṭh m., °ṭhī f. ʻ furnaceʼ, paṭṭaṭai,
paṭṭaṟai 'anvil, smithy, forge', paṭṭaḍe, paṭṭaḍi 'anvil, workshop', Te. paṭṭika,
paṭṭeḍa anvil; paṭṭaḍa workshop. Cf. 86 Ta. aṭai. (DEDR 3865) phaḍa फड ‘manufactory,

company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts,

Gold stater Period: Archaic Date: ca. 560–546
B.C.E Lydia Medium: Gold Dimensions: Overall: 3/8 x 9/16 x 1/16 in. (1 x 1.4 x 0.2
cm) Credit Line: Gift of The American Society for the Excavation of Sardis,
1926 Accession Number: 26.59.2

R̥gveda (1.22, 1.154, 1.154, 6.49, 7.100 and 8.29) describes Viṣṇu as that benevolent god who in
three steps defined all there is in the universe. About thirty different versions of his mythology
are found in these texts.(Deborah A. Soifer (1991). The Myths of Narasimha and Vamana: Two
Avatars in Cosmological Perspective. State University of New York Press. pp. 18–19, 22–
25; pp. xiii, 113–116, 123–138).

Walters Arts Museum. "Standing tall despite his

diminutive proportions, this dwarf, Vamana, is an incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu. He holds
Vishnu’s attributes—the club and discus in his upper hands and the conch shell in his lower left
hand—and makes the gesture of giving. As preserver of cosmic order, Vishnu descends to earth

to restore balance whenever the world is threatened by evil. When the king Bali was becoming
too powerful, Vishnu came to earth as a dwarf and, dressed as a pious student of Hindu
knowledge, asked the king for the amount of land he could cover in three steps. Thinking he had
nothing to lose, the king granted the dwarf’s request, whereupon Vishnu transformed himself
into the giant Trivikrama, covering the entire earth with his first step, the heavens with his
second step, and with his third step pushing Bali into the

Dictionary definition of a dwarf: (in folklore or fantasy literature) a member of a mythical race of
short, stocky human like creatures who are generally skilled in mining and metalworking.
synonyms gnome, goblin, hobgoblin, troll, imp, elf, brownie, kelpie, leprechaun, fairy, pixie, spri
: te
"the wizard captured the dwarf"
"The noun dwarf stems from Old English dweorg, originally referring to a being from Germanic
mythology—a dwarf—that dwells in mountains and in the earth, and is associated with wisdom,
smithing, mining, and crafting.... Indo-European root *dheur- (meaning 'damage'), the Indo-
European root *dhreugh (whence modern German Traum 'dream' and Trug 'deception'), and
comparisons have been made with the Old Indian dhvaras (a type of demonic being). The being
may not have gained associations with small stature until a later

Dwarfs are also वालखिल्यााः - who are referred to in तैत्रिरीयब्राह्मर्म् (1-92) --

तत ’रुर्ााः केतव वातरशना ऋषय उदत्रतष्ठन् ।(91)

ये निााः। ते वैिानसााः। ये वालााः। ते वालखिल्यााः । य रसाः। स ’पाम्।

Worship of linga by Gandharva, Shunga period (ca. 2nd cent. BCE), ACCN 3625, Mathura
Museum. Worship signified by dwarfs, Gaṇa (hence Gaṇeśa = Gaṇa + īśa).

A tree associated with smelter and linga from Bhuteshwar, Mathura Museum.
Architectural fragment with relief showing winged dwarfs (or gaNa) worshipping with flower
garlands, Siva Linga. Bhuteshwar, ca. 2nd cent BCE. Lingam is on a platform with wall under a
pipal tree encircled by railing. (Srivastava, AK, 1999, Catalogue of Saiva sculptures in
Government Museum, Mathura: 47, GMM 52.3625) The tree is a phonetic determinant of the
smelter indicated by the railing around the linga: kuṭa, °ṭi -- , °ṭha -- 3, °ṭhi -- m. ʻ tree
ʼ Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter'. kuṭa, °ṭi -- , °ṭha -- 3, °ṭhi -- m. ʻ tree ʼ lex., °ṭaka -- m. ʻ a kind of tree ʼ
Kauś.Pk. kuḍa -- m. ʻ tree ʼ; Paš. lauṛ. kuṛāˊ ʻ tree ʼ, dar. kaṛék ʻ tree, oak ʼ ~ Par. kōṛ ʻ stick ʼ
IIFL iii 3, 98. (CDIAL 3228).

Relief with Ekamukha linga. Mathura. 1st cent. CE (Fig.

