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WATER POLLUTION IN RANCHI CITY- A BRIEF ANALYSIS:

RESEARCH PROJECT.

SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:


SREEMOYEE SARKAR ASHISH SRIVASTAVA
FACULTY, HISTORY SEMESTER: IV ‘B’.
NUSRL, RANCHI. ROLL: 799

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF STUDY AND RESEARCH IN LAW


RANCHI.

WATER POLLUTION IN RANCHI CITY- A BRIEF ANALYSIS Page 1


CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION:

THEME ANALYSIS:

Water pollution is a global issue. All living species in the world are facing the wrath of

contaminated water. As we all know that water is the most vital element among the natural

resources, and is important for the survival of all living organisms including human. Today

there are many cities worldwide facing the problem of water pollution and nearly 40 percent

of the world’s food supply is grown under irrigation and a wide variety of industrial processes

depends on water.1 The environment, economic growth, and developments are all highly

influenced by water-its regional and seasonal availability, and the quality of surface and

groundwater. The quality of water is affected by human activities and is declining due to the

rise of urbanization, population growth, industrial production, climate change and other factors.

The resulting water pollution is a serious threat to the well-being of both the Earth and its

population. The pollution also leads to various diseases such as Asthama, typhoid, and jaundice

etc.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION ANALYSIS:

Ranchi has been no exception to this worldwide phenomenon; rather the trends of

environmental deterioration have been far more prominent here when compared to other cities

due to its substantial increase of population. Pollution in Ranchi is mainly due to rapid

urbanization as it is not an industrial centre. The city lacks proper infrastructure to support

rapid population growth. Such a phenomenon is not unusual and is found to prevail in both the

developed and developing world.

1
Nizel Halder, Joshua, and M. Nazrul Islam. “Water pollution and its impact on the Human Health.” Journal of
Environment and Human, Vol.2, Num.1, 2015, pp. 36-38.

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2
Ranchi like many other cities is also facing the wrath of water pollution. Water- pollution and

its related issues have become a major concern for Ranchi residents. Ranchi has difficulty in

groundwater retention as a good part of the city sits on hard rock like Chotanagpur granite,

quartzite schists, older alluvium and laterite. Also, Ranchi has limited groundwater,

considering its granitic rock system. But to our surprise, still the government authorities are

not taking the matter seriously. The condition of harmu river situated in Ranchi is pathetic.

Harmu river which passes through Ranchi city empties into the Getalsad reservoir, a source of

drinking water for the city. Toxic effluents stink up the river while the city continues to

discharge its untreated water into it. The river looks more like a sewage-infested storm drain

which flows into the very source of the city’s water supply. As a result the quality of the water

gets affected. The colour of the water flowing in the river has turned brown due to the

continuous dumping of untreated sewage into it. Not only harmu river, other water-bodies like

Arghoda talab are always dirty, clogged with sewage, garbage and other pollutants.

2
Atyam, M. “ Pollution kills fish in Ranchi Lake.” The Times of India, February
2014.https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Accessed on 5th May.

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Hence taking into consideration that fact that Ranchi does not have a good water- retention

capacity, it becomes our duty to protect water from getting contaminated. So, in-order to get

the efficacious result, we need to take into account the root causes for water pollution and to

come up with some suggestions through which we could curb it to our best capacity.

CHAPTER-2 RESEARCH PROBLEM:

Since we share everything on Earth with every living thing on the planet, what happens in one

area affects everything too, no matter how far away. Water Pollution or the introduction of

different forms of waste materials in our environment has negative effects to the ecosystem we

rely on. Ranchi like many other cities is also facing the wrath of water pollution. Water-

pollution and its related issues have become a major concern for Ranchi residents. Thus, a

study in this would help us to attain the in-depth knowledge of the prevalent issues. We have

also taken into account various government schemes launched to combat these issues so as to

check its effectiveness. The instant study aims to lay down a foundation stone as to compile all

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the crucial and underlying issues related to water pollution of Ranchi. The same foundation

can be further used to enhance knowledge and create new studies. Also, there is no hiding to

the fact that Water Pollution level in Ranchi city has been on rise for last couple of years. Hence

it is high time for us to do something to protect the environment. The instant study would help

us in finding out the needful solutions to the existing problems.

