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HERBAL TECHNOLOGY AN OVERVIEW ITS STANDARDIZATION IN FORMULATIONS

Prof. A. Ravi Kumar M.Pharm., Ph.D HEAD OF DEPARTMENT PHARMACOGNOSY TOPIC:

HERBAL TECHNOLOGY AN OVERVIEW ITS STANDARDIZATION IN FORMULATIONS

C. 1.Introduction 1.Introduction 2.Classification 2.Classification Tooth cosmetics A. A. Skin Skin cosmetics cosmetics

C.

1.Introduction1.Introduction

2.Classification2.Classification

Tooth cosmetics

A.A. SkinSkin cosmeticscosmetics

CreamCream

LipLip balmbalm

PowderPowder

LotionLotion && LinimentLiniment

FaceFace packpack

DeodorantDeodorant && antiperspirantantiperspirant

BathBath preparationpreparation B.HairB.Hair cosmeticscosmetics

ShampooShampoo

Mouth wash

Dentifrices

D.

Nail preparation

E.

Shaving preparations

F.

Foot preparations

INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

DefinitionDefinition ofof cosmetic:cosmetic:

CosmeticsCosmetics byby theirtheir intendedintended use,use, asas articlesarticles intendedintended toto bebe rubbed.rubbed. Poured,Poured, sprinkled,sprinkled, oror sprayedsprayed on,on, introducedintroduced inin to,to, oror otherwiseotherwise appliedapplied toto thethe humanhuman bodybody forfor cleansing,cleansing, beautifying,beautifying, promoting,promoting, attractiveness,attractiveness, oror alteringaltering thethe appearance.appearance. HERBALHERBAL COSMECEUTICALS:COSMECEUTICALS:

Cosmetics containing an active ingredient obtained from plant origin. Objectives:

To enhance the general appearance of face and other body parts to minimize the skin defects to a considerable extent Psychological, social and clinical application.

The main function of this covering is to protect body, eliminate waste material & regulate body temperature.

CreamsCreams

semi-solid emulsions that is mixtures of oil and water

UsesUses ofof creamscreams

Protect the skin Retention of moisture Cleansing Emollient effects As barrier with sunscreens

IdealIdeal characteristiccharacteristic

Non toxic Easily spreads Remains stable Not too hygroscopic Easy to remove

1.1. AccordingAccording toto emulsionemulsion phasephase

W/OW/O creamscreams Eg: Cold cream, Emollient cream

O/WO/W creamscreams Eg: Shaving cream, foundation cream, Vanishing cream

2.2. AccordingAccording toto functionalfunctional aspectaspect

• Cold & cleansing creams

• Night & Nourishing creams

• Vanishing & Foundation creams

• All –purpose cream

• Others : Anti-acne, anti-wrinkle cream

Invented by GalenGalen: Galen's cold cream was based on beeswax and water, also containing olive oil and rose petals for softness and scent. It is an emulsion of water and certain fats (W/O) NormallyNormally followingfollowing basebase areare used:used:

Almond oil, white bees wax Borax (used as emulsifier),Rose water

MethodMethod ofof preparation:preparation:

Dissolve borax in hot rose water.

Melt various waxes together keeping the temp. about 70C.

Mix both the oil & water phase at same temp. with constant

stirring.

Mix

without heat for 1 hrs &when cool (45-50C), add perfume

For

example:

(Red apple extract)

o/wo/w CreamsCreams

When applied to the skin leave an almost invisible layer on it. Produce emollient and moisturizing effect. Method:Method:

•Melt stearic acid & lanolin. Mix water, glycerine, extract & triethanolamine &warm to same temp. as that of melted stearic acid and lanolin. Mix with continuous stirring. • Add preservative &perfume. Mix them thoroughly in order to obtain a uniform product

vanishingvanishing cream:cream:

Stearic acid, Glycerin, Lanolin, Triethanolamine, Natural jojoba extract, Preservative, Water, perfume.

