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Dr.

Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Thermodynamic Principles 5


1.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics 6
1.2 Cycle of Steam Power Plants 8
1.2.1 Simple Rankine Cycles 9
1.2.2 Regenerative Rankine Cycles 13
1.3 Turbine Expansion Lines 22
1.3.1 T-s and h-s Diagrams 22
1.3.2 Turbine Efficiency 24
1.3.3 Turbine Configuration 26
1.3.4. Part Load Operation 28

Chapter 2: Steam Turbine Components 32


2.1 Steam Turbine Theory 33
2.1.1 Impulse Principle 33
2.1.2 Reaction Principle 33
2.2 Steam Flow through the Turbine 36
2.2.1 Radial Flow 36
2.2.2 Axial Flow 37
2.3 Turbine Classification 37
2.3.1 According to Steam Flow 37
2.3.2 According to Steam Pressure 39
2.3.3 According to Condensing /Non-Condensing 40
2.3.4 According to Physical Arrangement 41
2.4 Turbine Cylinders 44
2.4.1 Double Shell H.P Casing 44
2.4.2 Intermediate Pressure (IP) Cylinders 49
2.4.3 Low-Pressure (LP) Cylinder and Exhaust 51
2.5 Turbine Rotor 53
2.5.1 Solid Forged Rotor 53
2.5.2 Disc Rotor 54
2.5.3 Welded Rotor 55
2.6 Turbine Blades 57
2.6.1 Impulse Type Blading 58
2.6.2 Reaction Type Blading 60
2.6.3 Velocity Compounded Stage 66
2.6.4 Degree of Reaction 68
2.6.5 Twisted Blades 70
2.6.6 Blade Fixing in the Rotor 71
2.6.7 Blades Sealing 77

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Table of Contents-cont.
Chapter 3: Steam Turbine Accessories 80
3.1 Turbine Bearing 81
3.1.1 Journal Bearing.. 82
3.1.2 Thrust Bearing 85
3.2 Lubrication System 87
3.3 Couplings 89
3.3.1 Flexible Coupling 89
3.3.2 Solid Coupling 91
3.4 Shaft Gland Seal 93
3.5 Gland Exhaust System 101

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3.6 Turning Gear

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Chapter 4: Steam Turbine Valves and Controls 107
4.1 Turbine Governing System fo 108
4.2 Steam Chest Arrangements and Construction 109
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4.3 Turbine Controls 112
4.3.1 Turbine Control Valves 112
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4.3.2 Hydraulic Actuators 115


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4.4 Turbine Instrumentation 117


4.4.1 Supervisory Instrumentation 117
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4.4.2 Efficiency Instrumentation .. 118


4.5 Turbine Protection 119
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4.5.1 Possible Hazards 119


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4.5.2 Protection Scheme 121


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4.5.3 Over-speed Trip 122


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Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines


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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Chapter 1:

Thermodynamic

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Principles
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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

The design, operation, and performance of electricity-generating power


plants are based on thermodynamic principles.

1.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics is the law of conservation of energy. It


states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. The energy of a
system undergoing change (process) can vary by exchange with the
surroundings. However, energy can be converted from one form to
another within that system.

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A system is a specified region, not necessarily of constant volume or
fixed boundaries, where transfer and conversions of energy and mass are

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taking place. An open system is one where energy and mass cross the
fo
boundaries of the system. A steady-state open system, also called the
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steady-state, steady-flow (SSSF) system, is a system where mass and
rs

energy flows across its boundaries do not vary with time, and the mass
within the system remains constant.
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An SSSF system is shown in Fig. 1.1.


The first-law equation for that system is
//
s:

PE, + KE, + IE, + FE, + A£> = PE, + KE, + IE, + FE + AU'


; M

Where
tp

PE = potential energy [mzg, where m mass of quantity of fluid


ht

entering and leaving the system, z elevation of station 1 or 2 above


a datum, g gravitational acceleration].
2
KE = kinetic energy (mV /2g), where V is the velocity of the mass.
IE = internal energy (U). The internal energy is a function of
temperature for perfect gases and a strong function of temperature
and weak function of pressure for non-perfect gases, vapors, and
liquids. It is a measure of the internal (molecular) activity and
interaction of the fluid.
FE = flow energy (PV = Pmv). The flow energy or flow work is the
work done by the flowing fluid to push a mass m into or out of
the system.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

AQ = net heat added [Q - Q J , where Q = heat added and Q =


A A R

heat rejected across system boundaries; Q = mc (T _ Tj), where


n 2

c = specific heat that depends upon the process taking place


n

between 1 and 2. Values of c vary with the process (refer to Table


n

AW = net steady-flow mechanical work done by the system [W -


sf b

W ] , where W is the work done by system (positive) and W is


on by on

work done on system (negative)].

Figure 1.1: Schematic of a steady system with one inlet and one outlet

T A B L E 1.1: Values of c and n for Various Processes


n

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

A relationship between P and V is required. The most general


relationship is given by

Where n is called the polytropic exponent. It varies between zero and


infinity. Its value for certain processes is given in Table 1.1. The first-law
equation becomes

1.2 Cycle of Steam Power Plants

The Carnot cycle is an idealistic thermodynamic cycle based on the laws


of thermodynamics. It indicates the maximum efficiency of a heat
engine when operating between given temperatures of heat acceptance
and heat rejection. The Rankine cycle is also an idealistic cycle operating
between two temperature limits but it is based on the principle of
receiving heat by evaporation and rejecting heat by condensation. The
working fluid is water-steam. In steam driven thermal power plants this
basic cycle is modified by incorporating superheating and reheating to
improve the performance of the turbine. The Rankine cycle with its
modifications represents the best efficiency that can be obtained from
this^ two phase thermodynamic cycle when operating under given
temperature limits but its efficiency is less than that of the Carnot cycle
since some heat is added at a lower temperature.

The efficiency of the Rankine cycle can be improved by regenerative


feedwater heating where some steam is taken from the turbine during
the expansion process and used to preheat the feedwater before it is
evaporated in the boiler.

Departures from the ideal situation described above are due to fluid
friction in the system, particularly the turbine, and heat transfer across
finite temperature differences in the feedwater heaters. These degrade
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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

the efficiency below that indicated by idealistic calculations based on the


Rankine cycle. Friction in the turbine can be defined in terms of the
actual work done and the ideal work that could be done in the turbine if
there were no friction. This is known as the internal efficiency of the
turbine and should not be confused with the thermal cycle efficiency.

Under part load conditions the steam entering the turbine is partially
throttled to reduce its flow. This has an effect on the expansion of the
steam in the turbine and ultimately on the power output per unit mass of
steam and hence the overall cycle efficiency.

1.2.1 Simple Rankine Cycles

The Rankine Cycle is conveniently illustrated on a T-s Diagram as


shown in Figure 1.1. This figure shows a simple Saturated Cycle starting
at Point 1. Water at low-pressure is pumped into the boiler at high
pressure by a pump. In the ideal case the process from Point 1 to Point
2 is isentropic (reversible adiabatic). The water in the boiler is heated to
saturation conditions and steam generated. The process from Point 2 to
Point 3 is isobaric and that from Point 3 to Point 4 isobaric and
isothermal. The steam then passes through the turbine from high
pressure to low pressure and produces work. The expansion process in
the turbine from Point 4 to Point 5 is isentropic. The exhaust steam is
condensed in a condenser by cooling water, which receives the reject
heat. Condensation from Point 5 back to Point 1 is an isobaric and
isothermal process. An important feature of this cycle is that Point 5 lies
well inside the saturated water-steam mixture zone of the T-s diagram.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 1.1: Saturated Rankine cycle

If the work input by the pump is , the heat input by the boiler
and the work output of the turbine then the efficiency of the cycle
is given by:

This can be expressed in terms of the enthalpy h at each point in the


cycle as follows:

In the Saturated Cycle it is evident that the steam becomes progressively


wetter as it expands through the turbine with the exhaust being
excessively wet. This undesirable feature can be rninimised by
superheating the steam prior to entering the turbine. Figure 2 shows a
Superheated Cycle.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 1.2: Superheated Rankine cycle

The initial points are the same but additional heat is added to the
saturated steam to make it superheated. This process from Point 4 to
Point 6 is isobaric. Point 6 is further to the right of the T-s Diagram
than Point 4 was previously. Subsequent isentropic expansion in the
turbine from Point 6 to Point 7 results in less moisture in the steam at
the turbine exhaust. The efficiency of this cycle is again given by:

In terms of the enthalpy at each point this is:

In addition to the improved conditions at the turbine exhaust the overall


cycle efficiency is improved since the average temperature of heat
addition to the cycle has been increased.

At high steam pressures the limiting steam temperature may still result in
steam conditions too far towards the left of the T-s Diagram. This
results in the turbine exhaust steam wetness still being too great. This
can be overcome by reheating the steam after part expansion in the
turbine. The resulting Superheated-Reheated Cycle is shown in Figure
1.3.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Although this cycle is usually used at high pressures the basic conditions
in the figure are similar to those given previously for clarity and the
process up to Point 6 is as before. Steam expands partially in a high-
pressure (HP) turbine from Point 6 to Point 8. It is then returned to the
steam-generating unit for reheating to Point 9. It expands fully to Point
10 in a low-pressure (LP) turbine. Point 10 is further to the left of the T-
s Diagram than Point 7 previously thus demonstrating the reduction in
exhaust steam wetness.

The efficiency of the cycle is now given by:

a n
^HPturbbe d ^tpturbine is the work done in the high-pressure turbine and
a n
low-pressure turbine respectively and q h e t d q heat is the heat added
super a re

in producing superheated steam and reheated steam respectively. In


terms of the enthalpy at each point this is:

Figure 1.3: Superheated-reheated Rankine cycle

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

The overall efficiency of the cycle is further improved since the average
temperature of heat addition to the cycle has been increased again. The
main purpose however is to reduce the wetness of the exhaust steam. A
third important advantage of reheating is the increased work done per
unit mass of steam. This partially compensates for the increased
complexity of the plant, as less fluid has to be circulated for a given
output.

1.2.2 Regenerative Rankine Cycles

The principle of feedwater heating cycles is to extract some steam from


the turbine after it has done some work and to use its remaining heat to
preheat the feedwater returning to the boiler. Since the preheating is
done with lower grade heat than would be the case in the boiler the
overall efficiency of the system is improved even though some work is
reduced in the turbine. The overall cycle efficiency is still the net work
output divided by the total heat input. In calculating the cycle efficiency
however the separate steam flows to the heaters must first be
determined since these will affect the main steam flow through the
turbine.

The idealistic regenerative feedwater heating system is shown in Figure


4. The basic Rankine Cycle is DGHBC with Q being HBEFG and W
m out

being HBCDG. If, instead of heating the water in the boiler from G to
H, steam is extracted from the turbine, as it does work, to heat the water
to saturation, some improvement in efficiency can be obtained.

The neat added to the water q is represented by GHKF (area under


GH). This heat q is obtained from the steam extracted from the turbine
during expansion from B and is represented by BEJM (same area as
GHKF). The result is that Q from the steam generator is now HBEK
in

(area under HB) and W by the turbine is HBCDG minus BCNM,


out

which is H B M N D G . Less heat is put in by the boiler and the turbine


produces less work. How is the efficiency changed? Inspection of the
diagram will show that H B M N D G is equal to HBCL.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 1.4: Regenerative saturated Rankine cycle

The efficiency rj is dien H B C L / H B E K which is equal to the Carnot


Efficiency for the given temperature limits. It was shown previously that
the Rankine Cycle efficiency is always less than the Carnot Cycle
efficiency for given temperature limits.

Regenerative feedwater heating therefore allows the Rankine Cycle


efficiency to be improved and, in the ideal case, to equal the Carnot
Cycle efficiency. This can only be done with an infinite number of
heaters. Practical constraints however limit the number of heaters
between six and eight.

A saturated cycle making use of one feedwater heater is shown in Figure


1.5. This heater is a direct contact or open heater in which the hot steam
and cold water are intimately mixed with the steam being fully
condensed. The fraction of extraction steam required to heat the
feedwater to the required temperature is m. A heat balance on the heater
enables the value of m to be calculated for given steam and water

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

conditions at the heater boundaries. The heat lost by the extraction


steam is equal to the heat gained by the feedwater whose fraction is (1 -
m).

For known values of enthalpy h the value of the extraction steam


fraction m can be calculated. Note that the combined flow is again equal
to unity after mixing in the heater. The efficiency of the cycle is given by:

Figure 1.5: Open or direct contact feedwater heating system

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 1.6 shows a similar cycle with again one feedwater heater. This
heater however is a surface or closed heater in which the hot steam
flows over the outside of tubes carrying the cold water. In condensing
the steam gives up its heat to the water. The fraction of extraction steam
required is again m. A heat balance in which the heat lost by the steam is
equal to the heat gained by the feedwater is:

Figure 1.6: Closed or surface feedwater heater system

The efficiency of this cycle is given by:

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

7 = [ { l ( h - h ) + (1 - m)(h - h )} - { l ( h - hO}] / [l(h - h )]


5 6 6 7 2 5 3

The condensed extraction steam is drained from the heater to the


condenser via an orifice or control valve. This process from Point 8 to
Point 9 is an isenthalpic process with no change in enthalpy as shown on
the T-s diagram in Figure 1.6.