6.2).This is the most emphatic representation of linga as a pillar of fire. The pillar is embedded
within a brick-kiln with an angular roof and is ligatured to a tree. Hieroglyph: kuTi 'tree' rebus:

kuThi 'smelter'. In this composition, the artists is depicting the smelter used for smelting to
create mũh 'face' (Hindi) rebus: mũhe 'ingot' (Santali) of mēḍha 'stake' rebus: meḍ 'iron, metal'
(Ho. Munda). मेड (p. 662) [ mēḍa ] f (Usually मेढ q. v.) मेडका m A stake, esp. as
bifurcated. मेढ (p. 662) [ mēḍha ] f A forked stake. Used as a post. Hence a short post generally
whether forked or not. मेढा (p. 665) [ mēḍhā ] m A stake, esp. as forked. 2 A dense arrangement
of stakes, a palisade, a paling. मेढी (p. 665) [ mēḍhī ] f (Dim. of मेढ) A small bifurcated stake:
also a small stake, with or without furcation, used as a post to support a cross piece. मेढ्या (p.
665) [ mēḍhyā ] a (मेढ Stake or post.) A term for a person considered as the pillar, prop, or
support (of a household, army, or other body), the staff or stay. मेढेज शी (p. 665) [ mēḍhējōśī
] m A stake-ज शी; a ज शी who keeps account of the त्रतत्रि &c., by driving stakes into the ground:
also a class, or an individual of it, of fortune-tellers, diviners, presagers, seasonannouncers,
almanack-makers &c. They are Shúdras and followers of the मेढेमत q. v. 2 Jocosely. The
hereditary or settled (quasi fixed as a stake) ज शी of a village.मेंधला (p. 665) [ mēndhalā ] m In
architecture. A common term for the two upper arms of a double चौकठ (door-frame) connecting
the two. Called also मेंढरी & घ डा. It answers to त्रिली the name of the two lower arms or
connections. (Marathi)

Relief with Ekamukha linga. Mathura. 1st cent. CE shows a gaNa, dwarf with tuft
of hair in front, a unique tradition followed by Dikshitar in Chidambaram. The gaNa is next to
the smelter kuTi 'tree' Rebus: kuThi 'smelter' which is identified by the ekamukha
sivalinga. mũh 'face' (Hindi) rebus: mũhe 'ingot' (Santali) mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at
one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like
a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and
formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends;kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt ko mūhā
akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali). kharva is a dwarf; kharva is a nidhi
of Kubera. karba 'iron' (Tulu)
muha-metal-from.html खवव (र्व) पु ० िवण --गवे अच् । १ कुवेरत्रनत्रवशेत्रष शब्दरत्ना० ।२ कुब्जक वृक्षे
अन्त्यस्िमध्याः राजत्रन० तस्य गन्धस्य त-कटतया गवणहेतुत्वात् तिात्वम् । िर्ण--गतौ अच् । वर्ग्ण-मध्याः ३ ह्रस्वे
४ वामने त्रि० अमराः “िर्े! गवणसमूह-पूररततन !” तारास्त िम् । ५ सों ख्याभेदे (सहस्रक टौ)“अर्ुणदमब्जों
िर्णत्रनिर्ण” त्रमत्रत लीलावती । ६ तत्सोंख्याते चवाचस्पत्यम् खर्ब्वः, पुों ,
(िर्ब्ण + अच् ।) कुवेरस्य त्रनत्रध-त्रवशेषाः । इत्रत शब्दरत्नावली ॥ दशवृन्दसोंख्या । इत्रत स्मृत्रताः ॥ कुब्जकवृक्षाः ।
इत्रत राजत्रनघणण्टाः ।(वामनाः । इत्यमराः । २ । ६ । ४६ ॥ स्त्री ।गायत्त्रीस्वरूपा भगवती । यिा, दे वीभाग-वते ।
१२ । ६ । ३८ ।“िड् गिेटकरा िर्ब्ाण िेचरी
िगवाहना”)शब्दकल्पद्रुमाः खवव [p= 338,1] mfn. (cf. /अ- , त्रि-)
mutilated , crippled , injured , imperfect TS. ii , 5 , 1 , 7; low , dwarfish L.; mn. a large number
(either 10 , 000 , 000 , 000 [ L. ],or 37 cyphers preceded by 1 R. vi , 4 , 59); m. N. of one of the
nine त्रनत्रधs or treasures of कुर्ेर L. (वालखखल्या are also dwarfs; (°ल्य् /अ) pl. N. of a class
of ऋत्रषs of the size of a thumb (sixty thousand were produced from ब्रह्मा's body and surround the
chariot of the sun) TA1r. MBh. Ka1v. &c. They are comparable to गण [p= 343,1] certain troops