It is non greasy &provides nourishment & protection to the skin. Example: Ingredients: Aloe vera

It is non greasy &provides nourishment & protection to the skin. Example:

Ingredients:

Aloe vera (Nourishes & moisturizes the skin)

Indian Kino tree, Ashwaganda (Protect(Protect skinskin fromfrom pollutionpollution && drydry weather)weather)

Gotu Kola (May increases the production of collagen) Other Ingredients:

Liquid paraffin, Glycerin,BHT, Sodium EDTA, phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben,etc.

Nourishes the skin all night with revitalizers, nutrients & moisturizers.

It provides moisture to the skin by preventing evaporation.

Composition:

Pyrus malus (Crab Apple): Cooling, Soothing and Keratolytic Triticum sativum (Wheat): Preventing black heads. Citrus limon (Lemon):It protects the skin from oxidative damage Lilium polyphyllum (White Lily): Astringent

Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato):Antioxidant

A great moisturizer for dry skin that helps heal, repair, and maintain soft, supple skin.

A great moisturizer for dry skin that helps heal, repair, and maintain soft, supple skin. Increasing skin hydration (by reducing evaporation)

Method of formulation:

Heat coconut oil & beeswax until wax melt. Stir & cool slowlyslowly addadd thethe aloealoe veravera gelgel aa dropdrop atat aa time.time. Continue stirring & when the mixture thickens, add the vitamin oil & chamomile extract.

Ingredients

Aloe vera gel

Chamomile

extract

Vitamin E

Coconut oil

Beeswax

It acts as a superficial disease that affects the hair follicles and oil secreting glands of the skin.

Composition

Lens culinaris(Lentil) Silk cotton tree Saurashtri(Alum) Vitex negundo

actions

Reduce inflammation Astringent Emollient Anti-inflammatory

Sunscreen cream are those topical preparations which protect the skin by harmful sunlight either by

Sunscreen cream are those topical preparations which protect the skin by harmful sunlight either by scatter sunlight or to absorb erythemogenic radiations. ExamplesExamples Aloe vera Fat-soluble walnut extract Bees wax Hydrogenated ricinus oil

It delays wrinkles and smoothes fine lines. Regular use prevents oxidative skin damage. Composition Aloe

It delays wrinkles and smoothes fine lines. Regular use prevents oxidative skin damage.

Composition

Aloe vera

Papaver rhoeas

Action

antibacterial & antifungal

emollient

nourish the skin

antioxidant

alleviate itching and inflammation.

It inhibits the formation of melanin. It reduces pigmentation. Composition Rosa centifolia Citrus reticulata Aloe

It inhibits the formation of melanin. It reduces pigmentation.

Composition

Action

improves complexion removes blemishes

moisturizes and softens skin.

Rubia cordifolia

Santalum album

Sympiocos racemosa

reduces freckles

reduces irritation

lightens color

It prevents chapping, drying & cracking of the lips. It contains a natural UV filter

It prevents chapping, drying & cracking of the lips. It contains a natural UV filter and Vit.E which nourishes, tones and softens the lips.

Composition Action

Ricinus communis relieve various inflammatory conditions of the skin & mucus membrane

Cocos nucifera

emollient (softening the lips)

Triticum sativum

prevents loss of moisture from the skin (vit.E)

Wrightia

Anti bacterial , astringent

tinctoria

Daucus carota

sunscreen & fragrance

Lotion

A lotion is a low- to medium-viscosity, topical preparation intended for application to unbroken skin; creams and gels have a higher viscosity. It is applied without friction. Most lotions are oil-in-water emulsions.

Lotions can be used for the delivery to the skin of medications such as:

Antibiotics ,Antiseptics ,Antifungal ,Corticosteroids ,Anti-acne agents Soothing, smoothing, moisturizing or protective agents.