CHAPTER-3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES:

• TO STUDY THE IMAPCT OF URBANIZATION ON WATER BODIES IN RANCHI

CITY.

• TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF WATER POLLUTION ON POPULATION OF

RANCHI CITY.

• TO CHECK THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE GOVERNMENT SCHEMES

LAUNCHED TO COMBAT THE ISSUES OF WATER POLLUTION IN RANCHI

CITY.

CHAPTER-4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS:

• IN WHAT MANNERS THE URBANIZATION PROCESS AFFECTS THE WATER

BODIES AND WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE WAYS TO CHECK SUCH

DEGRADATION?

• IN WHAT MANNERS THE WATER POLLUTION AFFECTS THE POPULATION

OF RANCHI CITY?

• HOW FAR THE GOVERNMENT OF JHARKHAND IS SUCCESSFUL IN

ANALYSING THE ISSUE OF WATER POLLUTION IN RANCHI CITY AND

INVENTING POSSIBLE MEASURES TO AVOID FURTHER DEGRADATION?

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CHAPTER-5 LITERATURE REVIEW:

Primary Sources:

• 3According to a Report released by Jharkhand Government (2013)- The anticipated

negative impacts will be short-term, site specific, confined and reversible and can be

managed through the application of mitigation and monitoring measures to enhance the

benefits of the project. The successful implementation of the scheme will improve the

quality of life of about 1.13 million people living in rural areas of 06 districts of

Jharkhand. Implementing such mitigation measures and management interventions will

reduce the adverse environmental impacts and increase the environmental acceptability

of the project with regards to National and State laws and procedures and the World

Banks safeguard policies.

• 4Atyam, Mahesh (2014) in The Times of India published an article in which he found

that Dead fish floating in Ranchi Lake, commonly known as Bada Talab, are a common

sight which has raised severe environmental concern. The Bada Talab was once a

popular tourist spot in town today, the giant lake has receded behind human settlements.

Plastic bags carrying household wastes and leftovers from puja offerings are dumped

on the lake every day. Its water is also used for washing clothes and cleaning vehicles.

But the biggest polluting factor is the domestic sewage dumped every day. The

Jharkhand State Pollution Control Board (JSPCB) blames the Ranchi Municipal

3
Environmental Assessment & Environmental Management Framework for The World Bank Assisted Water
Supply Project in Selected Districts of Jharkhand. Programme Management Unit State Water & Sanitation
Mission Drinking Water & Sanitation
DepartmentRanchi,July.2013,https://mdws.gov.in/sites/default/files/Environment_Assessment_Study_and_Envi
ronmental_Mangament_Framework_0.pdf. Accessed 6th May 2019.

4
Atyam, M. “ Pollution kills fish in Ranchi Lake.” The Times of India, February
2014.https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Accessed on 5th May.

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Corporation (RMC) for not disposing off the wastes properly in town. Also, the city

does not have a proper sewage treatment plant and as a result all the domestic wastes

are dumped in the water bodies like Bada-Talab.

• 5Bhaduri, Amita (2016) in an article “Water worried, Ranchi looks for a way out”

found that Ranchi city is reeling under severe water crisis. Ranchi, the capital of

Jharkhand, has gained disrepute for the plummeting groundwater level and water

shortage in its dams. Most of the city’s localities, notably, the densely populated parts

of the city like Ratu road, Harmu, Doranda, Dhurwa and Morabadi, were declared dry

zones this summer because of the acute water shortage in these areas. Ranchi has

difficulty in groundwater retention as a good part of the city sits on hard rock like

Chottanagpur granite, quartzite schists, older alluvium and laterite. “Ranchi has limited

groundwater, considering its Ground Water Board (CGWB), the city’s groundwater is

depleting by 90 cm to 1m every year.

Existing Researches and Text:

• 6Kirti, Avishek & Kishloy, Ranjan (2017) observed that water quality of the river is

unsuitable for drinking, open bathing, irrigation, industrial cooling and propagation of

wildlife as the desired concentration of dissolved oxygen for these purposes are not

met. Arsenic and iron are also found beyond desirable limits that can pose serious health

hazard for human beings. High alkalinity concentration shows the presence of

5
Bhaduri,A. “Water worried, Ranchi looks for a way out” India water portal, December 2016.
https://www.indiawaterportal.org. Accessed on 6th May.