Figure 1.7: Efficiency gain with feedwater heaters

The feedwater increases in temperature progressively with each stage of


feedwater heating. These increases in temperature are approximately
equal for each stage and this determines the pressure at which the steam
should be extracted from the turbine. Each heater added to the system
improves the efficiency but by a lesser amount as shown in Figure 1.7.
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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

In the case illustrated one heater gives about a 5% increase in cycle


efficiency whereas the second heater improves the cycle efficiency only
by about 3%. With a large number of heaters the maximum
improvement is about 10%. Since the curve is asymtotic there is a
limiting point beyond which the slight improvement in efficiency will
not offset the step increase in capital cost of an additional heater.
Depending upon the temperature range, the optimum number of heaters
in a plant is in the range of six to eight.

A simplified feedwater heating arrangement is shown in Figure 1.8. This


arrangement illustrates a feedwater system with two low-pressure surface
heaters taking extraction steam from the low-pressure turbine, a direct
contact heater using some exhaust steam from the high-pressure turbine
and one high pressure surface heater taking steam from the high-
pressure turbine. Because of the direct contact heater operating at an
intermediate pressure, two pumps, a condensate pump and a feedwater
pump, are required to return the water to the boiler.

The direct contact heater usually has associated with it a condensate


deaerating system and a condensate storage tank. This serves to
eliminate dissolved air (oxygen) from the system and to provide a
reserve of hot water for the steam generating system.

The efficiency of such a system can be determined using formulae


similar to those derived above if the extraction steam flow rates m, n, p
and q to each heater are known. In order to determine these flow rates
heat balance equations similar to those given above are required for each
heater. This will give four equations and four unknowns. Inspection will
indicate that the equation for the highest pressure heater should be
solved first since the condensed steam from each surface heater is
cascaded down to the next lower pressure heater. This philosophy can
be applied to any configuration.

In the ideal case the feedwater enters the heater at the same temperature
as the condensate leaving while the feedwater leaves the heater at the
same temperature as the steam entering. In reality there is a finite
terminal temperature difference at both the inlet and oudet of each
heater. Actual heaters usually have internal drain (condensate) coolers

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

and, if superheated extraction steam is used, internal desuperheaters as


well, to obtain small terminal temperature differences. A diagram of
such a heater is shown in Figure 1.9.

Figure 1.8: Simplified fossil fueled plant feedwater heating system

Feedwater Inlet
Drain Outlet

Figure 1.9: Feedwater heater with desuperheater and drain cooler


Turbines receiving saturated steam from water-cooled nuclear reactors
have moisture separators and reheaters between the high pressure and
low-pressure turbines. The steam pressure prevailing at this point in the

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

steam cycle is relatively low and the steam specific volume


correspondingly high. A small portion of the high-pressure steam is used
as the heating medium in the reheater.

In determining the efficiency of a turbine with a low-pressure separator-


reheater the heating steam and heated steam flow rates must be
determined. Figure 1.8 shows a simplified system for reheating. One
feedwater heater is included in this simplified system at an appropriate
point to receive the separated water from the separator and the
condensed steam from the reheater.

As in the previous analysis, the flow rates of the heating steam r and of
the extraction steam n can be obtained from a heat balance on the
reheater and feedwater heater respectively. The separated water flow rate
s is simply the water fraction of the steam at the turbine exhaust. Note
that the extraction steam carries with it a certain water fraction but this
is not separated. If the steam quality at the high-pressure turbine exhaust
is x then the moisture fraction m is equal to (1 - x). The drain flows
from the separator will then be given by:

A heat balance on the reheater will give the following equation:

Similarly a heat balance on the feedwater heater will give:

If m is known from the high-pressure turbine exhaust conditions then


the three flow rates n, r and s can be determined from the three
equations. Once the fractional flow rates are known the steam cycle
efficiency can be calculated in the previously defined way taking into
account the flow rates through the high-pressure turbine (1 - r) and
through the low-pressure turbine (1 - n - r - s).
Normally turbines supplied with saturated steam have multiple
feedwater heaters. Figure 1.10 shows a simplified arrangement of a
typical nuclear plant. This should be compared with a typical fossil plant

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

as illustrated in Figure 1.8. In both cases a real plant would have more
heaters to increase cycle efficiency. The efficiency can be determined by
first calculating the flows to each heater as in the examples for
conventional fossil fuel fired plants.

Figure 1.10: Separator and reheater with feedwater heater system

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 1.14 Simplified nuclear fueled plant feedwater heating system

1.3 Turbine Expansion Lines

1.3.1 T-s and h-s Diagrams

The T-s Diagram is useful since the vertical axis is in a conveniently


measured and understood parameter namely temperature. Area on the
diagram is in units of heat or energy (kj/kg) so that the area enclosed by
a thermodynamic cycle plotted on the diagram represents the amount of
energy transferred by the cycle. When dealing with work produced in a
turbine however it is convenient to use enthalpy as a prime parameter
and to plot this on one axis. Change in enthalpy represents the amount
of work done by the turbine. Change in entropy however is a measure of
the irreversibilities in a process. Irreversibilities in a turbine are due to
fluid friction effects and represent a loss of energy. Thus entropy is a
useful parameter in measuring the efficiency of the turbine.

The h-s Diagram is widely used to illustrate the processes in steam


turbines. It is in fact a skewed T-s Diagram as illustrated in figure 1.12,
which shows lines of various properties for both diagrams. Note how
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Dr. Hesham EI-Batsh, Steam Turbines

the bell shaped saturation line in the T-s Diagram becomes almost two
lines at right angles to one another with the right side line almost
horizontal. For steam turbines only part of the diagram is of interest.
This part is shown within the dotted lines of the figure and is commonly
known as the Mollier Diagram or Mollier Chart.

Figure 1.12: Temperature-entropy and enthalpy-entropy diagrams

1.3.2 Turbine Efficiency


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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Turbine Internal Efficiency, not to be confused with Steam Cycle


Efficiency, is well illustrated on a Mollier Diagram as shown in Figure
1.13. This figure shows the ideal expansion of steam in a turbine from
pressure p and temperature t in the superheated steam zone to a
t A

pressure p and corresponding saturation temperature in the saturated


2

water-steam mixture zone. At Point 1 the enthalpy is h and at Point 2 it


t

is h . The work done by the turbine is equal to the change in enthalpy


2

This is the ideal case with no irreversibilities due to


fluid friction and hence no increase in entropy.

In reality however fluid friction due to turbulence and surface effects of


the high velocity steam passing over the blades causes frictional heating
within the fluid. This can be viewed initially as a separate process
following the ideal expansion process. If the steam at Point 2 is heated
without any change in the other parameters it will increase in enthalpy
and entropy to Point 3 on the same constant pressure line as Point 2.
Thus If there is frictional heating
following the ideal expansion the final steam conditions are represented
by Point 3 with Point 2 as an intermediate step.

The frictional heating however occurs continuously throughout the


expansion. If the ideal expansion is divided into an infinite number of
steps followed immediately by an infinitesimal amount of frictional
heating the expansion path of the steam will be directly from Point 1 to
Point 3. This is the actual expansion line of the turbine for the real case
with fluid friction.

The work done by the turbine is equal to the change in enthalpy

and the irreversible loss is represented by

The internal efficiency of the turbine is defined as follows:

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Modern steam turbines of similar size and type have very consistent
internal efficiencies usually above 80%. If the turbine steam inlet
conditions and turbine internal efficiency are known then the turbine
exhaust conditions can be determined using the above equation for
efficiency.

Figure 1.13: Effect of turbine internal efficiency

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

1.3.3 Turbine Configuration

Certain constraints govern the configuration of large steam turbines.


The two most important constraints are increase in steam specific
volume and magnitude of exhaust steam wetness. As steam passes
through the turbine from high pressure to low pressure it expands and
increases its specific volume by a factor of several hundred. Provision
must be made to increase the flow area of the steam path. This is done
by progressively increasing the lengths of the blades in the turbine and
by dividing the steam flow into multiple parallel paths. Thus a turbine
may have one high-pressure turbine and three low-pressure turbines.
Also on large turbines it is common to have double flow cylinders such
that the steam enters at the centre of each turbine and flows outwards to
two exhausts at the ends.

The arrangement is also constrained by the characteristics of the steam


as indicated from a Mollier Diagram. Steam temperature at the turbine is
limited to about 540C (1000 F) due to metallurgical limits of the boiler
materials, which can only sustain temperatures slightly higher than this.
It is desirable to have heat added to the cycle at high temperature and
therefore most steam cycles are designed to these limits. Increasing the
pressure of the cycle and hence the temperature of evaporation increases
the average temperature at which heat is added to the cycle and hence
die cycle efficiency.

Increasing the pressure beyond the critical point of steam results in


supercritical conditions in which the densities of water and steam are the
same at any particular temperature. A feature of supercritical operation is
that it permits double reheat of the steam due to the shift to the left on a
Mollier diagram and this further increases the average temperature at
which heat is added to the cycle.

Figure 14 shows the turbine expansion lines for different applications


namely supercritical (24 MPa), superheated (16 MPa) and saturated (6
MPa) plotted on a Mollier chart. A combined flow diagram for the same
applications is shown in Figure 1.15. It is evident that the potential exists
for a buuding block type of construction for different applications. This

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Dr. Hesham EI-Batsh, Steam Turbines

is exactly what most manufacturers do and each major component is


made in a few standard sizes. Fitting these together in an appropriate
manner will give a turbine of die desired capacity for a specified
application. A wide range of combinations is possible but the same
principles related to steam conditions always apply.

Figure 1.14: Turbine expansion lines for different applications

Reference to the example in Figure 1.15 shows that, for fossil fired
boiler applications, the high-pressure cylinder is single flow and the
intermediate-pressure cylinder double flow while the two low-pressure
cylinders have a total of four flows to accommodate the increasing
steam specific volume. Water-cooled reactors however are limited by the
pressure of the reactor coolant and cannot produce steam at
temperatures higher than that of the reactor coolant. The lower-pressure

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

steam produced by these reactors results in a high-pressure turbine that


is physically similar to the intermediate pressure turbine of a fossil fired
plant.

Figure 1.15: Turbine configurations for different applications

1.3.4. Part Load Operation

Most large steam turbines operate continuously at near full load


conditions but consideration must be given to part load operation,
which is required to meet the electrical grid system requirements. What
effect does part load operation have on the turbine expansion line?

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Work done in a turbine is determined from the enthalpy drop Ah of the


steam from inlet to exhaust. Power P is the rate of doing work or work
per unit time and is given by the following equation

Where M is the mass flow rate of the steam. In order to reduce power
the obvious procedure is to reduce or throtde the steam flow by means
of a governing valve until the desired power output is obtained.
Throttling increases the pressure drop across the valve and hence
decreases the pressure immediately downstream of the valve. During
this process no heat or work transfer takes place and the enthalpy
remains constant. This constant enthalpy process is a horizontal line on
the h-s or Mollier Diagram as shown in Figure 1.16. Steam entering the
turbine is therefore at the same enthalpy but at a reduced pressure. This
shifts the turbine expansion line to the right. The pressure of the steam
leaving the turbine remains the same but the enthalpy is increased and
the moisture reduced. Overall the mass flow m is reduced significandy
and the enthalpy drop Ah reduced slighdy. Both give a reduction in
turbine power P.

The turbine exhaust pressure is governed by conditions in the


condenser. At part load this pressure is essentially the same as at full
load. Provided the exhaust steam conditions remain within the saturated
mixture zone the temperature is also the same. If however throttling
shifts the turbine expansion line too far to the right, the turbine exhaust
conditions may enter the superheated zone. In this zone a shift to the
right produces a significant rise in temperature even though the pressure
remains constant. Excessive rise in steam temperature at the turbine
exhaust leads to thermal effects, which are just as undesirable as
excessive moisture in the exhaust steam. Selection of steam turbine
steam parameters is thus governed largely by the turbine exhaust
conditions.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 1.16: Effect of throttling on turbine expansion line

Figure 1.17: Relationship between steam pressure and steam flow and
turbine load

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Experimentally it has been demonstrated that there is an approximately


linear relationship between steam flow and steam pressure. This is
illustrated in Figure 1.17. Steam mass flow M through the turbine is
proportional to steam inlet pressure p over the whole range. This is a
particularly useful relationship in determining part load conditions. A
finite steam flow M is required to run the turbine at the full speed no
0

load condition. This is to overcome friction in the turbine bearings and


windage in the electrical generator. There is thus always a certain inlet
pressure, which is greater than the exhaust pressure and consequently a
certain enthalpy drop across the turbine under the full speed no load
condition. From the above, power output P is equal to the steam flow M
multiplied by the enthalpy drop Ah. Since both steam flow M and
enthalpy drop Ah are nearly proportional to steam inlet pressure p it
follows that the power output P is also almost proportional to steam
pressure provided a correction is made for the power required to
maintain the full speed no load condition. I f the value for the steam flow
at the no load condition is known, then an equation of M in terms of P
can be derived.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Chapter (2):

Steam Turbine
Components

32
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

2.1 Steam Turbine Theory

In a steam turbine, high-enthalpy (high pressure and temperature) steam


is expanded in the nozzles (stationary blades) where the kinetic energy is
increased at the expense of pressure energy (increase in velocity due to
decrease in pressure). The kinetic energy (high velocity) is converted into
mechanical energy (rotation of a shaft - increase of torque or speed) by
impulse and reaction principles. The impulse principle consists of
changing the momentum (mV) of the flow, which is directed to the
moving blades by the stationary blades. The jet's impulse force pushes
the moving blades forward. The reaction principle consists of a reaction
force on the moving blades due to acceleration of the flow as a result of
decreasing cross-sectional area.