Various types of lotions are

Hand and body lotions

Skin toning lotions

Astringent lotions

Medicated lotions

TheThe rawraw materialsmaterials usedused inin makingmaking thethe lotionlotion includesincludes

Natural gums (family- Leguminosae)

Gum acacia (Acacia arabica)

Guar gum (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus)

Tragacanth (Astragalus gummifer)

Natural antiseptic

Haldi (Curcuma longa)

Eucalyptous oil

Neem

Water, Glycerin and other humectants, Alcohol, perfume

Natural astringents

Witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana)

Rosemary oil (Rosmarinus officinalis)

Natural preservatives Artemisia afra Pteronia incana

Cooling agents

Menthol (Mentha piperata)

Face packs

It stimulates the blood circulation, tone the muscles and maintain the elasticity of the skin. Also they draw out impurities from the pores.

Composition

Azadirachta indica

Fuller's earth

Curcuma longa

Action

antibacterial , helps in controlling acne and pimples

anti-inflammatory

antiseptic

COSMETICS FOR HAIR

Shampoo: liquid, creamy or gel-like

Cleansing of hair without leaving the hair greasy & dry.

Not

produce

irritation

in

eye,

Contain

an

effective

germicide, fungicide or antiseptic, Easy to remove • Reduce the degree of itching, scaling and inflammation

Ingredients use in shampoos:

A. Surfactants:

Anionic surfactants superior foaming properties and low cost E.g Alkyl benzene sulphonates Cationic surfactants- They produce good foam, leave hair lustrous and have good. E.g. Cetyl pyridinum salts Amphoteric surfactants-E.g. n-alkyl amino acids good cleansing and foaming properties

B) Conditioning agent: Mineral oil, lanolin

C) Viscosity modifiers: NaCl, Natural gums

Thickening of shampoo

D) Opacifying agents: TiO2

E) Sequestering agent: EDTA

F) Preservatives: Methyl/propyl parabens

G) Perfumes:

H) Antimicrobials- Thymol Classified according to function as:

Protein shampoo

Anti dandruff shampoo

Conditioning shampoo

Protein shampoo

Contents

Weight

Acacia concinna (shikakai)

47.60 mg

Vetiveria zizanioids (ushira)

6.95 mg

Nardostachys jatamansi (musk root)

6.95

mg

Sapindus mukorossi (soap nut)

2.08 mg

Trigonella foenum-gracum (fenugreek)

Water up to

2.08 mg

1 ml

USES:

Shikakai and ushira- soften the hair

• Musk roof- promotes hair growth

• Soapnut- hair from excessive oil secretion, dirt, dust

• Fenugreek- provide natural proteins

Anti-dandruff shampoo

Contents

Weight

Rosmarinus officinalis (rusmari)

103 mg

Azadirachta indica (neem)

5.15 mg

Ocimum sanctum (tulsi)

5.15 mg

Acacia concinna (shikakai)

5.15 mg

Phylsanthus emblica (amla)

5.15 mg

Lawsonia inermis (henna)

5.15 mg

Water up to

5 ml

Significance of each extract:

Rusmari- destroys dandruff

Neem- protects from germs

Tulsi- protects from germs

Shikakai- cleanses and conditions hair

Amla- strengtns hair, Henna- provides rich and healthy shine

Conditioning shampoo

To enhance untangling of wet hair and improve manageability of both wet and hair.