6
Kirti, Avishek, and Kishloy Ranjan. “Water quality assessment of Harmu river, Ranchi.” Suresh Gyan Vihar
University Journal of Climate Change And Water, Vol. 4, 2017, PP. 22-27.

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carbonates and bicarbonates that may be due to direct discharge of wastewater from

domestic sewers. Lower DO concentrations signify less mixing of the atmospheric

oxygen into river water. This is evident by the huge solid waste such as plastics being

dumped into the river. It has resulted in low DO and rising eutrophic conditions of the

river. Although the effects of arsenic is not found on human beings currently as the

water is not being used for drinking purposes. However, since the water is being used

in some pockets for agriculture purposes a long- term study is suggested. A study on

bio-accumulation of arsenic in surrounding areas is suggested. Health survey in an

around the area is also suggested to find the impacts of deteriorated water quality of

Harmu river. With this article, we attempt to highlight the critical condition of the river

that once supported the city with its water. It is also suggested that the government or

non-governmental organization take up initiatives to generate awareness and display

warning boards pertaining to the quality of the river.

CHAPTER-6 THEORIES, MODELS AND CONCEPTS:

• 7Environment Kuznet Curve Theory: Relating economic growth and environment

degradation many thinkers believe that economy can grow their way out of the

environmental problems. Wilfred Becker-men (1992) exemplifies this position - the

only way to attain a decent environment in most countries to become rich. This view is

accepted by World Bank (World Development Report, 1992) and is often called

Environmental Kuznet Curve (EKC) theory after the name Simon Kuznet who in 1955

hypothesised an inverted Ushaped relationship between the growth of income level and

environmental degradation. The environmental Kuznet curve hypothesis, first

identified empirically by Grossman and Krueger (1993), seeks to establish a

7
“World Development Report.” World Bank, 1992, Oxford University Press, Newyork.

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relationship between income levels and environmental quality. The EKC hypothesis

states that as per capita income grows, environmental impact rise, hit a maximum and

then decline.

• 8Water Urbanism Perspective: Water Urbanism is an innovative approach to design

practice and pedagogy that holistically joins the study of social and physical

infrastructures, public health, and hydrological systems. It challenges conventional

planning practices that isolate elements of an urban system and instead starts with the

assumption of a joint built and natural environment within which humans and machines

operate. Water Urbanism posits that water and cities must be understood within an

expanded notion of a constructed ecosystem. These systems- including rainfall, water

retention, water harvesting, industry and agriculture use, re-collection and re-cycling,

culture, water access and sewage, are framed as opportunities within an urbanized

ecology with the potential for design interventions along multiple points in the cycle.

Water Urbanism also implies a set of design practices that engage people with policy

and to continuously manage the urban eco-system to promote resilient communities and

participatory practices.

• Four Dublin Principles: The first principle states that fresh water is a finite resource

that is essential to sustain life, development and the environment. The second principle

states that all water development and management should stem from a participatory

approach. This principle emphasizes the need for communities to desire and ask for

help, as well as their inclusion in the solution. The third principle recognizes that

women play a central role in the development and management of water. This principle,

along with the second principle, is an essential lesson in the application of community

water development. Finally, the fourth principle recognizes that water has economic

8
Orff, Kate.Water Urbanism: Kolkata.Columbia: Global Cities and Climate Change Studio, 2017.print.

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value. This principle is important because it places emphasis on the need for water in

business and local economy. The success of this forum came through recognizing the

importance of community participation, the importance of women and the importance

of water’s effects on business and economy. All of which are vital pieces of the

community water development puzzle.

CHAPTER-7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

• Theoretical Framework: Taking into account all the theories related to water

pollution, the most apt theory for the instant study would be Four Dublin Principles.

We all know that water body plays an important role in the chain of ecosystem. Since

we share everything on Earth with every living thing on the planet, what happens in

one area affects everything too, no matter how far away.

The same thing is reiterated by the first principle of Dublin. The second and the third

principle focuses on community water development approach and women’s

importance. The fourth principle states that water body has its own economic value. So,

in-case you are harming any water-body, along with it you are also hampering its

economic value. Water is required for various kind of business and local economy.

Hence, protection of it is very much essential.

