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Complex number are introduced to provide solution of algebraic equation such as x2+1=0.x2-3x=0. There
is no real number whose square is a negative real number. Euler (1707-1783) was the first
mathematician who introduced the symbol I with the property that i2=-1. After Euler C.F Gauss (1777-
1855) provides rigar into treatment of complex number.

1. Preliminaries of complex numbers:

 Complex number:- A complex number is an expression of the form x+iy where x and y
are real numbers and i=√-1 is called purely imaginary number. If z=x+iy be a complex
number, then x=Re(z) and y=im(z) are real parts and imaginary parts of the complex
number z.
 Conjugates:- The conjugates of a complex number z=x+iy denoted by 𝑧̅ =x-iy. Ex:- Let
z=3+4i be a complex number then the conjugate is given by z=3-4i
 Low of conjugates: If z1 and z2 are two complex number then
I. ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅
𝑧1 + 𝑧2 =𝑧1 ̅̅̅+𝑧2
II. ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅
𝑧1 − 𝑧2 =𝑧1 ̅̅̅-𝑧2
III. ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅
𝑧1 ∗ 𝑧2 =𝑧1 ̅̅̅.𝑧2
IV. ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅) =𝑧1
(𝑧1/𝑧2 ̅̅̅/𝑧2

Equality: If z1=x+iy and z2=x+iy e c. then, z1=z2 iff x1=x2 and y1=y2

Absolute value: The absolute value of z=x+iy e c denoted by |z| and in defined by
|z|=√x2+y2 Evidently |z2|=x2+y2

Remark: |Re(z)|<=|z| and |im(z)|<=|z|

 Law of moduli:- If z1,z2 e c then

I. |z1.z2|=|z1||z2|
II. |z1/z2|=|z1|/|z2|,z2≠0
III. |z1+z2|<=|z1||z2| (Triangle inequality)
2. Geometrical representation of complex number:- A complex number z=x+iy can be regarded as
an order polar of read numbers i.e., z=(x.y). This form of z suggests that z can be represented by
a point p whose co-ordinates are x and y relative to rectangular axis x’x and y’y

y p(z)

x’ x x

To each complex number there corresponds one and only one point in xy-plane and conversely.
Due to this fact, the complex number z is report to as a point in this plane. This plane is called
complex plane or Gaussion plane or Argand plane x’x and y’y are called real and imaginary axes

3. Distance between complex numbers:-

Let z1=x1+iy1 and z2=x2+iy2 be the two complex numbers, then the distance between them is
given by,
z1-z2 = √(x1 − x2)² + (y1 − y2)²
4. Function of complex variable:-
Let s be the set of complex x number. A function ‘F’ defined on s in a rule which assigns every z
in s a complex number w called the value of F at z.
Symbolically written as w=F(z)
Where z is called complex variable. The set s is called the domain of the definition of F. If
u and v are real value function of the real variable and y, then the complex function.
W= F(z) can be written in the form
W= F(z) = U(x,y) + iv(x,y)
W depends on z = x+iy
Here U(x,y) and V(x,y) are the real parts and imaginary parts of F(z)
i.e., u=ReF(z) and v=imF(z)
Ex:- Express F(z)=z2 in form u(x,y)+iv(x,y)
Given, F(z)=z2
And u(x,y) =x2-y2
5. Polar Forms of a complex number:
Let P be a points in complex plane represented by the complex z=x+iy as shown below,

π=|z| p(x,y)

θ y

x’ x

Now let x=πcosθ


And thus z=x+iy



=πeiθ ------------------ (i)

And π=|z| = √𝑥² + 𝑦²

πsinθ/πcosθ = y/x


θ=tan-1x and eθ=cosθ+isinθ

π is called modules and θ is called argument or amplitude of z.

Argument of z is denoted by arg(z) = θ = tan-1(y/x). The representation (i) of the complex z is

called polar representation.

It is important to note that the value of z in the equation (i) does not change if θ is replaced by
0π + θ.

Thus the argument θ of z is not unique. So θ can have infinite number of values which differ
from each other by 211.