Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 11



Subject Code: 2160503 TUTORIAL Subject Name: Process Equipment Design -I
01 Briefly explain Tinker’s flow model.
02 Give the stepwise design procedure for shell and tube heat exchanger without any phase change.
03 Discuss in detail about the various criteria of selection between horizontal and vertical condenser.
04 Why expansion joint is provided in fixed tube sheet heat exchanger.
05 Name the various types of baffles and its functions in shell and tube heat exchanger.
06 Discuss the criteria for fluid allocation in shell & tube heat exchanger.
07 Discuss advantage and disadvantage of plate heat exchanger over shell and tube heat exchanger.
08 Discuss the process design of kettle type reboiler.
01 In vertical thermosyphon reboiler recirculation ratio is fixed by trial and error method. Discuss how to find
or fix the recirculation ratio in the following conditions: (i) ΔPav ≈ ΔPt (ii) ΔPav > ΔPt (iii)ΔPav < ΔPt
02 Write a brief note on selection of heating media and cooling media in heat exchanger.
03 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different types of shell and tube heat exchanger with each
04 Discuss the effect of following in the design of without phase change floating head type shell and tube heat
exchanger (i) Providing sealing strips (ii) Increase in number to tube side passes (iii) Decrease in baffle
05 Discuss in detail about criteria of selection and advantages and disadvantages of kettle type reboiler and
thermosyphon reboiler.
06 Discuss the design of plate type heat exchanger.
07 Write a short note on air cooled heat exchangers and air heaters.
01. Lube oil is to be cooled from 65oC to 45oC by using cooling water in fixed tube sheet type shell and tube
heat exchanger where lube oil is circulated on shell side and water is on tube side. The design data are as
follows. Lube oil flow rate - 450 L/min, Density of lube oil - 869 kg/m3 , Specific heat of lube oil - 2.1413
kJ/kgoC, Thermal conductivity of lube oil - 0.13 W/m oC, Viscosity of lube oil - 15 cP, Cooling water inlet
temp. – 35oC, Cooling water outlet temp. – 39 oC, Specific heat of water - 4.1868 kJ/kgoC, Viscosity of water
- 0.73 cP. Thermal conductivity of water - 0.628 W/moC, Density of Water - 993.32 kg/m3
Specification of fixed tube sheet heat exchanger: Shell inside diameter - 418 mm , Tube O.D. - 15.875 mm,
Type of baffle - 25% segmental, Tube I.D. - 13.3858 mm, Baffle spacing - 83.6 mm, Tube length - 3.048 m,
Tube pitch - 1.25dO, Type of tube arrangement – Triangular, Nos. of tube side passes – 4, LMTD correction
factor - 0.95, Assume Overall heat transfer Coefficient - 400 W/m2oC.
(i) Number of tubes (ii) tube side heat transfer coefficient and (iii) shell side heat transfer coefficient. Use
following correlation.

02. Design shell and tube horizontal condensor for condensation of 39000 kg/hr npropanol at 0.3 kgf/cm 2g by
cooling water at 32oCto 45oC. The condensing temp. at this pressure is
85.2oC. The dirt factors of both shell & tube side is 2200 kcal/hrm2oC. Assume that allowable pressure drop
on both the side is within limit. Assume the tube o.d. of 19.05 mm and 23.81 mm triangular pitch. Tube
wall thickness to be taken as 1.65 mm. Assume isothermal condensation. Properties for n-propanol:
Latent heat of condensation: 158 kcal/kg Thermal conductivity: 0.14 kcal/hrmoC Liquid density: 800 kg/m3
Liquid viscosity: 0.62 cP Vapor viscosity: 0.008 cP Thermal conductivity of tube metal = 39 kcal/hrm oC.
Condensation coefficient is to be calculated as:

03. Gas oil at 200 °C is to be cooled to 40 °C. The oil flow rate is 22500 kg/h. Cooling water is available at 30 °C
and the temperature rise is to be limited to 20 °C. The pressure drop allowance for each stream is 100
kN/m2 . Design a suitable heat exchanger. Physical properties of the fluid:

Temperature correction factor Ft = 0.94

Base your design on overall heat transfer coefficient = 500 W/m2°C
Tube OD = 20 mm, Tube ID = 16mm, Tube length = 4m, Triangular pitch pt=1.25dO,
Number of tube side passes =04, Shell diameter = 667 mm, baffle spacing = 133 mm
Take water in tube side. Oil side heat transfer coefficient = 5000 W/m2 °C
Water side heat transfer coefficient = 4000 W/m2 °C
Thermal conductivity of tube wall material = 45 W/m°C
Assume the pressure drop are within permissible limit. shell side heat transfer coefficient:

01. Design shell and tube heat condenser for condensation of 46000 kg/hr n- propanol at 0.25 kgf/cm2 g by
cooling water at 320C. The dirt factor of both shell and tube side is 2000 kcal/hrm2oC. Assume that
allowable pressure drop on both the side is within limit. Assume the tube o.d. of 19.5 mm and 23.81 mm
triangular pitch. Tube wall thickness to be taken as 1.65 mm. assumes isothermal condensation. Properties
of n-propanol. Latent heat of condensation : 158 kcal/kg Thermal conductivity : 0.14 kcal/hrm oC Liquid
density : 800 kg/m3 Liquid viscosity : 0.62 cP Vapor viscosity : 0.01 cP Condensation co efficient is to be
calculated as:

02. 10900 kg/h of nearly pure saturated methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) vapor at 13.73 kPa g is to be condensed
and cooled to 60 ᵒC by cooling water which is available in plant at 32 ᵒC. Assume Uc = 800 W/m2ᵒC and
Usub = 200 W/m2 ᵒC. Calculate the % excess heat transfer area for the given condenser.

03. A horizontal shell & tube condenser is to be designed to condense 3.2 kg/s of isobutane at 8.3 kg/cm 2 .
Water available at 25oC is to be used in another process unit at 37oC. Tubes of 15 mm inside diameter & 2
mm wall thickness are available. Maximum lengths of the tubes are 4 m. The tubes are to be arranged on
25 mm square pitch. Fouling resistance on each side = 0.0004 m2 k/W. Condensation temperature of
isobutane = 640C. Latent heat of condensation of isobutene = 275 KJ/kg. Overall heat transfer for
condensing isobutene vapor ranges from 390 to 500 W/m2 K. Water velocity should not exceed 3m/s and
not to below 0.5 m/s. Thermal conductivity of material = 16 W/m 2 k. Assume isothermal condensation.
Physical Properties of isobutane:- K = 0.26 W/m K , ρ = 1080 kg/m3 , μ = 0.00477 kg/m s Physical Properties
of Water:- K = 0.62 W/m K , ρ = 1000 kg/m3 , μ = 0.00072 kg/m s, Cp = 4.1868 kJ/kg ˚C Friction factor f =
0.046 Re -0.2 Data for bundle diameter calculation: for Square pitch arrangement.

Design a suitable condenser

04. Methanol from top of Distillation column is to be condensed outside tube in a Shell & Tube condenser at
rate 1000 Kg/hr at atm pressure using Cooling water at 25ºC. If Tube (O.D. =23.8mm and I.D. = 19.5 mm )
with triangular orientation is to be used, find the No. Of Tubes.
hc = 0.95 kL { ρL(ρL - ρV)g / µLΓ } 0.33
Methanol Properties: ρ = 790 Kg/M3 ,µ = .01 CP, λ=300 Kcal/Kg, B.P. =64oC
Γ = Wc/Nt Π d0 Water Properties: ρ = 1000 Kg/M3 ,µ = .8 CP, λ=525 Kcal/Kg