Formulation of conditioning shampoo

Contents

Weight

CicerCicer arietinumarietinum (Chick(Chick pea)pea)

60 mg

SapindusSapindus mukorossimukorossi (Ritha)(Ritha)

60 mg

JasminumJasminum officinaleofficinale (Jasmine)(Jasmine)

40 mg

EcliptaEclipta albaalba (Thistle)(Thistle)

15 mg

HAIR COLORANTS

Hair dye should possess following characteristics:

It should be non-injurious to the hair shaft It should possess no systemic toxic effect or irritation when applied to the hair It should have affinity for hair keratin Some herbs used to color the hair include:

Eclipta alba: WholeWhole plantplant extractextract isis usefuluseful forfor hairhair nourishmentnourishment andand dyeingdyeing

Juglans regia:Leaves and haul of fruits for hair dyeing •Lawsonia inermis (henna), •Acacia katechu, Emblica officinalis (amla) •Tea leaves

TOOTH PREPARATIONS

To prevent and control of teeth disorders, which include dentifrices and mouthwash

DENTIFRICES:

The basic requirements of a dentifrice are-

1. To remove food debris, plaque and stain.

2. It should leave the mouth with a fresh, clean sensation.

3. It should be harmless, pleasant and convenient to use.

Various botanicals used in preparation of dentifrices are

BOTANICALBOTANICAL

ACTIVITY

Azadirachta indica (Neem)

Eugenia caryophyllus(Laung) Clove oil is used as analgesic in tooth pain

Protects gums from bacteria

Glycyrrhiza glabra(mulethi)

Cinnamomum

zeylanicum(dalchini)

It cures mouth ulcers

Cinnamon oil is used as flavouring agent

Mentha piperita(pudina)

flavoring agent and has mild antiseptic properties

TOOTH PASTE

To remove adherent soiling matter from a hard surface with minimal damage

INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY %

ROLE

Calcium pyrophosphate

38

abrasive

stannous pyrophosphate

2

abrasive

Stannous fluoride

0.4

fluoride

Glycerin

25

humectant

Sorbitol

12.5

humectant

Irish moss

1.5

Binders

Sodium saccharin

0.05

Sweetners

Sodium lauryl sulphate

2

Surfactners

Water

100

Solvent

Flavor

Qs

flavour

METHOD OF FORMULATION

•The hydration of the gelling agent •Dispersion of the abrasive in gel •To add the active ingredients late in the mixing cycle •Add the surface active agent •Flavor last of all. For example –

1.1. HerbalHerbal toothpastetoothpaste

Ingredients :

Calcium carbonate,sorbitol, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare),clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllus),Neem leaf(azadirachta indica),and neem bark,peppermint (mentha piperita),essential oils,ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

Mouth washes

To give a healthier and fresher mouth and to provide some assurance of good breath odour.

Ingredients:

Deionized water,

certified organic aloe barbadensis gel, super critical extracts of mentha piperata, azadirachta indica leaf and bark, Eugenia caryophilous, ascorbic acid, xylitol, potassium sorbate

Nail preparations

Nail Enamels:

Nitrocellulose

Solvent, like toluene

Pigments: minerals or organic lakes

Plasticizer like DEP, camphor

Resin for film strength and flexibility: Toluene Sulfonamide

Formaldehyde,

Nail cream- Nails can become brittle due to dehydration. Nail creams contain an emmolient like olive oil and lanolin

Shaving preparations

Shaving cream:

A good shaving cream should have following characteristics:

It must give an abundant lather It must remain soft in tube It must tacky to adhere to both brush & face

For example:

Stearic acid, Mineral oil, Beeswax, Menthol, Soap flakes, Water

After shave preparations

To relieve slight irritation after shaving. To recover injury after shaving. HumectantsHumectants andand emollientsemollients-like glycerol and sorbitol etc Cooling effect of skin is achieved by adding menthol Astringency is achieved by adding witchwitch hazelhazel extractextract andand zinzin Eg. NiveaNivea afterafter shaveshave lotionlotion

Contains:

chamomilechamomile, vitamin E, and provitamin B5. Calms skin helps to prevent irritations.

Foot preparation

Bacteria staphylococcus epidermidis giving rise to bad odors.

Composition

Action

Shoera robusta (sal tree)

Antimicrobial

Curcuma longa (turmeric)

Antiseptic

Trigonella foenum graceum (fenugreek)

Arevents boils, ulcers

Zingiber officinale (ginger)

Aubifacient