2.1.1 Impulse Principle

Figure 2.1 illustrates a turbine with impulse blading. It has one velocity-
compounded stage (the velocity is absorbed in stages) and four pressure-
compounded stages. The velocity is reduced in two steps through the
first two rows of moving blades. In the moving blades, velocity
decreases while the pressure remains constant.

2.1.2 Reaction Principle

Figure 2.2 illustrates a reaction turbine. The reaction stages are preceded
by an initial velocity-compounded impulse stage where a large pressure
drop occurs. This results in a shorter and less expensive turbine.

33
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.1: Turbine with Impulse Blading


Dr. Hesham EI-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.2: Reaction turbine with one velocity-compounded impulse stage

35
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

2.2 Steam Flow through the Turbine

Steam turbines are mainly classified according to the predominant


direction for the steam through the turbine. Steam turbines are classified
as axial flow and radial flow. Almost without exception, modern large
steam turbines are of the axial flow type.

2.2.1 Radial Flow

In the radial flow turbines shown in figure 2.3, the steam is admitted to
the canter of the machine expanding outwards through two contra-
rotating rotor to the exhaust at the periphery.

Figure 2.3: Radial flow turbine

36
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

2.2.2 Axial Flow

Axial flow is the characteristics feature of modern steam turbines. They


are often classified in terms of direction of flow. The steam approaches
a group of stages at one end and flows axially through the radically
mounted blading and exhausts at the other end of the group of stages
(Figure 2.4).

Figure 2.4: Axial flow turbine

2.3 Turbine Classification

2.3.1 According to Steam Flow

The simplest configuration of blading is the single flow which is shown


in figure 2.5a.

Groups of stages within the turbine cylinder may be arranged for flow in
opposing axial directions. This arrangement is called double flow turbine
and is shown in figure 2.5b. The steam is admitted at the centre of the
cylinder and is divided to flow in opposite axial directions towards the
ends of the rotor. This arrangement is used to avoid the excessively long
blades which would be incurred by single flow arrangements. The
second benefit is that the double flow cylinder effectively reduces to
zero the axial thrust caused by the steam forces on the moving blades.

37
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Thrust reduction is the main target for the reversed flow cylinder (figure
2.5c). Steam flows in one direction through one group of stages and
then internally or externally reversed to flow through a second group of
stages in the opposite axial direction.

Another advantage of using reversed-flow turbine is the reduction in the


thickness of the turbine casing which is related to the operating pressure
inside the turbine. The thickness of the turbine casing is determined by
the pressure difference between the inside and the outside. This pressure
difference is decreased by using reversed flow turbines.

Figure 2.5: Flow direction in different types of turbines

38
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

2.3.2 According to Steam Pressure

Compound turbines have more than one cylinder: a high-pressure and a


low-pressure turbine. The low-pressure cylinder is usually of the double-
flow type to handle large volumes of low-pressure steam (due to
limitations on the length of the blades). Large plants may have an
intermediate pressure cylinder and up to four low-pressure cylinders.
The cylinders can be mounted along a single shaft (tandem-compound),
or in parallel groups with two or more shafts (cross-compound).
Reheating is usually done between the high- and intermediate-pressure
turbines. Figure 2.6 illustrates some of these arrangements.

Figure 2.6: Tandem-compound and cross-compound arrangements


39
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

2.3.3 According to Condensing /Non-Condensing

The two types of steam turbines are condensing and back-pressure (non-
condensing). Figure 2.7 illustrates these types and some of their sub-
classifications. Back-pressure turbines exhaust the steam at the pressure
required by the process. Automatic extraction turbines allow part of the
steam to be withdrawn at an intermediate stage (or stages) while the
remainder of the steam is exhausted to a condenser. These turbines
require special governors and valves to maintain constant pressure of the
extraction steam while the turbine load and extraction demand are
varying. Uncontrolled extraction turbines are used to supply steam to
feedwater heaters, since the pressure at the extraction points varies with
the turbine load.

Figure 2.7: Condensing and non-condensing turbines

40
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Many moderate-pressure plants have added high-pressure non-


condensing turbines to increase capacity and improve efficiency. High-
pressure boilers are added to supply steam to the non-condensing
turbines, which are designed to supply the steam to the original turbines.
These high-pressure turbines are called superposed, or topping, units.
Mixed-pressure turbines are designed to admit steam at low pressure and
expand it to a condenser. These units are used mainly in cogeneration
plants.

2.3.4 According to Physical Arrangement

Steam turbines up to between 40 and 60 MW rating are usually single-


cylinder machines. Larger units use multiple cylinders to extract the
energy from the steam.

Large turbines are made up of several cylinders coupled together and


driving a single generator. Typical units may have a high-pressure
cylinder, an intermediate pressure cylinder and two or three low-pressure
cylinders. These are designed to accommodate the increasing specific
volume of the steam as it expands down to sub-atmospheric pressures.
Provision is also made for steam quality improvement by reheating and
for the extraction of partially expanded steam for feedwater heating.
Steam conditions, particularly temperature, are limited by material
properties while pressures are often dictated by the steam supply system.
The result is that the governing parameters for turbine design are
generally fairly standard and most manufacturers design their turbines
within rather narrow Limits. Within these limits however there is scope
for alternative blading design such as impulse or reaction and specialised
mechanical solutions to accommodate high temperatures and pressures.

For turbine driving electrical generators, the limit of a single cylinder


turbine is around 100 M l W , depending on the design concept, the initial
steam condition, and the exhaust conditions.

For larger machines, multi-cylinder designs are used. The number of


cylinder depends on a similar list of terminal conditions and design
considerations. A typical turbine of 500-900 MW output in a fossil fired
power station have one high-pressure (HP) turbine, one intermediate-

41
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

pressure (IP) and two low-pressure (LP) turbines. If cylinders of the


turbine are on a single shaft, it is described as tandem compound. The
other main type is called cross-compound machine. In this type die
turbine cylinders are mounted on two separate parallel shafts driving two
separate generators. The cross-compound design is employed to avoid
the use of very long shaft. Furthermore, the number of the LP cylinders
can be reduced if the LP turbine shaft rotates at 1500 rpm while the HP
shaft rotates at 3000 rpm. Figure 2.8 illustrates some of these
arrangements.

In die normal case, steam turbines are directly coupled to the electrical
generator and there is no gearbox being used. The speed of rotation in
then given by:

The only two grid frequencies in use worldwide are 50 Hz and 60 Hz,
and the generators are usually designed with two poles or four poles.

42
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.8: Some arrangements of compound turbines

43
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

2.4 Turbine Cylinders

A turbine cylinder is essentially a pressure vessel with its weight


supported at each end on the horizontal centreline. It is designed to
withstand hoop stresses in the transverse plane, and to be very stiff in
the longitudinal direction in order to maintain accurate clearances
between the stationary and rotating parts of the turbine.

The design is complicated by the need for internal access. A l l casings


being split along their horizontal centteline, allowing the rotor to be
inserted as a complete assembly. Substantial flanges and bolting are
required to withstand the pressure forces at the horizontal joints. The
relatively massive flanges respond more slowly to temperature changes
than the rest of the casing, resulting in different rates of expansion and
the setting-up of temperature stresses and distortion although these are
minimised by the application of flange warming steam. Further stress
complexities are set up by the gland housing and steam entry and exit
passages.

2.4.1 Double Shell H.P Casing


High-pressure turbine cylinders have to withstand the pressure of the
steam and for this reason they are of robust design with thick walls.
They are also subject to high steam temperatures. Temperature gradients
within rigid components set up high stresses in the material which, when
coupled with mechanical stress due to pressure, can cause failure of the
material. Furthermore overall expansion of the components must be
accommodated. Also during heating and cooling the temperature
gradients become particularly adverse, as larger parts take longer to
change their temperature than smaller parts.

Most modern turbines, with steam pressures over 100 bar and ratings
greater than 100 MW have the HP casing of double-shell design. This
has been adopted because of the difficulty of designing a single casing to
withstand the thermal and pressure stresses and be capable of flexible
operation. With a double-shell casing, the space between the shells is
lifted with steam at exhaust conditions, allowing each casing to be

44
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

designed for smaller temperature and pressure differentials. A baffle is


formed between the two casings near the exhaust end as part of the
inner casing casting. The baffle extends almost to the outer casing but
does not seal against it. The turbulent exhaust steam is directed by the
baffle to the exhaust connection and prevented from cooling the inner
casing. This reduces the temperature differentials and hence stresses on
the inlet end of the inner casing. Steam leaking through the gland
between the inner casing and the rotor inlet end is piped away to the
exhaust connection.

In order to assemble the turbine and to disassemble it for maintenance,


the casing must be split in some way. The joint is normally horizontal so
that the upper half can be removed leaving the lower half in position
with the rotating parts as shown diagrammatically in Figure 2.9. This
joint must withstand the pressure in the casing and the flanges are
particularly thick and robust. These flanges may be subject to distortion
during heating and cooling of the casing. Figure 2.10 shows a cross-
section in a high-pressure turbine. Figure 2.11 shows a photo for a high-
pressure double casing steam turbine during assembly.

Figure 2.9: Diagrammatic section of turbine cylinder

45
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.10: Double casing high-pressure turbine

46
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.11: High-pressure turbine showing inner and outer casing


Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.12 shows a single flow high-pressure turbine of Brown Boveri


design. It is immediately apparent that there are two casings, an inner
casing and an outer casing. This is now standard practice for large steam
turbines as the stress due to pressure is divided between the two casings
resulting in thinner wall thicknesses. Also the exhaust steam circulates in
the annular space between the two casings to promote uniform heating
and to minimise temperature gradients. A unique feature is the provision
of shrink rings to hold the two halves of the inner casing together. This
avoids the need for heavy flanges and bolts and promotes uniform
heating. During assembly the shrink rings are heated before fitting and
grip the two halves of the casing firmly on cooling. The outer casing has
conventional flanges and bolts.

Figure 2.12 shows a single flow high-pressure turbine

Another casing design is shown in Figure 2.13. This also overcomes the
need for a very heavy flange in the high-pressure cylinder. Instead of
being split horizontally the entire outer casing of the high-pressure
turbine is shaped like a barrel. During assembly the inner casing is slid in
from the end and a large screwed plug fitted at the end. The inner casing
is split vertically and bolted together with long bolts through the casing
walls rather than through projecting flanges. Thermal advantages are the
same as with conventional double casings. Construction of these barrel
cylinders is simple but once in service the entire cylinder must be
removed to withdraw the inner casing before access to the rotor can be
obtained

48
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.13: Single flow high-pressure turbine

2.4.2 Intermediate Pressure (IP) Cylinders

In modern reheat machines, the design considerations for IP cylinders


are similar to those for HP cylinders, the steam being at a similar
temperature but lower pressure, which allows IP casings to be thinner.
In general, machines over 300 MW rating have at least a partial double-
casing covering the first few stages, subsequent stages being supported
by carrier rings as shown in figure 2.14. Both the inner casing and the
rings reduce pressure and temperature loading on the outer casing and
also allow a smooth outer casing which is simple to design and
manufacture and has better thermal response. The decision Single or
double-flow is primarily made on blading design and efficiency. A
double-flow casing also has the advantage of eliminating the rotor gland
at high pressure end.

49
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.14: Intermediate Pressure (IP) turbine

50
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.15: Double-flow intermediate-pressure turbine

2.4.3 Low-Pressure (LP) Cylinder and Exhaust

LP cylinders are often of double-casing construction with an inner


casing containing diaphragm supports, bled-steam and water extraction
belts, and an outer casing directing the exhaust to the condensers and
providing structural support for the inner casing (Figures 2.16, 2.17).
This is not always so, however, particularly with pannier condensers
where a single casing may be employed. The large size of LP outer
casings combined with their low pressure loading favors a fabricated
rather than cast construction. Inner casings which are more complex can
be fabricated or cast depending on economic considerations. All casings
have bolted horizontal joints.

51
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

LP cylinders are virtually all of double-flow design but vary gready in


layout due to the different condenser configurations.