01. Define schedule number, Equivalent length of pipe and NPSH
02. For the specified location of the pump calculated value of (NPSH)A is coming less than (NSPH)R. Suggest all
possible solutions to make(NPSH)A greater than (NPSH)R.
03. Write a brief note on NPSH for centrifugal pumps.
04. Discuss the Process Design of Fans and compressor.
01. Crude dichlorobenzene is pumped from a storage tank to a distillation column. The tank is blanketed with
nitrogen and the pressure above the liquid surface is held constant at 0.1 bar g. The minimum depth of
liquid in the tank is 1 m. The distillation column operates at a pressure of 500 mm hg (absolute). The feed
point to the column is 12 m above the base of tank. The tank and column are connected by a 50 mm
internal diameter commercial steel pipe, 200 m long. The pipe running from the tank to the column
contains the valves and fittings: 20 no. of standard radius 90˚ elbows, two gate valves (fully open), an
orifice plate and a flow control valve. Neglect the friction loss in suction line. If the maximum flow rate
required is 20000 kg/hr, calculate the power required by pump. Pump efficiency is 70%. Pressure drop
across the control valve is 0.5 bar. Density of the dichlorobenzene is 1300 kg/m3 and viscosity is 1.4 cP.
Pressure drop for turbulent flow of fluid through commercial steel pipe in KPa/m

02. A three stage reciprocating compressor is used to compress 306 Sm3 /h of methane from 0.95 atm a to 61.3
atm a. The inlet temperature is 26.7 °C. Specific heat ratio of methane is 1.31. Calculate (1) Power required
for compression, if mechanical efficiency is 80% and (2) discharge temperature of gas after 1st stage.
03. Benzene at 38°C is pumped through the system at a rate 9.09 m3/hr with the help of a centrifugal pump.
The reservoir is at atmospheric pressure. Pressure at the end of discharge line is 345 kPa g. The discharge
head is 3.05 meter and the 07 1 pump suction head is 1.22 meter above the level of liquid in reservoir. The
friction loss in suction line is 3.45 kPa and that in discharge line is 37.9 kPa. The mechanical efficiency of the
pump is 0.6. The density of benzene is 865 kg/m3 and its vapor pressure at 38°C is 26.2 kPa. Calculate (1)
NPSH and (2) Power required by pump. Power required by pump is given by,
P= (H×qv ×ρ) / (3.67×105 ×η)
Where P= power required in kW, H= Total dynamic head in meter, qv= volumetric flow rate,
m3/hr, ρ= density of fluid, kg/m3 , η= mech. efficiency of pump.
01. Find out the power required for a turbo blower for the following duty. Fluid- Atmospheric Air, Capacity-
1000 Nm3/hr Discharge pressure - 2 atm a, Inlet temperature of Air- 500oC
For air k=1.395. Power requirement for blower is given by,
P = 2.78 × 10-4 k/(k-1) × qv1 × p1[(p2/p1)(k-1)/k -1]
Where P= Power required in kW, p1= inlet pressure in kPa, p2= discharge pressure,
qv1= volumetric flow rate of air based on inlet condition in m3/hr.
Also find the discharge temperature of air.
02. A centrifugal pump is drawing water from an overhead tank, exposed to atmosphere. Vertical distance
between free surface of liquid in the tank and centre line of the pump is 10 m. Capacity of centrifugal pump
is 10000 kg/h. Maximum operating temperature is 50 °C. Vapor pressure of water at 50 °C is 92.51 torr.
Total length of suction pipe 10.5 m, having two 90 ° elbows. Material of pipe is carbon steel. Density of
water = 1000 kg/m3 , Viscosity of water = 0.558 cP, K-Value for 90º elbow is 0.75. Surface roughness of
carbon steel and friction factor are 0.0457 mm & 0.005 respectively. For the velocity of water in suction
line 1 m/s, Determine (i) the size of suction pipe (ii) total frictional pressure drop in suction line (iii) (NPSH)
of centrifugal pump.
03. Estimate the optimum pipe diameter for a flow of dry chlorine gas of 20000 kg/hr at 3 atm a and 25 0C
through carbon steel pipe.
04. Estimate the optimum pipe diameter for a flow of dry chlorine gas of 10000 kg/hr at 6 atm a and at 200c
through carbon steel pipe. Also give the importance of Schedule no. in pipe design.
01. Discuss the various factors considered for the selection of different types of trays for distillation column.
02. What is jet flooding and downcomer flooding? Explain the design steps for the determination of total
pressure drop in sieve tray distillation column.
03. State the advantages and disadvantages of vacuum distillation.
04. What is the function of downcomer? Discuss the different types of downcomer used in distillation column.
05. Explain FUG method for multi component distillation.
06. Explain McCabe-Thiele method for binary distillation.
01. Explain the method of selection of operating pressure in distillation column.
02. Give merits and demerits of vacuum distillation over conventional distillation.
03. Write short note on selection of key components in multi component distillation.
04. Discuss about the Determination of Optimum Reflux Ratio.
05. Explain and write all equations involved in following condition for sieve tray tower. (a) Pressure drop across
tray tower (b) Checking of weeping condition (c) Checking of Down comer flooding (d) Checking of liquid
06. Write a short note on flooding in tray type distillation column.
01. Determine the minimum reflux ratio for the binary distillation at standard atmospheric pressure based on
the following data:
Feed = 100 kmol/hr has mole fraction of benzene= 0.4 and rest toluene. Feed is saturated liquid and mole
fraction of benzene in distillate = 0.99 Mole fraction of benzene in residue required = 0.02, αav = 2.25.
02. Determine minimum reflux ratio, minimum number of theoretical stages required, optimum reflux ratio
and theoretical stages required for desired separation for following system by FUG method. Feed flow rate
is 70 kmol/hr and feed is saturated liquid. Composition of distillation column streams and average relative
volatilities of all components of feed are as follows.

