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Introduction:-

Complex number are introduced to provide solution of algebraic equation such as x2+1=0.x2-3x=0. There
is no real number whose square is a negative real number. Euler (1707-1783) was the first
mathematician who introduced the symbol I with the property that i2=-1. After Euler C.F Gauss (1777-
1855) provides rigar into treatment of complex number.

1. Preliminaries of complex numbers:


 Complex number:- A complex number is an expression of the form x+iy where x and y
are real numbers and i=√-1 is called purely imaginary number. If z=x+iy be a complex
number, then x=Re(z) and y=im(z) are real parts and imaginary parts of the complex
number z.
 Conjugates:- The conjugates of a complex number z=x+iy denoted by 𝑧̅ =x-iy. Ex:- Let
z=3+4i be a complex number then the conjugate is given by z=3-4i
 Low of conjugates: If z1 and z2 are two complex number then
I. ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅
𝑧1 + 𝑧2 =𝑧1 ̅̅̅+𝑧2
̅̅̅
II. ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅
𝑧1 − 𝑧2 =𝑧1 ̅̅̅-𝑧2
̅̅̅
III. ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅
𝑧1 ∗ 𝑧2 =𝑧1 ̅̅̅.𝑧2
̅̅̅
IV. ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅) =𝑧1
(𝑧1/𝑧2 ̅̅̅/𝑧2
̅̅̅

Equality: If z1=x+iy and z2=x+iy e c. then, z1=z2 iff x1=x2 and y1=y2

Absolute value: The absolute value of z=x+iy e c denoted by |z| and in defined by
|z|=√x2+y2 Evidently |z2|=x2+y2

Remark: |Re(z)|<=|z| and |im(z)|<=|z|

 Law of moduli:- If z1,z2 e c then


I. |z1.z2|=|z1||z2|
II. |z1/z2|=|z1|/|z2|,z2≠0
III. |z1+z2|<=|z1||z2| (Triangle inequality)
2. Geometrical representation of complex number:- A complex number z=x+iy can be regarded as
an order polar of read numbers i.e., z=(x.y). This form of z suggests that z can be represented by
a point p whose co-ordinates are x and y relative to rectangular axis x’x and y’y
y

y p(z)

x’ x x

y’
To each complex number there corresponds one and only one point in xy-plane and conversely.
Due to this fact, the complex number z is report to as a point in this plane. This plane is called
complex plane or Gaussion plane or Argand plane x’x and y’y are called real and imaginary axes
respectively.

3. Distance between complex numbers:-


Let z1=x1+iy1 and z2=x2+iy2 be the two complex numbers, then the distance between them is
given by,
z1-z2 = √(x1 − x2)² + (y1 − y2)²
4. Function of complex variable:-
Let s be the set of complex x number. A function ‘F’ defined on s in a rule which assigns every z
in s a complex number w called the value of F at z.
Symbolically written as w=F(z)
Where z is called complex variable. The set s is called the domain of the definition of F. If
u and v are real value function of the real variable and y, then the complex function.
W= F(z) can be written in the form
W= F(z) = U(x,y) + iv(x,y)
W depends on z = x+iy
Here U(x,y) and V(x,y) are the real parts and imaginary parts of F(z)
i.e., u=ReF(z) and v=imF(z)
Ex:- Express F(z)=z2 in form u(x,y)+iv(x,y)
Given, F(z)=z2
F(z)=w=z2
U+iv=(x+y)2
U(x,y)+iv(x,y)=x2-y2+2ixy
And u(x,y) =x2-y2
V(x,y)=2xy
5. Polar Forms of a complex number:
Let P be a points in complex plane represented by the complex z=x+iy as shown below,
y

π=|z| p(x,y)

θ y

x’ x

y’
Now let x=πcosθ

Y=πsinθ

And thus z=x+iy

=πcosθ+iπsinθ

=π(cosθ+isinθ)

=πeiθ ------------------ (i)

And π=|z| = √𝑥² + 𝑦²

πsinθ/πcosθ = y/x

tanθ=y/x

θ=tan-1x and eθ=cosθ+isinθ

π is called modules and θ is called argument or amplitude of z.

Argument of z is denoted by arg(z) = θ = tan-1(y/x). The representation (i) of the complex z is


called polar representation.

It is important to note that the value of z in the equation (i) does not change if θ is replaced by
0π + θ.

Thus the argument θ of z is not unique. So θ can have infinite number of values which differ
from each other by 211.