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PIR SENSOR BASED TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL

SYSTEM

Kaveri S Mrs J. Aarthy Suganthi Kani


Department of Electronics and Asst. Professor
Communication Engineering Department of Electronics and
T. John Institute of Technology Communication Engineering
Bangalore, India T. John Institute of Technology
Bangalore, India

Abstract- The congestion of the urban stop, Yellow for wait and Green for go.
traffic is becoming one of critical issues People are made to wait for the signal to
with increasing population and change from red to yellow and then from
automobiles in cities. Traffic jams not yellow to green. Traffic congestion can also
only cause extra delay and stress for the be caused by red light delays etc. The traffic
drivers, but also increase fuel signals are pre-programmed. It is
consumption, add transportation cost, independent of the traffic density on the
and increase carbon dioxide air pollution. roads. The traditional systems are not
The traffic controller is one of the critical applicable in real-time process. The
factors affecting the traffic flow. The concept of smart traffic light control system
conventional traffic patterns are with improved sensors and computing and
nonlinear and complex and time networking technology can be used to
dependent rather than traffic dependent. manage traffic flows. This is done by the
This paper proposes a traffic control use of IoT.
system based on an autonomous traffic Internet of Things (IoT) is the connectivity
light system, with traffic-based timing for of physical devices such as sensors and
improving traffic flow efficiency in urban actuators with a unique identifier to allow
roads. The importance of changing light remote access to objects and automation in
timing lengths of current traffic lights to application domains like healthcare,
timing lengths that vary depending on the transportation, surveillance, and energy
number of vehicles in the avenues is conservation. In this project, IoT is used to
described. It also helps to constantly store and analyse the number of vehicles
update these times of automatic way in. that pass the traffic light in particular time
To achieve this, an IoT system based on interval.
the Raspberry Pi platform and PIR
sensor along with RGB LEDs is designed. II. Working and Methodology
The proposed system consists of a PIR
Keywords- IoT, Raspberry Pi, PIR sensor associated with each traffic light
Sensor, RGB LED. junction. The signal from the sensor is
received by the Raspberry Pi module which
I. Introduction is programmed to produce PWM signals
The concept of smart roads integrates based on the intensity of the signal it
advanced control algorithms, improved receives from the sensor. It produces 3
sensors and computing and networking different PWM signals associated with 3
technology to predict and manage traffic different colours red, green and yellow
flows. A smart road can improve travel respectively. These LEDs along with red
time, road safety and reduce traffic LEDs are mounted on a PCB. Each RGB
congestions. The traffic lights that are used LED is connected through a 330 resistor to
nowadays comprise of three lights: Red for control the flow of current into the LEDs.
All the LEDs in common are connected to a III. Result
single GPIO pin of the microcontroller to The operation was tested with two traffic
power on. The working is as follows: lights that communicate with each other
connected to the same network either by
ethernet cable or with a wifi module. When
the traffic light 1, in red, detects the arrival
of a vehicle through the PIR sensor, it sends
a message to the traffic light 2, in green,
indicating that it finishes its time and goes to
yellow to later be red, while the traffic light
1 starts a countdown through the array of
LEDs and the indicator of the red LED bar.
Upon ending the red light of traffic light 1, it
sends another message to traffic light 2 to
tell it to turn yellow and then red, while
traffic light 1 turns green, with the
Figure 1: Block Diagram
respective delays necessary to avoid
 Initially, the traffic light operates like any accidents. All of these times can be
other traffic light, with usual fixed times for configured by programming in Python
each state. according to the needs of each intersection.
 At an intersection of two traffic lights, both
are constantly communicating with each
other as they are connected to the same IV. Conclusion
network. This paper can be used as a foundation for
a larger project involving total traffic control
 Each traffic light receives information from
automation using the intelligent traffic
the corresponding PIR sensors, during the
lights. This prototype can be enhanced with
normal operation of the traffic light.
more functions and improved over time to
 When the PIR Sensor of a traffic light
meet traffic demands. Some of the functions
captures a vehicle, it transmits a message to
which can be added in future to this project
the other traffic light, making it change its
are:
state to red.
 The vehicle counting by artificial vision
 The traffic light that captured the car and
with Raspberry Pi and Open CV.
sent the message, proceeds to change its
 Detection of vehicle plates.
state to green.
 Detection of vehicle speeds and sending
 Each traffic light has a minimum duration of
data obtained by traffic lights to the cloud.
green state, that is, if the other traffic light
receives a vehicle through its way, but the
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