Both of these have double casings with the exhaust steam circulating in
the annular space between the casings as in the case of the high-pressure
turbine. In addition these turbines have provision for the extraction of
some partly expanded steam for feedwater heating. The channels for this
steam are evident as annular spaces surrounding the inner casing. Steam
passes into these channels via grooves in the inner casing and passes out
via pipes above or below the turbine. In these turbines, both inner and
outer casings are split horizontally and fitted with flanges and bolts. In
double flow turbines axial thrust arising from the steam flow is balanced.
In low-pressure turbines temperatures and pressures are relatively low
and the casing is not as robust as in the high-pressure cylinders.

Figure 2.16: Isometric view for a LP cylinder

52
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

LP cylinders are virtually all of double-flow design but vary gready in


layout due to the different condenser configurations.

Both of these have double casings with the exhaust steam circulating in
the annular space between the casings as in the case of the high-pressure
turbine. In addition these turbines have provision for the extraction of
some pardy expanded steam for feedwater heating. The channels for this
steam are evident as annular spaces surrounding the inner casing. Steam
passes into these channels via grooves in the inner casing and passes out
via pipes above or below the turbine. In these turbines, both inner and
outer casings are split horizontally and fitted with flanges and bolts. In
double flow turbines axial thrust arising from the steam flow is balanced.
In low-pressure turbines temperatures and pressures are relatively low
and the casing is not as robust as in the high-pressure cylinders.

Figure 2.16: Isometric view for a LP cylinder

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

2.5 Turbine Rotor

2.5.1 Solid Forged Rotor


The moving blades are mounted on the rotor and transmit power to the
turbine rotors. These are coupled together and drive the generator rotor.
Rotors must be able to transmit the applied torque and to withstand the
force due to gravity of their mass. As with the casings, rotors are subject
to high temperatures and must be built to minimise thermal stress
during temperature transients. A certain degree of rigidity is important to
minimise vibration during operation at full speed as well as during run
up and shut down. Rotors of small turbines are usually machined from
solid forgings but, as turbines increased in size, various manufacturers
adopted differing designs to meet the need for larger rotors without
excessive material thickness or mass. Three basic types have developed.

53
Dr. Hesham El-Bats h, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.18 shows a solid rotor with integral wheels machined from a
single forging. This is a development of the early solid rotors but the
excess material between the wheels has been removed to reduce the
mass and thickness of material. The shaft remains sufficientiy rigid but
the total mass is less and, more importandy, the material thickness is
substantially less. During heating, steam is able to penetrate between the
wheels and to heat them from both sides and to heat the central portion
more quickly. This minimises thermal stress while steam temperatures
are rising or falling due to changing load. Such a rotor must be machined
from a large piece of material and the machining costs are high but there
are no joints or welds to cause trouble.

Figure 2.18: Solid rotor for low-pressure turbine

2.5.2 Disc Rotor

Figure 2.19 shows a development of this concept, which is particularly


suited to very large low-pressure rotors. In this type the wheels are
separate discs, which are shrunk onto the solid shaft. The shaft and discs
are made separately. The discs are heated when fitted or removed and
shrink onto the shaft on cooling. This design has the same advantages
with respect to heating and thermal stress as a solid rotor with machined
wheels. It is however more complex and requires special assembly
during manufacture. The large discs are subject to very high centrifugal
forces during operation and the joints between the shaft and discs are

54
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

subject to stress corrosion cracking from chemicals carried over in the


steam.

Figure 2.19: Build-up rotor for low-pressure turbine

2.5.3 Welded Rotor

Figure 2.20 shows a solution to the problems related to the design of


rotors. This has been patented by Brown Boveri. Instead of removing
material from the outer surface of the rotor to leave a solid centre,
material is removed from the centre to create a solid outer surface. A
substantial amount of material may be removed while still leaving a very
strong and rigid rotor. Wall thickness is relatively low on the outside
thus minimising thermal stress during temperature transients. The
internal discs support the centrifugal forces and are designed
accordingly. For smaller high-pressure rotors the shape of the discs and
hollow spaces may be different as shown in figure 2.21 since centrifugal
forces are not as high. Manufacture is by welding together separately
forged discs and end pieces.

55
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.20: Welded rotor for low-pressure turbine

Figure 2.21: Welded rotor for high-pressure turbine

The generator rotor is the longest of the rotors making up the entire
turbine generator. A typical generator showing the rotor is illustrated in
Figure 2.22. The rotor carries the field coils, which excite the stator coils
to produce electric power. Since the field coils carry heavy currents they
must be sufficientiy robust and well cooled. The individual current
carrying bars must be well insulated and securely mounted to withstand
the centrifugal forces.

Cooling is performed by hydrogen under pressure circulating through


the bars. The hydrogen is driven by fans mounted on the rotor and this
contributes to the full speed no load frictional resistance felt by the
machine. Other frictional resistance is from the shaft bearings of all
56
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

rotors. The stator is also cooled by hydrogen and often by water passing
through the wmdings as well. Electric power is produced at high voltage
and insulation must be designed accordingly.

Figure 2.22: Electrical generator for large turbine

2.6 Turbine Blades

Turbine blades are either fixed or moving and shaped so that energy
transfer is by the impulse or reaction principle. The design of the blades
is governed by the steam conditions in the turbine, the desired steam
velocities and directions and the steam forces on the blades. In addition
consideration must be given to geometrical limitations and dynamic
forces arising from the high-speed rotation of the turbine. The moving
blades in particular are subject to very high centrifugal forces and are
sensitive to vibration induced by turbine rotation and steam flow.

Turbine blades, and hence turbines having these types of blades, are
classified as impulse or reaction. When moving blades are driven entirely
by the impact of an external jet impinging upon them, they are known as
impulse blades. When the fluid in the moving blades accelerates and
leaves the blades at a higher velocity than when it entered them, it

57
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

imparts a jet reaction to the blades making these reaction blades. With
reaction blades there is however always some impulse effect as the fluid
enters the moving blades so such blades have only a degree of reaction
which is commonly 50 percent.

Conditions in turbine blades can be conveniently visualised and analysed


by drawing vector diagrams of the fluid velocities. Such velocity
diagrams are drawn at the inlet and oudet of the moving blades show
clearly how the fluid kinetic energy has changed within the blades. From
this change the energy transferred to the blades can be deduced.
Essentially the loss in kinetic energy of the fluid is equivalent to the
transfer of energy to the blades.

Turbines are classified as being either impulse or reaction. From a


practical point of view, this governs the number of stages in a turbine
and the maximum steam velocities. These parameters respectively have a
slight effect on the capital cost and efficiency of the machine. With this
in mind, the principles of impulse and reaction need to be clarified.

2.6.1 Impulse Type Blading

In impulse turbines, the steam issues from a nozzle at high speed and
impinges upon a series of blades which are driven and so produce work.
The kinetic energy of the fluid stream is transferred to the rotating wheel
by momentum transfer within the blades. In the reaction turbine, steam
issuing from the nozzles at high velocity creates a reaction in the
opposite direction. This reaction drives the wheel and the energy of the
fluid is transferred to the rotating wheel. When the principles are
translated to large machines the mass flows become very large relative to
the machine itself and the impulse and reaction effects are very strong.

In (distinguishing between impulse and reaction blading it is necessary to


consider what happens to the steam in passing through one stage of
fixed and moving blades. In the impulse turbine the entire pressure drop
of the stage is concentrated across the fixed blades which act as nozzles.
These nozzles accelerate the steam to a high velocity dictated by the
conditions before and after the fixed blades. This high velocity steam
impinges upon the moving blades and drives them at a certain velocity.

58
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Within the moving blades the steam is turned to affect the transfer of
energy and leaves at a low velocity relative to the next row of fixed
blades.

Figure 2.23: Impulse turbine blading and conditions

Figure 2.23 shows four stages of fixed and moving blades of an impulse
turbine and, at the bottom, the pressure and velocity profiles over these
four stages. Since the energy in the steam is represented by the pressure
and velocity, the conversion and transfer of energy in the blading can be
visualised. Initially the pressure is high representing a high energy level.
In passing through the first row of fixed blades some potential energy is
converted into kinetic energy as indicated by the slight drop in pressure
and increase in velocity. In passing through the mating row of moving
blades the kinetic energy is transferred to the rotating wheel of the
turbine as indicated by the drop in velocity. There is no change in
pressure in the moving blades. It is evident that, at the exit from this
59
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

first stage, the steam has given up part of its initial energy and
transferred this to the rotating parts of the turbine. A similar process is
repeated in the remaining three stages. Additional stages may be added
to extract any remaining energy of the steam.

2.6.2 Reaction Type Blading

In the reaction turbine however the stage pressure drop is spread across
both the fixed and moving blades. The fixed blades act as nozzles and
accelerate the steam to a moderate velocity due to the partial pressure
drop. This steam then impinges upon the moving blades and imparts
some energy to them. Within the moving blades the steam is turned and
accelerated by the remainder of the pressure drop. The reaction effect
caused by this accelerating steam imparts more energy to the moving
blades. The steam leaves the stage at a low velocity relative to the next
row of fixed blades.

Figure 2.24 shows a similar representation of four stages of fixed and


moving blades of a reaction turbine given similar boundary conditions.
As before, the pressure is initially high representing a high level of
energy. In passing through the first row of fixed blades some potential
energy is converted into kinetic energy but not as much as in the impulse
turbine. There is less of a drop in pressure and consequendy a smaller
increase in velocity. In passing through the mating row of moving blades
there is a further drop in pressure as well as a drop in velocity. Thus the
transfer of energy is in two parts, namely the transfer of kinetic energy
of the steam and the transfer of some of the potential energy of the
steam to the moving blades. The net result at die exit from this stage is a
low velocity and a pressure somewhat lower than the initial pressure. A
similar process is repeated in the remaining three stages. Any number of
stages may be added to obtain the desired pressure drop across the
turbine.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.24: Reaction turbine blading and conditions

The main difference between the impulse turbine and the reaction
turbine is that, in the former, there is a pressure drop across the fixed
blades only, whereas in the latter, there is a pressure drop across both
the fixed and the moving blades. For similar boundary conditions this
7
results in a lower velocity of the steam leaving the fixed blades in the
case of the reaction turbine. This velocity leaving the fixed blades is
relative to the fixed components and is therefore described as the
absolute velocity. The velocity associated with the moving blades is
known as the relative velocity (relative to the moving blades).

In reaction blading the increase in velocity in the moving blades is


achieved by blades designed to act as nozzles to convert some pressure
energy in the steam into kinetic energy. The change in flow area in the
blades governs the increase in velocity. From the continuity equation it
is evident that, for small changes in density, a reduced flow area will

61
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

result in an increase in velocity. The shape of the fixed blades in both


impulse and reaction turbines is such as to reduce the flow area and
increase the velocity. The shape of the moving blades however is not the
same for impulse and reaction turbines. The moving blades of impulse
turbines do not have a change in flow area. They do not therefore
change the velocity of the steam but only change its direction. The
moving blades of reaction turbines do have a change in flow area. They
are shaped like nozzles and act to accelerate the steam as it passes
through them. They also change its direction. The difference in the
moving blades is evident from Figure 25 and Figure 26.

In an impulse turbine the blades are symmetrical about the plane of the
turbine wheel carrying the blades whereas in a reaction turbine they are
not. Figure 25 and Figure 26 clarify the concept of flow areas and blade
symmetry. The difference between the two is easily seen when viewing
the blades from the end. In the latter figure the reduction in flow area
and consequent increase in velocity is clearly evident. On an actual
turbine rotor however the blades invariably have circumferential
shrouding over the tips and the blade profile cannot be seen. In such
cases the shape of the blade on the oudet side has to be compared with
the shape on the inlet side.