Toluene is light key and ethyl benzene is heavy key component. Gilliland co relation is given by:

03. A saturated liquid consisting of Chloro methanes is fractioned to give a top product of 99.94% (by mole)
methyl chloride. Methyl chloride is light key and methylene chloride is heavy key component. Total
condenser is used. The compositions of the top product and of the methyl chlorides in the residues are

(a) Complete the material balance over the still for a feed rate of 100 kmol/hr. (b) Calculate the minimum
reflux ratio by Underwood’s method.
04. A saturated liquid, consisting of phenol and cresol with some xylenols, is fractioned to give a top product of
95.3 mole % phenol. Metacresol is heavy key and phenol is light key component. Total condenser is used.
The composition of the top product and of the phenol in the bottom is given. (i) Complete the material
balance over the still for a feed rate of 100 kmol/h and (ii) Calculate the minimum reflux ratio by
Underwood’s method.

01. Aqueous solution of ethanol contains 6 % by mass ethanol. It is to be concentrated in the distillation
column to 30 % by mass. Open steam, saturated at 80 kPa gauge pressure will be used for the distillation
column. Feed flow rate is 5000 kg/h and it is saturated liquid at its bubble point. Residue should not contain
more than 0.02 mass percent ethanol. Sparging steam flow rate is 0.2 kg of feed. Calculate the number of
theoretical stages required for the desired separation. The equilibrium data for ethanol-water system at
101.3 kPa is as follows.

02. Acetic acid is to be separated from a process stream containing 80 % acetic acid and 20 % Water (by mass)
by continuous distillation column at atmospheric pressure. Concentration of water in bottom product (pure
acetic acid) should not be greater than 50 ppm. Top product (distillate) contains 80% water and 20% acetic
acid (by mass). The feed is liquid at 300 C. estimate the number of theoretical stages required both
graphically and empirically. Vapor liquid equilibrium data are as follows.

Assume q=1.272 take R = 2Rm

03. A sieve tray tower is used for the distillation of acetic acid-water system. Maximum feed flow rate is 12000
kg/h and turn down ratio is 70%. Following data are available for this column. Feed composition: 54.55%
acetic acid and 45.45% water (by mole) Mole fraction of water: In distillate xD=0.9302, In Residue xW=
1.666*10-4 q=1.272 Reflux ratio R=4.2, Number of theoretical stages required = 25 Tray spacing = 0.45 m,
hole diameter = 5 mm. weir height = 50 mm, weir length lW = 0.77 Di.