• Research Design: Explanatory and Exploratory research design will be used in the

instant study. Explanatory research design would determine the nature of the problem,

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and would help to establish relationship among the phenomenon whereas Exploratory

research design would help in exploring new ideas pertinent to the topic and will

provide detailed insights and understanding.

• Sample and Its Size: Sampling will be done among the population of Ranchi

particularly the group of people residing for a longer period of time and therefore a

stratified random sampling method will be used so that it captures key population

characteristics and this method would help to produce characteristics in the sample that

are proportional and representative to the overall population. For the purpose of

research, the sample size in the instant study is 20.

• Data Collection Method: For the purpose of the study and data collection two main

sources of data will be used:

➢ Primary Sources of Data: Primary data is one, which is collected by the people for the

purpose of a specific study. Such data is original in character and is generated by

surveys conducted by each individual. Questionnaire method through google forms will

be widely used for the purpose of data collection. To check-out the problems and its

causes in the city and to contemplate possible ways to check the problem people are

facing regarding environment issues, these data collection methods would be most

suitable as they are less time consuming and affordable and effective ways of gathering

data from mass of people.

➢ Secondary Sources of Data: Secondary data is that which has been already collected by

some other individual or agency. Secondary data will be obtained from journals,

reports, government publications, publication of professional and research

organization, annual reports etc.

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CHAPTER-8 CONTENT ANALYSIS:

GRAPH-1

From the above graph it is evident that the local population are concerned about the

pollution of water bodies. As we could see in the above graph that 60 percent of the

total respondents are concerned about water pollution. Hence, this shows that local

population of Ranchi are well informed about the problems persisting in Ranchi city.

GRAPH-2

In the above graph we could see that almost 75 percent of total respondents feel that

Sewage from industrial activities is a source of water pollution in the city of Ranchi.

For instance, Subarnarekha river passes through Ranchi and just 50 kms away from its

point of origin lies the 35.5 m-high Getalsud dam, a multipurpose project completed in

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1971. Now, the river serves as a source for municipal water supply and industries, apart

from housing a hydel project in Ranchi. At present the source of river is drying and

only a small rivulet is left at its origin in Piska, near Ranchi. The reduction of water in

the river is leading to the decline in the groundwater tables. Because of widespread

deforestation, soil erosion has increased. The basin also houses the Subarnarekha

multipurpose project that has Jharkhand’s Chandil & Icha dams. The area is faced with

grave environmental and displacement-related issues due to the project. Hence,

industrial activities is a source of water pollution in Ranchi city.

GRAPH-3

In the above data we could see that 40% of the total respondents feel that Storm water

runoff is a source of water pollution in Ranchi city. Storms and heavy rainfall are

common phenomenon in Ranchi city. So, stormwater often referred to as “Polluted

Runoff” picks up and carries numerous pollutants into the waterways and as a result the

water body gets affected. The other 30 percent population are neutral. The possible

reasons for such neutral stance might be due to the usage of new term i.e Storm water

runoff.

GRAPH-4

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In the above graph we could see that 85 percent of the total respondents feel that they

pollute in decent quantity. Hence, the underlying irony that we could discover here is

that even though the people are concerned about issues related to water pollution, they

couldn’t resist themselves from polluting.

GRAPH-5

In the above the data we could see that 55 percent of the total respondents feel that at some

point in their life they have been affected by water pollution. Water pollution may affect

the health of humans. Infectious diseases can be spread through contaminated water. Some

of these water-borne diseases are Typhoid, Cholera, Paratyphoid fever, Dysentery,

Jaundice, Amoebiasis and Malaria. Chemicals in the water also have negative effects on

health of humans. The other 35 percent says that they have not faced any such problems

yet.

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GRAPH-6

From the above data it is very much evident that the local residents of Ranchi are well informed

about the environmentally friendly cleaning products. Like preferring recycled toilet issues can

indirectly reduce the environmental footprint and save water, trees and in fact, reduce a huge

amount of carbon emissions. Also use of water-friendly appliances would help in curbing water

pollution.

GRAPH-7

In the above graph we could see that 65 percent of the total respondents admit that they don’t
use any environmentally friendly cleaning products at home. This shows that even after being
well informed about the eco-friendly cleaning products, people are not interested in practicing
it at personal level.