Figure 2.25: Impulse turbine moving blades

62
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.26: Reaction turbine moving blades

Velocity diagrams are important in order to fully understand the flow of


steam through turbine blades. The velocities shown in velocity diagrams
are simply vectors which may be combined mathematically. Figure 27
defines die vectors and terminology used in velocity diagrams. The
nozzles or fixed blades are so designed that the steam leaves them at an
angle 0 to the plane of the wheel and with velocity V . This is the
S1

absolute velocity as seen by an external observer. The velocity of the


moving blades is V . Since the steam overtakes the moving blades the
B

moving blades see the steam approaching them from behind at angle (p
and velocity V . This is the relative velocity relative to the moving
R1

blades. The angle at which the steam enters the moving blades is
therefore tp and the blade must be designed accordingly. Within the
moving blades the steam is turned and, according to the design of the
blade, leaves at an angle y to the plane of the wheel and with velocity
V r , . This is the relative velocity as seen by the moving blades. The
moving blades however are travelling at velocity V . Combining the
B

relative motion of the blades V and the relative velocity of the steam
B

V r 9 gives an absolute velocity V at angle 8. This is the velocity and


S 2

direction of the steam as seen by an external observer. If there are


multiple stages, this is the direction and velocity of the steam as it enters
the next row of fixed blades.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.27: General velocity diagram

The main difference between impulse and reaction blading is apparent


by comparing the velocity diagrams for each type of blading. Figure 28
shows the velocity diagrams for two stages of impulse blading. This
figure should be studied in conjunction with Figure 2.23 which shows
the steam pressure and steam velocity profiles through similar blading.
The velocity shown in the velocity profile is the absolute velocity V . s

Since the full pressure drop occurs in the fixed blades, the velocity of the
steam leaving these blades V . The steam enters the moving blades at
B

relative velocity V and, since there is no change in flow area in the


R 1

blades, leaves at a relative velocity of the same magnitude as V . R 1

The steam is of course turned in the blades entering at angle and


leaving at angle Impulse blades are often symmetrical so that is
equal to In Dractice fluid friction in the moving blades will reduce the
steam velocity such that , is slighdy less than It is evident that
and are roughly the same magnitude as the blade velocity Thus,
at the exit, the absolute velocity drops to a low value and the steam
is discharged in an approximately axial direction. The process is repeated
in the next stage and the velocity diagrams with absolute velocities
and and relative velocities are similar to those of the
first stage provided the blade angles are the same. In order to maximise
the energy transfer from the steam to the blades, the kinetic energy of
the steam leaving the blades should be a minimum, that is, should be
90°.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.28: Impulse turbine velocity diagram

Figure 2.29 shows the velocity diagrams for two stages of reaction
blading. This figure should be compared with Figure 2.24 which shows
the steam pressure and steam velocity profiles through similar blading.
As before, the velocity profile is that for absolute velocity. In reaction
blading the pressure drop is divided between the fixed and moving
blades of each stage. The velocity of the steam leaving the fixed blades
VS1 is therefore not as high as in impulse blading and is approximately
equal to that of the blade velocity VB. The steam enters the moving
blades at a fairly low relative velocity VR1 but, due to the changing flow
area within the blading, is accelerated to a higher relative velocity VR2.
As before, the steam enters the moving blades at angle cpl and leaves at
angle yl but yl is much less than cpl. The relative velocity VR2 is such as
to be roughly equal in magnitude to the blade velocity VB. The absolute
steam velocity VS2 at the exit is low and the steam is again discharged in
an approximately axial direction. The process is repeated in the next
stage with the steam approaching the fixed blades at low velocity. As
before, absolute velocities VS3 and VS4 and relative velocities VR3 and
VR4 are obtained.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.29: Reaction turbine velocity diagram

Comparing Figure 2.28 and Figure 2.29 indicates that impulse blading
requires initial absolute steam velocities approximately double that of
reaction blading for equivalent blade velocities. Since kinetic energy is
proportional to the square of the velocity, it is evident that the steam
entering the impulse blading has about four times the energy of the
steam entering the reaction blading. Also the work done in a turbine is
proportional to the enthalpy drop across the turbine which in turn is
proportional to the square of the velocity. This indicates that in the
impulse turbine a greater energy change occurs per stage than in a
reaction turbine. This implies more work done per stage but further
analysis is required.

2.6.3 Velocity Compounded Stage

The impulse blading described above, as used in modern large steam


turbines, has a progressive pressure drop through the stages and similar
velocity diagrams for each stage. This is known as pressure compounded
impulse bla<ding and was developed by C.E.A. Rateau of France. An
alternative configuration known as velocity compounded impulse
blading was developed by Charles G. Curtis of the United States. In this
configuration the full pressure drop takes place in the first row of fixed
blades or specially designed nozzles. The very high velocity steam is then
directed back and forth by the following moving and fixed blades until
the velocity has been reduced to a low value. Usually two stages, known
as a Curtis wheel, are employed. Figure 2.30 and Figure 2.31 show the
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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

velocity diagram of a two stage and a three stage turbine respectively. In


the first diagram it is seen that, assuming no fluid friction, VR2 is equal
to VR1, VS3 is equal to VS2 and VR4 is equal to VR3. In each row of
blades, moving and fixed, the direction of the steam is merely changed
and no acceleration takes place after the nozzles. In the second diagram
a similar pattern is evident but the initial velocity of the steam must be
higher to ensure a sufficient velocity on entering the third row of
moving blades. Note how the blade profiles of each row of blades
change to accommodate the different angles of steam entry and exit.
From the diagrams it is obvious that this type of blading suffers the
disadvantage of a limited number of stages. Also the work produced by
the stages is not equal. The first stage produces considerably more work
than the last stage. The ratio of work produced is 3:1 for two stages,
5:3:1 for three stages and 7:5:3:1 for four stages. Early turbines made use
of velocity compounding but, as turbine sizes increased, various
combinations developed such as having alternate velocity compounding
and pressure compounding. In this case two stages of velocity
compounding were followed by another row of nozzles and two more
stages of velocity compounding at a lower pressure.

Figure 2.30: Two stage velocity compounded impulse turbine

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.31: Three stage velocity compounded impulse turbine

2.6.4 Degree of Reaction

In reaction blading the enthalpy drop in the steam takes place across
both the fixed and moving blades. Thus some energy in the steam is
imparted to the blades by the impulse action of the steam leaving the
fixed blades, while the remaining energy is imparted to the blades by the
reaction of the steam leaving the moving blades. If the enthalpy drop is
divided equally between the fixed and moving blades, then half the
energy imparted to the moving blades is derived from the reaction of the
steam. Such blades are really only 50 percent reaction but are commonly
called reaction blades. In general all blades, which derive some energy
from the reaction of the accelerating steam within them, are known as
reaction blades.

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Dr. Hesham EI-Batsh, Steam Turbines

The degree of reaction may be varied although 50 percent reaction is


common. The percentage may be altered by blade design to give any
desired value. The velocity diagrams at the inlet and outiet of the moving
blades will then not be symmetrical as shown in Figure 2.32.

At 0 percent reaction the velocity diagrams will be the same as those for
impulse blading. Practical design constraints place an upper limit on the
degree of reaction. Since the steam must be accelerated to some degree
to enter the moving blades, there is always some enthalpy drop
associated with the redirection of the steam flow leaving the fixed
blades. Therefore 100 percent reaction is not found in practice.

Figure 2.32: Degree of reaction in turbine blades

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

2.6.5 Twisted Blades

It has already been seen that, as the steam expands through the turbine,
its specific volume increases enormously, particularly in the last few
stages of the turbine. This requires a large increase in flow area and
hence in blade length from the inlet to the exhaust of the low pressure
cylinders. The long moving blades near and particularly those at the
exhaust have a length which approaches the radius of the shaft on which
they are mounted. The longest blades thus have a tangential velocity
which almost doubles from the root to the tip of the blades. The value
of the blade velocity VB therefore varies along the length of the blade
and the velocity diagrams will change accordingly.

Figure 2.33: Change in reaction along a twisted turbine blade

Figure 2.33 shows this variation for such a case. The three velocity
diagrams are those for the root, centre and tip of the blade. For each
location it is assumed that the steam absolute velocity VSI leaving the
fixed blades is the same and that the steam axial velocity through this
part of the turbine VA1 is the same. This makes the nozzle exit angle 6
the same for all three locations. The blade velocity VB is different for
each case and hence the relative velocity of the steam approaching the
blade and its direction are also different. This results in different values
for angle cp. At the exit of the moving blades it is assumed that the steam
axial velocity VA2 is the same at each location. To minimise the residual
kinetic energy in the steam, it is assumed that the steam absolute velocity
VS2 is a minimum thus making angle 8 equal to 90° in each case. The
blade velocity VB is different and hence the relative velocity VR2 will
also be different resulting in different values for angle y. In order to

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

achieve smooth flow through the moving blades, the profile of each
blade must vary continuously over its length. This gives rise to the so
called twisted blades commonly employed in large turbines.

2.6.6 Blade Fixing in the Rotor

The blades are attached to the turbine rotors in various ways and in such
a pattern as to minimise unbalanced forces. Even with close
manufacturing tolerances there is a slight mass variation between blades.

Figure 2.34 shows a large steam turbine under construction. This turbine
has a nominal rating of 1000 MW. In the figure the lower half of a
diaphragm containing two rows of fixed blades for one low-pressure
cylinder is seen being lowered into position. Also shown are the moving
blades attached to the rotor of another low-pressure cylinder. In the
background is one complete rotor for a low-pressure turbine. It is
evident from this photograph that the fixed blades are securely fixed at
both ends in a robust diaphragm. The moving blades however are
attached only to the rotor discs and may or may not have tip shrouding
or lacing wires to increase rigidity. Both tip shrouding and lacing wires
are used in this machine and can be seen in the picture.

The design philosophy for fixed and moving blades is naturally different.
All large turbines have pressure compounded impulse blading or
reaction blading so there is a pressure drop across the fixed blading. The
blades must withstand this pressure drop and, if the design provides for
a large diaphragm, as is usually the case in low-pressure turbines, the
blades must also support the pressure difference across the diaphragm.
The blades may therefore be quite wide (as measured in the axial
direction) especially towards the outer diameter. Moving blades on the
other hand are subject to high centrifugal forces and have a slender
shape decreasing in width towards the outer diameter.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.34: Construction of a 1000 MW steam turbine

The securing of blades to the rotor is a critical design aspect for steam
turbines and different manufacturers have adopted various methods to
ensure security of the blades at high speed. The two principle methods
are grooves or pins with the former covering a wide range of designs.
The most commonly used methods will be described briefly.

Figure 2.35 shows a simple stepped blade root. Blades are inserted into a
circumferential groove in the turbine disc and slid into position. An
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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

inverse of this is the straddle arrangement where the blade has a


tangential groove as evident in Figure 2.36. Both these methods require
a special fixture to close the gap where the blades are inserted and to
lock them in place.

Figure 2.35: Blade fixing with stepped root

Figure 2.36: Blade fixing with straddle arrangement

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

A variation of this method is the multiple grooves as shown in Figure


2.37 Such blades may be fitted with keys with matching grooves that are
slid into place. This allows segments containing a number of blades to
be manufactured and installed together.

Figure 2.37: Blade fixing with multiple grooves

An alternative variation is the creation of a series of steps in a tapering


formation as illustrated in Figure 2.38. To facilitate installation in the
rotor the matching grooves in the rotor disc are usually cut in an axial
direction. With this side entry, the blades can be fitted more tightly and
small blades are held in position primarily by the interference fitting.
Very large blades fitted in this way require curved roots as well as curved
grooves in the discs so that the blades can be fitted close enough
together. Such blades are illustrated in Figure 2.39.

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Dr. Hesham Ei-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.38: Blades fixing with multiple steps

Figure 2.39: Blade fixing with curved multiple steps

The method of using pins to secure blades is shown in Figure 2.40 for
small turbines. Larger turbines with heavier blades have multiple stepped
roots with pins to distribute the stress more uniformly. The pins are
interference fits in the holes. Blades fitted by this method are relatively

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh. Steam Turbines

easy to install but the pins may deform slighdy in service making
removal more difficult.

Figure 2.40: Blade fixing using pins

2.6.7 Blades Sealing

As already mentioned moving blades may have tip shrouding or lacing


wires as shown in Figure 2.41 to increase the rigidity of the blades and
so reduce the risk of damage due to blade vibration.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.41: Turbine blades with lacing wires

In reaction blading where there is a pressure drop across the moving


blades, tip shrouding incorporates seals to mmimise steam leakage over
the top of the blades. In such cases it provides a double function. On
the other hand, tip shrouding is subject to centrifugal force and increases
the stress in the blades. For this reason tip shrouding cannot be used on
the very highly stressed last stage blading on low-pressure turbines.
Another disadvantage of tip shrouding is that it may interfere with the
removal of moisture by centrifugal action in the wet region of the
turbine. Lacing wire, being within the main steam flow path and
transverse to the direction of flow, interferes very slighdy with the steam
flow. If it could be eliminated, a very small improvement in efficiency
could be obtained. Some manufacturers have developed unique methods
of linking the blade tips with bands or struts to control vibration and to
minimise the influence on the steam flow. Other manufacturers however
have developed free-standing blades as illustrated in Figure 2.42 Instead
of damping out unwanted vibrations, these blades are tuned so as not to
vibrate at the unwanted frequencies (resonant frequencies).

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Dr. Hesham EI-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 2.42: Free standing turbine blade

When steam expands below the saturation line, some condensation takes
place and the steam becomes wet. The very fine mist of droplets which
forms passes over the blading and some is deposited on the blades to
create a film of water. This film is swept off the blades and entrained by
the steam. The size of these entrained drops is governed by surface
tension effects rather than by condensation phenomena. They are
therefore somewhat larger than the original condensation droplets and
when travelling at high velocity can cause damage to any material on
which they impinge. Being larger and heavier they are also separated
from the main steam flow more easily during changes in direction. When
these larger drops are swept off the fixed blades their velocity tends to
be lower than that of the steam and the moving blades tend to run into
them at high speed. The impact of the drops on the blades (more
accurately the blades on the drops) causes material erosion from the
blades. Minute amounts of material are removed leaving a rough surface.
If severe, this material removal can change the blade profile and weaken
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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

the blade. After impact on the moving blades the water film tends to be
thrown off towards the periphery by centrifugal action. Turbine blades
must be designed to withstand moisture erosion in the affected areas.
This is done using inserts of hard erosion resistant material such as
tungsten or by specialised heat treatment to harden the blades in selected
areas..,.