of demi-gods considered as त्रशव's attendants and under the special superintendence of the
god गर्े *श ; cf. -दे वता) Mn. Ya1jn5. Lalit. &c; m. a flock , troop , multitude , number , tribe ,
series , class (of animate or inanimate beings) , body of followers or attendants RV. AV. &c. गर्ाः
gaṇḥ [गर्् कमणत्रर् कतणरर वा अच् ] 1 A flock, multitude, group, troop, collection; गुत्रर्गर्गर्ना,
भगर्ाः -2 A series, a class. -3 A body of followers or attendants. -4 Particularly, a troop of
demigods considered as Śiva's attendants and under the special superintendence of Gaṇeśa, a
demigod of this troop; गर्ानाों त्वा गर्पत्रतों हवामहे कत्रवों कवीनाम् &c.; गणानमेरुप्रसवावतोंसााः
Ku.1.55,7.4,71; Me.35.57; Ki.5.13. -5 Any assemblage or society of men formed for the
attainment of the same objects. -6 A company, association. -7 A tribe, class.
In Atharva Veda stambha is a celestial scaffold, supporting the cosmos and material creation.
of.html Full text of Atharva Veda ( X - 7,8) --- Stambha Suktam with translation (with variant
pronunciation as skambha). See Annex A List of occurrences of gloss in Atharva Veda.

[0800605] The black and hairy Asura, and Stambaja and Tundika, Arayas from
this girl we drive, from bosom, waist, and parts below.

Archaeological finds: cylindrical stele in Kalibangan, a pair of polished stone pillars in

Dholavira, s'ivalinga in Harappa, Kalibangan

यत्रि 1 [p=840,3] f. (for 2. » [p= 848,3]) sacrificing Pa1n2. 3-3 ,

110 Sch. (prob. w.r. for इत्रि).यत्रि 2 [p=848,3]n. (only L. )or f. (also यिी cf. g. र्ह्व्-ाात्रद ; prob. fr.
√ यि् = यम् ; for 1. यत्रि » [p=840,3]) " any support " , a staff , stick , wand , rod , mace , club ,
cudgel; pole , pillar , perch S3Br. &c; a flag-staff (» ध्वज-य् °; a stalk , stem , branch ,
twig Hariv. Ka1v.

ஈட்டி īṭṭi, n. cf. yaṣṭi. [T. īṭe, K. īṭi, M. īṭṭi.] 1. Lance, spear, pike; குந்தம் . செறியிலை
யீட்டியும் (பரிபா. 5, 66). 2. Black wood. See ததாதகத்தி. (L.)

इत्रि 1 [p=169,1] f. impulse , acceleration , hurry; despatch RV.f. seeking , going

after RV.f. sacrificing , sacrifice.

ఇటిక (p. 0134) [ iṭika ] or ఇటికె or ఇటుక iṭika. [Tel.] n. Brick. ఇటికెలు
కోయు or ఇటుకచేయు to make bricks. వెయ్యి య్యటుక కాల్చి రి they burnt 1000
bricks. ఇష్కట (p. 0141) [ iṣṭaka ] ishṭaka. [Skt. derived from ఇటుక.] n. A brick. ఇటుక
రాయ్య.इिका [p= 169,3] f. a brick in general; a brick used in building the sacrificial
altar VS. AitBr. S3Br. Ka1tyS3r.Mr2icch. &c (Monier-Williams); iṣṭakā इिका [इष् -तकन् टाप्
Uṇ.3.148] 1 A brick; Mk.3. -2 A brick used in preparing the sacrificial altar &c. ल कात्रदमत्रनों
तमुवाच तस्मै या इिकी यावतावाण यिा वा Kaṭh.1.15. -Comp. -गृहम् a brick-house. -चयनम् collecting
fire by means of a brick. -त्रचत a. made of bricks; Dk.84; also इिकत्रचत; cf. P.VI.3.35. -

न्यासाः laying the founda- tion of a house. -पिाः a road made of bricks. -मािा size of the bricks. -
रात्रशाः a pile of bricks.इत्रिका iṣṭikā इत्रिका A brick &c.; see इिका. (Apte. Samskritam) íṣṭakā f.
ʻ brick ʼ VS., iṣṭikā -- f. MBh., iṣṭā -- f. BHSk. [Av. ištya -- n. Mayrhofer EWA i 94 and 557
with lit. <-> Pk. has disyllabic iṭṭā -- and no aspiration like most Ind. lggs.]
Pa. iṭṭhakā -- f. ʻ burnt brick ʼ, Pk. iṭṭagā -- , iṭṭā -- f.; Kho. uṣṭū ʻ sun -- dried brick, large clod of
earth ʼ (→ Phal.iṣṭūˊ m. NOPhal 27); L. iṭṭ, pl. iṭṭã f. ʻ brick ʼ, P. iṭṭ f., N. ĩṭ, A. iṭā, B. iṭ, ĩṭ,
Or. iṭā, Bi. ī˜ṭ, ī˜ṭā, Mth. ī˜ṭā, Bhoj.ī˜ṭi, H. ī˜ṭh, īṭ, ī˜ṭ, īṭā f., G. ĩṭi f., M. īṭ, vīṭ f., Ko. īṭ f. -- Deriv.
Pk. iṭṭāla -- n. ʻ piece of brick ʼ; B. iṭāl, °al ʻ brick ʼ, M. iṭhāḷ f. ʻ a piece of brick heated red over
which buttermilk is poured to be flavoured ʼ. -- Si. uḷu ʻ tile ʼ seeuṭa -- .
*iṣṭakālaya -- .Addenda: íṣṭakā -- : S.kcch. eṭṭ f. ʻ brick ʼ, Garh. ī˜ṭ; -- Md. īṭ ʻ tile ʼ ← Ind. (cf. H.
M. īṭ).*iṣṭakālaya ʻ brick -- mould ʼ. [íṣṭakā -- , ālaya -- ]
M. iṭāḷẽ n. (CDIAL 1600, 1601)
shrI-sUktam of Rigveda explains the purport of the yaSTi to signify a baton of divine authority:
ArdrAm yaHkariNIm yaShTim suvarNAm padmamAlinIm |