GRAPH -8

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In the above data we could see that almost 75 percent of total population admits that they don’t
consider the weather forecast before applying pesticides and fertilizers to their gardens. This
shows that people are very adamant in their approach. There is no hiding to the fact that how
harmful this practice could be, as the rain water after adulteration with various chemicals may
run -off to water bodies and would ultimately affect it. We need to take care of such pity things,
then only we’ll be able to put a stop to water pollution. Sense of maturity should be used to the
best of one’s capacity.

GRAPH-9

In the above data we could see that 70 percent of the total population feel that soil

erosion due to construction activities is a source of pollution in Ranchi and it is very

much evident as the condition of harmu river situated in Ranchi is pathetic. Harmu river

which passes through Ranchi city empties into the Getalsad reservoir, a source of

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drinking water for the city. Toxic effluents stink up the river while the city continues to

discharge its untreated water into it. Other construction activities going alongside

harmu river have affected its water quality. Not only harmu river, other water-bodies

like Arghoda talab are always dirty, clogged with sewage, garbage and other pollutants.

GRAPH-10

The above data is self- explanatory. Picture says it all. We could see that 70 percent of

local population say that no awareness programs regarding water pollution and its

related issues have been ever conducted by the government whereas other 25 percent

says that hardly any programs have been conducted by the government in their region.

This shows the failure on part of Government. People should be informed about the

impacts of water pollution and about the ways through which they could curb the level

of pollution. Then only people would understand the graveness of the issue.

CHAPTER-9 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

• Most of the respondents are concerned about the issues related to water pollution.

• People are well informed about the issues of water pollution.

• More than half the total respondents are aware about various environmentally friendly

cleaning products.

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• Most of the respondents are adamant and careless in their approach. As even after being

aware about various eco-friendly products, most of them don’t practice it at personal

level.

• Soil erosion due to construction is a source of water pollution in Ranchi.

• Almost 60 percent of respondents feel that at some point in their life they have been

affected by water pollution.

• Government has not taken any bold steps to control water pollution.

• The condition of Water bodies in Ranchi is deteriorating day by day.

CHAPTER-10 SUGGESTIONS:

• Awareness programs should be conducted by the government to educate people about


the impacts of water pollution.
• People should use eco-friendly cleaning products as much as possible.
• Before applying pesticides in the garden, weather forecast should always be taken into
consideration.
• Government should come up with some specific guidelines as to how household wastes
should be disposed- off , and should punish those who don’t follow it.
• Recycle and reuse the products as much as possible
• Rain water harvesting should be practiced in every-household

CONCLUSION:

Water pollution is one of the biggest threats to the environment today. The best solution for

water pollution is prevention. Prevention is always better than cure. Now, preventing water

solution may seem to be a herculean subject to tackle, but there are number of things an average

person can do to curb it like Soil conservation, disposing of household waste properly, avoiding

plastics when possible, reusing the things to reduce consumption, recycling and many other

things. Government should also take some bold steps like conducting awareness programs,

educating people about eco-friendly products and making them aware of the effects of water

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pollution. If these things would be carried out in the said manner, we’ll definitely be able to

dampen the level of water pollution and will be able to make Ranchi a better place to live in.

APPENDIX:

Number of respondents- 20 Respondent


Shanaya singhania
Neha Sinha
Himanshu Agrawal
Supriya R Pandey
Harshit
Prince kumar
Muskan
abhinav
Monu
Ankit kumar
Milind Anand
Mayank Mishra
Yash Mishra
Ekta rai
Afsar
Ravi Raj
Raj dubey
Rajiv Singh
Shweta Srivastava
Kumar Ashutosh

HARMU RIVER IN RANCHI:

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RANCHI LAKE:

STORM WATER RUNOFF IN RANCHI:

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OVERALL ANALYSIS REPORT:

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BIBLIOGRAPHY:
PRIMARY SOURCES:

1. World Bank

2. Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation

3. Jharkhand Central- Ground Water Board

4. Book by Kate Orff “Water Urbanism: Kolkata”

SECONDARY SOURCES:

1. Journal of Environment and Human

2. Journal of Climate Change And Water

3. www.indiawaterportal.com ( Last Accessed on 5th may)

4. New York Times ( Last Accessed on 6th may)

5. www.jstor.org (Last Accessed on 5th May)

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