Turbine blades are also subject to so called solid particle erosion.


Corrosion inside the boiler and superheater tubes and in the main steam
pipes causes a build up of corrosion products on the inside surface of
tubes and pipes. Loose particles may be swept off by the steam and
carried through the turbine to impinge upon the blades. The blades at
the inlet of the turbine are the most likely to suffer damage. The best
solution is to ensure clean steam by minimising corrosion. This in turn
can be accomplished by proper boiler water treatment at all times and
under all conditions.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Chapter 3:

Steam Turbine
Accessories

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

3.1 Turbine Bearing

Large steam turbines are made up of several rotating sections with each
section being coupled rigidly with the adjacent one. Normally each rotor
is mounted on a pair of journal bearings, one at each end, with the
couplings between the bearings of adjacent rotors. The bearings are
mounted on foundations to secure the rotating elements in the proper
vertical and transverse position. The bearings are supplied with
lubricating oil and the shaft rides on a hydrodynamic oil film without
metal to metal contact. When starting from rest with the oil film having
been squeezed out, there is metal to metal contact. To avoid rubbing
and scoring of the bearings, high pressure jacking oil is supplied to a
point under the shaft so as to lift the shaft off the bearings before
commencing rotation.

To secure the shaft in the proper axial position, a single thrust bearing is
provided usually close to the high-pressure turbine but always in a
location that will minimise the movement of the shaft in other parts of
the turbine due to thermal expansion. The shaft will naturally expand
outwards from the thrust bearing. The turbine casings are also fixed to
the foundations in a way that will permit free thermal expansion. These
fixing points must be positioned so as to minimise differential
movement between the casing and rotor and must maintain proper
radial alignment of the rotating parts within the fixed parts. Typical
locations of fixing points for a large turbine are shown in Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1: Fixing points for turbine rotors and casings

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

3.1.1 Journal Bearing

The function of a turbine bearing is to retain the rotor system in its


correct radial position relative to the cylinders. In addition, it provides a
low friction support which will withstand the static and the dynamic
loads of shaft rotation.

Hydrodynamic journal bearings are used to support steam turbines and


generators. Due to the extremely tight clearances between the moving
blades and the casing, these bearings must be accurately aligned and
must operate without any appreciable wear to maintain the shaft in its
original position and avoid damage to the blades. The bearings are
usually of the horizontally split shell and they are lined with tin-base soft
metal. The passages and grooves inside the turbine bearings are designed
to allow more oil than required for lubrication only. The additional oil is
required to remove frictional heat and heat conducted to the bearings
along the shaft from the hot sections of the turbine. The oil flow must
maintain the bearings at proper operating temperature. In most
applications, the oil leaving the bearings is around 71 °C.

An oil-lift system (jacking oil) is needed for most large turbines to lift the
turbine and reduce the possibility of damage during start-up and
shutdown. The jacking oil system is also needed to reduce the starting
load on the turning gear. A positive-displacement pump delivers high-
pressure oil to openings in the bottom of the bearings. The high-
pressure oil lifts the shaft and floats it on an oil film until the shaft speed
is high enough to create a hydrodynamic film between the shaft and the
bearing. A phenomenon known as oil whip or oil whirl occurs in
relatively lightly loaded, high speed journal bearings. The center of the
journal (portion of the shaft inside the bearing) assumes an eccentric
position in the bearing. This position is determined by load, speed, and
oil viscosity. Since the stable position is near the center of the bearing,
the journal center starts to move in a circular path about the stable
position. The vibrations created by this motion have a frequency of less
than one-half the shaft speed.

Figure 2.1 shows a typical example for a modern steam turbine bearing.
The bearing assembly is split in halves on the horizontal centerline and

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

hold together by bolts. Typical large turbine bearings are up to 530 mm


in diameter and have length/diameter ratio of about 0.5-0.7. Oil is
supplied to cool and lubricate the bearings at about 1 bar and 30-40 C
from the main turbine lubricating-oil pump. Each bearing has also high
pressure jacking oil supply (300 bar) which is injected at the bottom of
the bearing. This lifts the rotor when starting from rest and therefore
preventing wear and reducing the starting torque required from the
turning gear drive motor.

Instrumentations are used to check the performance of the bearing.


Bearing oil inlet pressure and oudet temperature are normally indicated
locally with remote alarm facilities. Provision is also made at the bearing
housing to monitor vertical and horizontal vibration modes. Jacking oil
pressure is monitored local to each bearing with alarm indication in the
control room.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 3.2: Main rotor bearing

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

3.1.2 Thrust Bearing

Axial thrust is caused by the difference in pressure across each row of


moving blades. Rotors that are stepped up in diameter also create axial
thrust. This thrust is counteracted by axial thrust bearings, which
maintain the rotor in correct axial position. Small turbines use babbitt-
faced ends on the journal bearings, or rolling-element thrust bearings.
Medium and large turbines use tilting-pad thrust bearings as shown in
Fig. 3.3. Since it is universal practice to use solid coupling between
rotors, only one thrust bearing is required in each complete shaft line. It
is normally located close to the areas where blade/cylinder clearances are
minimum. A typical thrust bearing for large steam is the tilting-pad
bearing. A rigid collar on the shaft is held centered between the
stationary thrust ring and a second stationary thrust ring by two rows of
tilting pads. In operation, the pad faces are slighdy inclined to the face of
the thrust collar and the wedge-shaped cavity thus formed fills with oil.
As thrust pressure is applied, the wedge narrows and oil is forced to the
restricted end. This ensures that metal to metal contact between the pads
and the thrust collar is prevented. The pads are shaped and mounted so
that each is able to pivot independendy.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 3.3: Tilting-pad thrust bearing


Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

3.2 Lubrication System

Lubricating oil is supplied to all the bearings to maintain hydro dynamic


lubrication and to cool the bearings. Heat is generated in the oil by
friction in the hydrodynamic oil film and by turbulence within the oil
itself. Furthermore a substantial amount of heat is conducted from the
steam in the turbine to the bearing via the shaft. To maintain the bearing
white metal surface temperature safely below 110 C, the oil temperature
leaving the bearing should not be more than about 70 C under normal
flow conditions. To remove sufficient heat to maintain these
3
temperatures, oil at a flow rate of about 0.1 m /s and a temperature of
about 45 C must be supplied to the bearings. This oil supply must be
maintained under all conditions including the run down period after a
turbine trip.

To ensure continuity of oil supply one-oil pump is usually driven directly


by the turbine, another by the station auxiliary electrical system and a
third by the guaranteed emergency electrical system. Even this
arrangement is sometimes considered to be insufficiently secure and
provision is made either for a fourth pump or greater assurance of
successful changeover from one mode of operation to another.

The main oil pump is invariably driven directly from the main turbine
shaft. With older and smaller turbines it was common practice to employ
a mechanical drive directly to a pump in the oil tank. With larger
turbines however the oil tank is usually located away from hot turbine
components, such as steam pipes, to minimise the fire risk and in such a
location where any fire can be readily contained. Alternative driving
systems are therefore required. One system retains the main oil pump in
the oil tank but has an independent and un-interruptible electrical
connection between a small generator on the turbine shaft and the
motor of the pump. As the turbine runs up to speed more power is
provided to run the pump and at some intermediate turbine speed the
main oil pump output reaches the required amount.

A more common arrangement is to employ hydraulic connection


between the turbine and the pump. With this system a pump on the
turbine shaft provides sufficient oil pressure and flow to a small turbine.
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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

which in turn drives the main oil pump in the oil tank. As with a solid
electrical connection, the pump operation follows that of the main
turbine.
A refinement of this method, commonly employed on large steam
turbines, is to mount the main oil pump direcdy on the turbine shaft and
to take part of the delivered oil to run a small turbine which drives a
booster oil pump in the oil tank. This booster pump provides the
necessary head to maintain the proper suction pressure at the main oil
pump.

A feature of all these systems is that, although continuity of supply is


assured during normal operation, insufficient oil is available at low
turbine speeds during run-up and run-down with none supplied at very
low speeds. A l l turbines therefore require an auxiliary oil pump during
start-up and shutdown operations. Figure 3.4 shows a typical lubricating
oil system for a large steam turbine.

Figure 3.4: Turbine lubricating oil system

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

3.3 Couplings

The need for coupling arises from the limited length of shaft which is
possible to forge in one piece and from the frequent need to use
different materials for the various conditions of temperature and stress.
The multi-cylinder construction of large turbine-generators necessitates
the use of a coupled shaft system.

Couplings are essentially devices for transmitting torque but they may
also have to allow relative angular misalignment, transmit axial thrust
and ensure axial location or allow relative axial movement. They may be
satisfied as flexible, semi-flexible or rigid. On smaller turbine-generators
(i.e., up to 120 MW) semi-flexible and flexible couplings were commonly
used, but for large turbine-generators it is now common practice to use
rigid couplings.

3.3.1 Flexible Coupling

These are capable of absorbing small amounts of angular misalignment,


as well as axial movement. Double flexible couplings can also
accommodate eccentricity. Figure 3.5 shows some designs in common
use. The claw coupling, which may be single or double, is robust and
slides easily when ttansndtting light load. On heavy load, however,
friction causes it to become axially rigid. The Bibby coupling is
satisfactory up to medium sizes and provides (in addition to the other
features) torsional resilience, the torsional stiffness increasing with load.

The multi-tooth coupling transmits torque by internal and external gear


teeth of involutes form, which are curved to accommodate angular
misalignment.

All these couplings require continuous lubrication, normally obtained


from a jet of oil feeding into an annular recess, from which it is fed
centrifugally to the coupling teeth through drilled passage-ways.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 3.5: Flexible couplings

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

3.3.2 Solid Coupling

On large turbines, the high torque to be transmitted makes the use of


flexible couplings impracticable. Consequendy, it is now normal practice
for rigid couplings to be employed between the turbine cylinders, so that
the turbine shaft behaves as one continuous rotor.

The long shaft that is formed naturally bends under its own weight to
form a natural catenary. Because of this, the use of rigid couplings
means that the shaft alignment must be set to ensure that the coupling
bending moment forces are minimized.

Rigid couplings are either integral with shaft forging or are shrunk on to
the shaft. It is now common practice for the turbine rotors to have half
couplings. Shrunk-on couplings have been used on turbines and still are
used on the generator. They allow the couplings to be taken off for the
removal of turbine rotor discs or the generator rotor endwinding
retaining rings.

Figure 3.6: Rigid coupling

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 3.7: Typical arrangement of a shrunk on half coupling

Figure 3.8: Typical shaft catenary for a large turbine generator

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

3.4 Shaft Gland Seal

Steam turbines receive steam at high pressures and discharge it at high


vacuum conditions. Provision must therefore be made to prevent steam
leaking out of the turbine where the steam pressure is high and air
leaking into the turbine where the steam pressure is below atmospheric.

The turbine casing can be made steam tight by having accurately


machined flange joints but, where the rotating shaft passes through the
stationary casing, leak tight joints cannot be made without direct contact
between the fixed and rotating parts.

Similarly within the turbine itself there is a step-wise steam pressure


drop through the various stages. Each diaphragm carrying the fixed
blades must withstand a pressure differential and have seals around the
hole through which the rotating shaft passes. In a reaction turbine,
where there is a pressure drop across the moving blades as well, these
7
must have seals around their periphery to reduce steam leakage around
the top of the blades.

Figure 3.9 shows the location of seals or glands in an industrial turbine.


Where the shaft passes tlirough the casing are substantial seals to
withstand the full pressure differential between the inside and the
outside. Smaller seals are located in the opening of each diaphragm to
prevent steam leakage along the shaft within the turbine.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 3.9: Cross-section of small turbine showing location of seals

Various types of glands have been devised but large steam turbines all
make use of the labyrinth type of seal. The distinct advantage of this
type of seal is the lack of direct mechanical contact. Under normal
circumstances this eliminates mechanical friction and wear and the build
up of heat.

The word labyrinth comes from Greek Mythology. It was an intricate


structure of interconnecting passages in which the Minotaur, half man
half bull, was confined before being slain by Theseus. Although the
modern word maze is now more common, labyrinth accurately describes
the early types of glands used on steam turbines.

In such a seal the steam is forced to find its way through an intricate
arrangement of paths between the fixed and rotating parts. Each time
the steam is made to change direction it loses energy thus increasing its
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Dr. Hesham EI-Batsh, Steam Turbines

resistance to flow. The object is not to eliminate leakage but to reduce it


to manageable proportions. Labyrinth seals are thus designed to pass
steam through the gap between the fixed and moving parts.