Based on 85% flooding condition, Calculate (1) Tower diameter required at top and bottom. (2) Check
weeping for enriching section. (top section) Consider down comer area is 12% of column cross section and
hole area is 10% of active area.
04. Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) forms a minimum boiling azeotrope with water at 80.4 o C and 101.325 kPa, having
a composition of 31.47 mole % water. A feed consisting of 50 mass % IPA under saturated liquid condition
is to be distilled to give 67.5 mole % IPA as distillate (near azeotrope) and 0.1 mole % (0.0033 mass %) IPA
in the bottom. Using McCabe-Thiele technique and for R = 3, find the number of theoretical stages,
required for the separation at 1 atmospheric and locate the feed introduction stage. To find the nonideal
behaviour of IPA-water system, use of van Laar equation can be used. Assume the vapour fugacity to be
unity at low pressure. The vapour pressure of IPA can be calculated using Antoine equation.

Where, = Vapour pressure, kPa and T = Saturation temperature, K

01. Discuss the function of Liquid distributors, Liquid redistributors, Packing support and Hold-down plate used
for packed tower type absorber.
02. With neat sketch explain the various types of packing arrangement used in packed column.
03. Discuss the criteria for selection of various absorption equipments.
04. State the merits and demerits of falling film absorber.
05. With neat sketch explain the different types of liquid distributors used with packed tower type absorber.
06. Explain design procedure for Absorption tower for finding the height (Cornell’s method) and diameter of
01. Venturi scrubber is planned for absorbing SO2 gases from the exits gas stream of boiler flue gas by using 1%
lime Solution (by mass). The data for the scrubber is as follows. Volumetric flow rate of exist gas stream =
24000 Nm3/h Discharge pressure of gas from venturi = Atmospheric Temperature of gas mixture, entering
the venturi scrubber = 90 °C SO2 concentration in the boiler flue gas = 4000 ppm (or mg/kg) Solvent to gas
ratio = 1.4 L/m3 Throat velocity of gas phase = 100 m/s Average molar mass of flue gas = 29.48 kg/kmol
Density of 1% lime Solution = 1012.5 kg/m3 Equilibrium mass of SO2 per 100 mass of H2O = 0.035
Determine: (i) throat diameter of venturi scrubber (ii) % removal SO2 gases (iii) consumption of lime and (iv)
pressure drop in venturi scrubber. Use following correlation:
02. Design an Orifice meter based on the following data. Fluid = Water, I.D.(Pipe) =15.4 mm (Sch 40), Temp =
Room Temp. Density = 1000 Kg/M3 ,Viscosity = 0.8CP, Manometric fluid = Mercury (S.G.=13.6)
03. Determine the fractional of solute removal in a venturi scrubber based on the following data. Volumetric
flow rate of boiler flue gas - 24,000 Nm3/h, Discharge pressure of gas from venture - Atmospheric,
Temperature of gas - 80 to 90oC, SO2 concentration in boiler flue gas - 4000 ppm (or mg/kg), Solvent - 1 %
lime solution, Solvent to gas ratio - 1.4 L/m3 , Throat velocity of gas phase - 100 m/s, Average molar mass of
flue gas - 29.48 kg/kmol, Density of 1 % lime solution - 1012.5 kg/m3 , Equilibrium mass of SO2 per 100 mass
of H2O - 0.035
04. Benzene is to be recovered from coal gas by scrubbing it with wash oil as an absorbent. Absorber handles
900 m3/hr of coal gas containing 2% by volume benzene. Coal gas enters at temperature of 3000 k and
107.324 kPa pressure. 95% of benzene should be recovered by the solvent. The solvent enters at 3000 k
containing 0.005 mole fraction of benzene and has an average molecular weight of 260. Calculate the
circulation rate of oil (solvent) per hour if the column is to be operated at 1.5 times the minimum oil
circulation rate. The Equilibrium relationship between liquid and vapor is given as Y/(1+Y) = 0.125 X/(1+X)
01. A rotameter tube with an internal diameter of 25 mm at top and 20 mm at the bottom is 0.3 meter long.
The diameter of float is 20 mm. Water flows through the rotameter. Calculate the maximum and minimum
flow rate the rotameter can measure. Data: - Density of float material. ρf= 4.8 gm/cm3 , Density of water=
1000 kg/m3 , Volume of float, Vf= 6 cm3 , CD= 0.7.
02. Design a vertical decanter for extractor based on the following data.
Flow rate of continuous phase = 441.03 kg/hr Density of continuous phase = 826.36 kg/m 3 Flow rate of
dispersed phase = 200 kg/hr Density of dispersed phase = 1009.4 kg/m3 Viscosity of continuous phase =
0.5294 cP. Residence time of droplets of dispersed phase in dispersion band > 20 seconds. Diameter of
droplet (dd) = 150 µm
03. A feed stream having flow rate of 200 kg/h and containing 20 mass % acetic acid in water is to be extracted
at 25 oC with 400 kg/h of recycled MIBK (Methyl IsoButyl Ketone) that contains 0.1 % acetic acid and 0.01
% water. The aqueous raffinate is extracted down to 1 % acetic acid. Calculate (i) Ntor considering MIBK and
water as partially miscible liquids and (ii) Ntor considering MIBK and water as completely immiscible liquids
and equilibrium curve as straight line.