sUryAm hiraNmayIm lakSmIm jAtavedo ma Avaha || 14

Trans. Oh, Ritual-fire, I pray you to invite shrI-devi to me, an alter-ego of everyone, who makes
the environ holy let alone worship-environ, wielder of a baton symbolizing divine authority,
brilliant in her hue, adorned with golden garlands, motivator of everybody to their respective
duties like dawning sun, and who is manifestly self-resplendent in her mien.

Indus Script Corpora and archaeological excavations of 'fir-altars' provide evidence for
continuity of Vedic religion of fire-worship in many sites of Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization.

The metalwork catalogues of deciphered Indus Script Corpora are consistent with the fire-altars
found in almost every single site of the civilization consistent with the documentation of yajna,
fire-worship, in ancient texts of the Veda. The continuity of Vedic religion, veneration of Ruda-
Siva among Bronze Age Bhāratam Janam, 'metalcaster folk' is firmly anchored.

kole.l signified 'smithy'. The same word kole.l also signified ' temple' (Kota)

In Hindu civilization tradition, yupa associated with smelter/furnace operations in fire-altars as

evidenced in Bijnor, Kalibangan, Lothal and in many yupa pillars of Rajasthan of the historical
periods, assume the aniconic form of linga venerated as Jyotirlinga, fierly pillars of light.
A 10th-century four-headed stone lingam (Mukhalinga) from Nepal. The 'mukha' or face on the
linga is a hieroglyph read rebus muh 'ingot'. Hieroglyph: mũh 'face' (Hindi) rebus: mũhe 'ingot'
(Santali) mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the
Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at
each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little
pointed at each of four ends; kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt ko mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day
produced pig iron (Santali) muhA 'the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting
furnace' (Santali. Campbell)

"The worship of the lingam originated from the famous hymn in
the Atharva-Veda Samhitâ sung in praise of the Yupa-Skambha, the
sacrificial post. In that hymn, a description is found of the
beginningless and endless Stambha or Skambha, and it is shown
that the said Skambha is put in place of the eternal Brahman. Just
as the Yajna (sacrificial) fire, its smoke, ashes, and flames,
the Soma , and the ox that used to carry on its back the wood for
the Vedic sacrifice gave place to the conceptions of the brightness
of Shiva's body, his tawny matted hair, his blue throat, and the
riding on the bull of the Shiva, the Yupa-Skambha gave place in
time to the Shiva-Linga. In the text Linga Purana, the same hymn
is expanded in the shape of stories, meant to establish the glory of
the great Stambha and the superiority of Shiva as
Mahadeva. Jyotirlinga means "The Radiant sign of The Almighty".
The Jyotirlingas are mentioned in the Shiva

Sources: Harding, Elizabeth U. (1998). "God, the Father". Kali: The Black Goddess of
Dakshineswar. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 156–157

Vivekananda, Swami. "The Paris Congress of the History of Religions" The Complete Works of
Swami Vivekananda 4.

Kubera. Northern India. 10th century.
Sandstone. San Antonio Museum of Art[quote] Kubera, in Hindu mythology, the king of
the yakshas (nature spirits) and the god of wealth. He is associated with the earth, mountains, all
treasures such as minerals and jewels that lie underground, and riches in general. According to
most accounts, he first lived in Lanka (Sri Lanka), but his palace was taken away from him by
his half brother, Ravana, and he now resides in a beautiful mountain residence near the
god Shiva’s home on Mount Kailasa, where he is attended by all manner of demigods.

Kubera is the guardian of the north and is usually depicted as a dwarfish figure with a large
paunch, holding a money bag or a pomegranate, sometimes riding on a man. Also known as
Vaishravana and Jambhala, he is a popular figure in Buddhist and Jain mythology as well. In
Buddhist sculptures he is often shown accompanied by a mongoose. [unquote]