Figure 3.10 shows some examples of labyrinth seals. A l l have a small gap
through which the steam can pass before entering a pocket where lower
flow and turbulence prevails. Early turbines tended to have both axial
and radial flows through the glands to promote changes in direction. As
turbines became larger, greater degrees of differential expansion between
the fixed and moving parts had to be accommodated and seals were
designed to rninimise the risk of interference due to axial movement of
the shaft. A high degree of machining accuracy and precise shaft
95
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

alignment is required to ensure small clearances and good sealing. If


however the shaft alignment should be disturbed in any way, temporarily
or permanendy due to thermal distortion or vibration, contact may
occur between the fixed and moving parts of the seal.

The slender profile near the tips of the individual rings is a characteristic
of labyrinth seals. A further development is the mounting of the rings
on spring loaded segments so that, in the event of transverse movement
of the shaft, contact would move the whole segment against the pressure
of the springs. If such movement was of a short term temporary nature
only, the segment springs could absorb the movement with minimum
wear to die seal rings themselves. Seals of this type are shown in Figure
3.11. Shaft seals subject to the full steam pressure are normally made up
of a series of segments each with multiple rings whereas diaphragm seals
need only a few rings to control steam leakage.

Figure 3.11: Spring mounted labyrinth seal to accommodate shaft deflection

A typical diaphragm seal is shown in Figure 3.12 and a typical shaft seal
in Figure 3.13. Both have provision for small amounts of shaft lateral
movement by the spring-mounted segments carrying the rings. They can
however accommodate only a limited degree of axial movement since
the rings are made to fit a stepped shaft, which slighdy increases the
resistance to steam flow.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 3.12: Typical labyrinth seal for turbine diaphragm

Figure 3.13: Typical labyrinth seal for turbine shaft

When there is internal steam pressure in the turbine, which is above


atmospheric, the steam will naturally leak outwards. It will be controlled
by the gaps in the labyrinth gland rings and the number of rings in the
seal. In areas of high internal steam pressure, a large number of rings are
employed to minimise the steam loss.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Pressure in the turbine drops from inlet to exhaust with the exhaust
being under sub-atmospheric conditions. Under these conditions, air will
leak into the turbine through the shaft seals creating difficulty in
maintaining the proper vacuum conditions. Air leaks can have an
adverse effect on the performance of the turbine and that there are
limits governing the effectiveness of air extraction systems.

In order to overcome this problem of air in-leakage, provision is made


to supply low-pressure steam to the shaft seals when subjected to sub-
atmospheric internal pressures. This steam is fed into the seals in such a
way that some leaks through the labyrinth rings into the turbine and
some leaks through the opposite rings to the outside atmosphere as
shown in Figure 3.14. As long as steam flows outwards, air cannot enter
the turbine against this flow and the condenser is protected against air
ingress. Steam that leaks inwards into the turbine space is simply
condensed with the exhaust steam in the condenser and rejoins the
steam-water circuit. Steam that leaks out of the turbine to atmosphere is
lost unless special provision is made to capture it.

Figure 3.14: Principle of operation of LP turbine shaft sea

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3.5 Gland Exhaust System

A typical gland sealing system is shown in Figure 3.17. In order to


accommodate the range of temperatures experienced throughout the
turbine, the system is usually divided into two parts: one part supplies
steam to the HP and IP turbine glands and the other to the LP turbine
glands.

Two modes of operation are used: one employs a supply of steam at


superheater outlet conditions, which is referred to as 'live steam' and is
used during start-up, shutdown and low load operation. In the other
mode, steam leaked off from the HP and IP turbine is employed to seal
the LP glands when the turbine is operating on-load. The use of HP/IP
glands leak-off steam produces a useful thermal gain over the permanent
use of live steam. The changeover from one source of sealing steam to
the other is entirely automatic.

To ensure that the steam is supplied to the glands at a suitable


temperature, it is cooled by desuperheaters. An HP desuperheater
regulates the temperature of the steam of the HP/IP glands and an LP
desuperheater regulates the temperature of the steam to the LP glands.
Some systems also employ a third desuperheater to cool the steam
which is bled to an LP heater during on-load operation.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

WATER C?
FROM tX}
RRW I A N K S

LIVE
STEAM SUPPT.Y

AIR 1 0
ATMOSPHERE

Figure 3.17: Typical gland seal system

The function of the gland steam condenser is to maintain a sub-


atmospheric pressure at the outermost leak-off belt of the glands and
thereby prevent the leakage of steam from the glands into the turbine
hall, where it would condense on the walls and plant.

The condenser is vented to the atmosphere via a blower. The small


vacuum created by the blower is sufficient to draw air into the glands
where it mixes with steam leaking from the cylinder; the air is separated
in the gland condenser and passed back to the atmosphere via the vent
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fans. The steam is condensed and the condensate passes to the main
condenser. A typical gland steam condenser is shown in Figure 3.18.

The condenser typically consists of a steel shell closed by a dished-end


waterbox cover incorporating a tubeplate into which are expanded U-
tubes. Cooling, water, provided by local river water or seawater, is
circulated through the U-tubes to condense the steam. When the gland
steam condenser is out of service, steam is prevented from escaping into
the turbine hall by operating the vent fans.

Figure 3.18: Gland steam condenser

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The turbine rotors must be turned continuously throughout the process


of warming-through' the unit prior to start-up and, in addition, during
the cooling process following a shutdown. Rotor and cylinder distortion
could occur as a result of uneven heating or cooling if the facility for
turning the rotors were not available to provide circulation within the
cylinders. Cylinder metal temperatures, specified by the manufacturer,
are the normal criteria for allowing a warm turbine to cease barring.
Two independent turning gear facilities are usually provided:
• Hand barring arrangement.
• Electrical turning gear (ETG).

Hand barring arrangement


Should the ETC be unavailable, provision is made to turn the rotors
manually by mounting a lever and fulcrum apparatus at a prearranged
point on the cover of a bearing pedestal. This lever operates on a per-
manent toothed-wheel between two turbine rotors (Fig 3.19). This is
usually an operational feature to protect the turbine in a heat-soaked
condition.

Electrical turning gear ( E T G )


The rotors are turned slowly (typically less than 30 r/min) during start-
up and shutdown by the ETG. An electric drive motor turns the rotors
through a worm-shaft and worm-wheel, thereby providing a reduction
gear. A jacking oil pump supplies high pressure lubricating oil to the
reduction gear. Manual control of the motor is provided in the Control
Room, and automatic stop and start facilities are also included in the
motor switchgear. The motor overload trip is set at a value which
prevents excessive torque being applied to a seized rotor. Electrical
interlocking prevents the motor being started until jacking oil pressure is
established.
A self-sliifting synchronous (SSS) clutch is installed between the drive
motor and the turbine shaft and provides a simple mechanical means of
automatically connecting or disconnecting the mrning gear drive. The
SSS clutch is a positive tooth-type overrunning clutch which is self-
engaging when passing through synchronism, that is, immediately the
speed of the input shaft exceeds that of the output shaft. The clutch

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

disengages automatically when the torque reverses, that is, when the
speed of the output shaft exceeds that of the input shaft (Figure 3.20)

COVER

Figure 3.19: Assembly of hand barring equipment

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The turbine rotors must be turned continuously throughout the process


of warming-through'the unit prior to start-up and, in addition, during
the cooling process following a shutdown. Rotor and cylinder distortion
could occur as a result of uneven heating or cooling if the facility for
mrning the rotors were not available to provide circulation within the
cylinders. Cylinder metal temperatures, specified by the manufacturer,
are the normal criteria for allowing a warm turbine to cease barring.
Two independent turning gear facilities are usually provided:
• Hand barring arrangement.
• Electrical turning gear (ETG).

Hand barring arrangement


Should the ETC be unavailable, provision is made to turn the rotors
manually by mounting a lever and fulcrum apparatus at a prearranged
point on the cover of a bearing pedestal. This lever operates on a per-
manent toothed-wheel between two mrbine rotors (Fig 3.19). This is
usually an operational feature to protect the turbine in a heat-soaked
condition.

Electrical turning gear ( E T G )


The rotors are turned slowly (typically less than 30 r/min) during start-
up and shutdown by the ETG. An electric drive motor turns the rotors
through a worm-shaft and worm-wheel, thereby providing a reduction
gear. A jacking oil pump supplies high pressure lubricating oil to the
reduction gear. Manual control of the motor is provided in the Control
Room, and automatic stop and start facilities are also included in the
motor switchgear. The motor overload trip is set at a value which
prevents excessive torque being applied to a seized rotor. Electrical
interlocking prevents the motor being started until jacking oil pressure is
established.
A self-sBfting synchronous (SSS) clutch is installed between the drive
motor and the mrbine shaft and provides a simple mechanical means of
automatically connecting or disconnecting the mrning gear drive. The
SSS clutch is a positive tooth-type overrunning clutch which is self-
engaging when passing through synchronism, that is, immediately the
speed of the input shaft exceeds that of the output shaft. The clutch

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Figure 3.20: Self-shifting synchronous clutches

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Chapter 4:

Steam Turbine Valves


and Controls

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4.1 Turbine Governing System

The main functions of the governing system of a large turbine-generator


unit used for electricity production via extensive power network are:

1. To perform the rise within acceptable limits


2. To control the steam valve positions (and hence the load
generated) in response to signals from the operator, or from a
separate station automatic control system.
3. To control the initial run-up and synchronization of the machine
4. To assist in matching the power generated to that demanded
by responding to network frequency changes

An electrical governing system for a typical turbine-generator with


multiple steam admission paths comprises many elements, as depicted in
Figure 4.1. Since it includes at least one closed-loop control function, the
machine and network characteristics form an integral part of the system.
The primary feedback is of turbine shaft speed which is usually
measured by a toothed-wheel and probes at the HP end of the machine.
This signal is processed by a modular electronic system, often mounted
in a cubicle quite remote from the turbine, to form output signals which
are directed back to each steam valve on the mrbine.

The processing is complex and is subject to detailed variations for each


application; it generally includes the following:
• The speed/load characteristics of the machine when synchronized.
• A predetermined relationship between the high pressure
(HP) and interceptor valve position.
• Facilities for operator control.
• Features to limit the maximum speed of the machine,
• Features to limit the output in the event of abnormal operating
conditions.
• Features to permit routine proving and testing of the system.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 4.1: Governing system

4.2 Steam Chest Arrangements and Construction

The steam leaving the superheater goes through the emergency stop
valves (ESVs) and associated governing valves (GVs) before entering the
high-pressure (HP) turbine. 1 The ESVs and GVs are housed in steam
chests. These steam chests are manufactured from closed-die alloy-steel
forgings welded together, or from alloy-steel castings. They also have
simple shapes. This is done to reduce the thermal stresses and hence the
possibility of thermal fatigue. Similar steam chests house the reheat
emergency stop valves (RESVs) and interceptor valves (TVs). These
steam chests are located between the reheater and the intermediate-
pressure (IP) turbines. They are manufactured from alloy-steel castings.
They are thinner but larger than the HP steam chests due to lower steam
pressures. The steam chests are normally mounted alongside the turbine.

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

The four steam mains, together with four ESVs and four GVs, are
normally arranged two on each side of the turbine. Figure. 5.1 illustrates
a typical steam chest arrangement of a 660-MW unit. There is a steam
chest on each side of the machine. It has an ESV on each end and the
two GVs are connected to the common chamber between the ESVs.

The seats of the valves are of the removable-plate type. These seats are
normally screwed in place. The mating faces of the valves and their seats
are made of Stellite. This is done to resist wear caused by steam erosion.
The wear will occur mainly when the valve is cracked open. A jet is
propelled at high velocity due to the large pressure differential across the
narrow port opening. The Stellite facing also provides protection against
impact damage, which occurs during normal valve closure. It also occurs
during frequent high-speed test closures. This damage is alleviated
normally using cushioning devices in the relay system or slow-motion
testing. Specially treated alloy-steel sleeves in the valve covers support
and guide the valve spindles.

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4.3 Turbine Controls

4.3.1 Turbine Control Valves

Emergency Stop Valves

The two purposes of the ESVs (also known as stop valves) are:
1. To interrupt the steam flow promptly during an emergency trip
2. To cut off the steam supply when the unit is shut down

The valves are tested on-power regularly (at least once a month) to
ensure they will close during an emergency. The load is reduced during
this testing. The valves are tested in sequence, one at a time, during the
on-load testing. The ESV is normally a single-seated unbalanced plug-
type valve. It has an internal small pilot valve that opens first. The pilot
valve can be opened against main steam pressure. It is also used during
run-up because the steam flow is from 1 to 2 percent of the full load
steam flow. It also reduces the force required to actuate the valve. When
the machine reaches operating speed, the GVs, which have been open,
close in. At this stage, it is possible to open the ESVs because the
upstream and downstream pressure of the valve has been equalized.
Figure 4.3 illustrates a typical ESV. Flap valves are used as reheat
emergency stop valves (RESVs) for some 500 and 660 MW units. The
steam in these valves has moderate pressure and large specific volume.