04. For the separation of dimethylformamide (DMF) from its dilute solution having a flow rate of 1000 kg/h and
containing 20 % DMF by mass is to be counter currently extracted with methylene chloride to reduce the
DMF concentration to 1 % in the final raffinate. Determine (i) the minimum amount of solvent which can be
used and (ii) the number of theoretical stages if actual amount of solvent is double than the minimum
required. Phase equilibrium equation is given by = 0.5555 at 25oC where, Y and X are mass fractions of
01. Discuss the design procedure of Continuous Gravity Decanter.
02. Briefly explain the desired solvent properties required for choice of solvent in liquid-liquid extraction.
03. State the merits and demerits of mixer-settler. Discuss the design steps for the process design of horizontal
and vertical gravity settler.
04. Define partition coefficient, extract phase and raffinate phase for liquid-liquid extraction.
05. Discuss the steps for process design of counter current multistage extractor.
06. List important industrial application of liquid-liquid extraction.
07. Discuss the process design of rotameter.
08. Discuss the Process Design of Orifice meter. Also Explain various locations of pressure taps with neat sketch
in orifice meter

Draw sketches as per the given list.

Figure No. Title of Figure Page No.

Fig. from R&C, Vol. 6, 4th Ed.
Appendix A Symbols for use in conjunction with other symbols 908
Appendix A Basic and developed symbols for plant and equipments 909
Figure 11.24 Downcomer design 564
Figure 11.25 Feed and take off nozzles 565
Figure 11.26 Sieve plate performance design 566
Figure 12.8 Types of heat exchangers
Figure 12.11 Tube arrangements 648
Figure 12.12 Shell types and passes 650
Figure 12.13 Types of baffles 651
Figure 12.14 Baffles for condenser 651
Figure 12.26 Shell side leakage 669
Figure 12.47 Arrangement for sub-cooling 719
Figure 12.58 Vertical Thermosyphone Reboiler 741

Project Work:

Design various equipment used for Production of Acetone from Iso-Propanol.

(Ref.: Analysis, Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes by Richard Turton, Richard C.
Bailie, Wallace B. Whiting, Joseph A. Shaeiwits)

Refer Page No. 1027 of above ref. for details of process and collect flow rate, temperature and
pressure data from the given ref.

Find suitable physical and thermodynamic properties and Design following equipment based on
the data given in above reference:

1. Find all physical, chemical and thermodynamic properties of the fluids being processed
in equipment
2. Design condenser – E-1104
3. Design reboiler – E-1105
4. Design Distillation Column including tray hydraulic design – E-1102
5. Piping design for reflux – Steam No. 9 for Feed, Steam 10 for reflux to column, Stream
11 for distillate, Stream 12 bottom product.
6. Select suitable pump and find NPSH and Power requirement for selected pump for reflux