Governor Valves
The governor valves control the steam flow entering the mrbine. Since
the generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy, the
governor valves control the generator load when the machine is
synchronized to the grid. Modern power plants use the governor valves
to throtde the steam flow during mrbine run-up to speed. However,
earlier machines use pilot valves in the ESV in conjunction with the
governor valves during run-up (the steam flow during run-up is less than
2 percent of the steam flow required during full-load operation). Figure
4.4 illustrates a typical governor valve.

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Figure 4.3: Typical emergency main stop valve

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 4.4: Governor valve

Steam Strainers
Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Each ESV is surrounded by a cylindrical strainer. The strainer has many


2- to 5-mm-diameter holes. It prevents solid particles of foreign matter
from getting entrained with the steam entering the turbine. These
particles could cause serious damage to the mrbine blading if they enter
the turbine. It is essential to have a thorough steam blow of all pipework
before commissioning a plant.

4.3.2 Hydraulic Actuators

The output of the electronic speed and load controller requires


conversion from a current signal to a mechanical force of sufficient
power to actuate the steam valves. It is the function of the hydraulic
power system. Figure 4.5 shows hydraulic system with a servo-valve.
The feedback to the amplifier in the governing system is provided by a
linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

The function of the servo-valve is to provide an output flow rate of


hydraulic fluid proportional to the input current. The input current,
derived by the governor servo-amplifier is applied to the coils of a force
motor thereby deflecting the armature and drive arm mounted in a
flexure tube. The high pressure supply is filtered and supplied via
orifices to the boost chambers and at either end of the spool. The fluid
from each boost chamber is cross-connected via porting to the reverse
ends of the servo-spool. It. travels down the centre of the spool and
returns to low pressure via the drain port. The deflection of the drive
arm will block one or other of the nozzles and create a high pressure in
one boost chamber and a low pressure in the other, thus creating a force
to move the servo-spool until the pressures are equalized. The spool
deflection is thus proportional to the drive arm deflection which is itself
proportional to the current

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

Figure 4.5: Basic servo hydraulic system


Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

4.4 Turbine Instrumentation

Turbine instrumentations can be classified in different categories as:

1. Supervisory instrumentation
" 2. Efficiency instrumentation
3. Auxiliary system instrumentation
4. Condition-monitoring instrumentation
5. Instrumentation associated with protection and control equipment
6. Instrumentation to provide post incident records

The most important of these six categories are supervisory and


efficiency instrumentation. This is due to the significant role they play in
monitoring plant safety and power production.

4.4.1 Supervisory Instrumentation

The supervisory instruments are required continuously to determine the


condition of the main rotating and stationary components. The main
functions of supervisory instruments include the following:
1. To ensure safe operation within acceptable limits.
2. To provide advanced warning of deterioration in the performance
of the mrbine generator.

Maintenance or temporary restriction in die operating mode may be


required. The measured parameters include the following:
a) Rotor axial position. These measurements provide the relative axial
movement of the rotor. They are used to ensure that clearance
margins are maintained under all operating conditions. These
measurements are normally taken on each cylinder of the machine.
b) Cylinder expansions. These measurements provide the relative
radial movement between the rotors and the stators. They are used
to ensure that radial clearance margins are maintained under all
operating conditions. These measurements are normally taken on
each cylinder of the machine.
c) Bearing pedestal vibrations. These measurements are taken at each
bearing. They continuously monitor the dynamic behavior of the
machine.

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d) Shaft eccentricity. The radial excursion of the rotor (peak-to-peak)


relative to the stationary parts is measured on each rotor. This is
done to indicate abnormal or unsafe conditions
e) Shaft speed. The shaft speed is measured independently of the
mrbine governor. This measurement is used for operator
reference. It is mainly used during run-up.
f) Steam valve positions. The position of each steam valve is
measured. These measurements are used as a general reference for
the operator. They are used to determine if the load can be
increased or for diagnostic purposes.
g) Metal temperature measurements. The temperature of the turbines
is measured during normal operation and transient states. The
instruments are located in the high pressure (HP) and interceptor
steam valve chests, and in the cylinders of the HP and
intermediate-pressure (IP) mrbines.
h) Thrust bearing wear. These measurements are taken to ensure that
the wear of the thrust pads is within acceptable Hmits. If the wear
is higher than the acceptable limit, the mrbine generator rotor will
move with respect to the stator. This could have disastrous
consequences on die machine.

All of the measured parameters are displayed continuously for the


operator.

4.4.2 Efficiency Instrumentation

These instruments are used to determine or infer the thermal efficiency


of the plant. The information is stored to determine the long-term
trends. The temperatures and pressures of steam and water are measured
at different locations throughout the plant. These measurements are
taken to ensure that plant equipment is operating efficiendy. For
example, the conditions of steam and water at the inlet and oudet to the
feedwater heaters are measured. Unsatisfactory operation will not likely
result in shutdown of the plant; however, it will result in decreased
efficiency.

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4.5 Turbine Protection

4.5.1 Possible Hazards

Abnormal mrbine operating conditions will cause damage to the plant


and possibly to personnel if allowed to persist. The possible dangers
include the following:
• Over-speeding
• Lubricating oil failure
• High mrbine exhaust pressure (low condenser vacuum)
• Governor failure
• Water ingress to blading
• Thrust bearing failure
• Excessive vibration
• Excessive temperature differentials
• Excessive eccentricity

Supervisory equipment normally monitors the last four items. The


remaining dangers have more immediate effects on the plant. They are
detected by systems that depressurize the hydraulic pressure of the
governing system. This results in shutting the steam valves and
disconnecting of the generator.

The preceding list includes dangers that only affect the turbine. Other
hazards specific to the boilers, generator, transformers, and high-voltage
connections can also initiate a mrbine-generator trip.

The consequences of over-speed are very serious for the plant and
personnel. Therefore, the protective systems have been designed to
prevent over-speed. The turbine governing system protects the unit
from over-speed. However, if it malfunctions, a separate over-speed
tripping system will become activated. When the generator is connected
to the grid, the mrbine cannot over-speed (the generator is coupled
magnetically with the grid). The possibility of over-speed occurs during
run-up and when the unit is disconnected suddenly from the load
(during a load rejection). The unit is normally disconnected from the
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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

grid due to an internal problem such as a loss of lubricating oil. The


possibility of over-speed is normally reduced by coordinating the
opening of the circuit breaker and the closure of the steam valves. The
turbine will over-speed when the torque generated by the steam flow
exceeds the counter torque generated by the load. Thus, whenever
possible, the steam valves should close while the unit is still connected
to the grid.

When the steam flow drops below the one required to overcome friction
losses [bearings and windage (rubbing of air or hydrogen against the
generator rotor)], the generator starts to act as a motor. It starts to pull
current from the grid to continue running at the operating speed. The
circuit breaker now opens on reverse power. This sequence of activities
prevents the chance of over-speed. This type of a trip is known as
category B trip. I f the steam valves fail to close and the generator gets
disconnected from the grid, the unit will suffer disastrous consequences.
However, if the generator remains connected to the grid when the steam
valves fail to close, the mrbine will not over-speed. The unit can be shut
down safely by closing the boiler stop valves. All tripping conditions that
follow this sequence of events are known as category B trips. They
include the following:
• Governor failure
• Lubricating oil failure
• Over-speed
• Water ingress
• Manual emergency stop
Other trips, such as turbine high-exhaust pressure trips and some
electrical trips, require immediate disconnection of the generator from
the grid. These trips are known as category A trips. If the turbine
exhaust pressure is high, the last stage of the blades in the low-pressure
(LP) mrbine will become overheated and damaged. The turbine
unloading gear (included in the governing system) reduces the mrbine
load to avoid tripping. Some units use LP exhaust temperature sprays.
They are activated when high temperature is detected. They are also
used when the mrbine load drops below a predetermined value. The
possibility of heating the mrbine blading at low load is high. This is due
to the low flow that is unable to remove the heat generated. The LP
mrbine also has bursting diaphragms fitted in the casing. They operate at
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a pressure slightly higher than atmospheric. Alternating-current (AC)


and standby ciirect-current (DC) pumps ensure continuous supply of
lubricating oil to the bearings. However, in case of a pipe fracture, the
mrbine is tripped on low lubricating oil pressure. If the governing
system fails (e.g., due to failure of more than one channel), a tripping
signal is sent to the protection scheme. Water can enter the mrbine due
to malfunction of the boiler or feed controls. This event has a higher
probability of occurrence during load variations. Wet steam or even
slugs of water could enter the high-pressure (HP) steam line. The
protection required varies with the boiler type and the degree of hazard.
If superheated steam is supplied from a steam drum, mrbine protection
may not be required if the loss of boiler firing can be adequately
detected and alarmed. In this case, the operator can take the necessary
corrective action.

If superheated steam is supplied from a once-through boiler, the turbine


should be tripped on low steam temperature before saturated steam
reaches the turbine. If the mrbine is not tripped in this case, the mrbine
blades could become fractured. The sudden ingress of wet steam could
generate significant axial (thrust) loads on the turbine blading. Thus, the
plant must be designed to accept this condition or be protected against
it. Water can also enter the turbine from the feedheaters (backflow).
This can occur upon a load rejection. In this case, the pressure inside the
turbines drops to a lower value than the one in the feedheaters.Check
valves are installed on the extraction lines to the feedheaters to prevent
this reverse flow.

4.5.2 Protection Scheme

There are two types of trip-mitiating devices:


1. Devices that are operated by an electrical changeover contact
2. Devices those are capable of tripping the hydraulic fluid system
directiy

A trip closes the mrbine steam valves and opens the generator circuit
breaker. As explained earlier, the trips are divided into categories A and
B. Redundancy is built into the tripping system. The failure of one
element in the system does not prevent tripping. The system includes

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

features to avoid spurious tripping as much as possible. Figure 4.6


illustrates the main functions of the hydraulic tripping system.

The interfaces with the electrical tripping system and the relays of the
emergency stop valves (ESVs) and governing valves (GVs) are also
shown. The redundancy of the electrical tripping system is not shown.

The unit has two sets of emergency trip valves and trip plungers. Each
set is associated with a set of over-speed trip bolts mounted in the
mrbine shaft. High-pressure fluid is supplied to the emergency trip
valves. If either valve is caused to trip (i.e., move to the left), the
protection fluid will be connected to drain via pipe A or pipe B. This
results in the closure of all mrbine steam valves.

During normal operation, a spigot maintains the spring in compression.


The spigot is held in place by the Y-shaped trip arm and latch. When the
over-speed trip is initiated, the manual trip or the solenoid trip releases
die spring-loaded latch. Thus, the protection fluid at high pressure in the
chamber located at the left-hand end of the emergency trip valve is
released to drain. It causes the valves to move to the tripped position. It
should be noted that when one over-speed trip occurs, the fluid on the
corresponding side of the interlock unit will go to drain. The piston in
the interlock unit will move, forcing the second emergency trip valve to
trip. Additional hydraulic units (not shown) are used to reset the trip
plungers and latches before subsequent trip run-up. Regular on-load
testing is done to identify and rectify any faults in the tripping system.

4.5.3 Over-speed Trip

The over-speed trip is initiated when the governing system fails to limit
the speed rise of the mrbine shaft. It is the final line of defense to
prevent a catastrophic failure of the mrbine. Turbine over-speed can
occur following a load rejection (when the unit becomes disconnected
from the grid). It can also occur when the unit is operating in the
islanding (unsynchronized) mode. If the governing system fails, higher
steam flow can enter the mrbine, leading to over-speed. If the over-
speed becomes excessive (approaching 100 percent), the centrifugal
forces acting on the rotating parts become extremely high. The blades

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Dr. Hesham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

will start to rupture and penetrate through the casing. The manufacturer
normally performs an over-speed test at 120 percent of the speed. This
speed is significandy lower than the design limit at which blade rupture
could occur (180 to 200 percent over-speed). The over-speed trip is
normally set in the range from 110 to 112.5 percent speed.

Figure 4.6: Hydraulic trip unit

A pair of spring-loaded trip bolts is used to detect the over-speed. They


are mounted in an extension of the shaft at the HP turbine end (Fig.
4.7). Each trip channel is associated with one trip bolt assembly. Each
assembly can be tested on-load. The center of gravity of the bolt is
located at a short distance from the axis of rotation. At normal speeds,
the bolt is held in place by a spring. When the over-speed trip set point
is reached, the centrifugal force acting on the bolt overcomes the spring
force. The bolt extends beyond the shaft. It trips the static trip lever and
releases a latch that trips die turbine. The tripping speed is adjusted
when the turbine is stationary. The over-speed trip test can be
performed without actually over-speeding the turbine or taking the set
off-load. The "front" or "rear" system is selected for testing. This action
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Dr. He sham El-Batsh, Steam Turbines

automatically isolates the associated emergency trip valve. A supply of


lubricating oil under pressure is injected into the rotating turbine shaft.
It flows through porting to the over-speed bolt being tested. The bolt
moves out and trips its emergency trip valves via the lever and trip
plunger. The test pressure is then released. The aforementioned items
are reset, and the second bolt is tested.

Figure 4.7: Over-speed governor

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