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MANUFACTURING PRACTICE

1.0 SCOPE

This audit has been designed to reflect the quality of welded assemblies with respect to external
weld characteristics.

2.0 APPLICATION

2.1 This practice uses Caterpillar Specification 1E0099 - Standard quality levels for external
weld characteristics and explains the procedure to be used in auditing welds on unpainted
fabricated finished assemblies or units. For Stringent quality levels (Only if specified on the
drawing), see 1E0099.

2.2 The audit is to be conducted by qualified personnel who are not directly responsible for
weld conformance of parts.

2.3 The audits are to be conducted on a monthly basis for parts produced within a plant or
facility.

2.4 The audit parts will be randomly selected from parts that have been subjected to normal
inspection methods. Random selection can be made by computer program, or any suitable
method developed by the plant, as long as the selection is unbiased. (Every welded assembly
at a plant should have an equal chance of being selected for this audit.) A minimum number of
millimeters (mm) are required for reporting the monthly plant conformance. The number of mm
is determined by a plants’ electrode usage per year. Listed below is the method used to
determine the number of mm to audit:

Minimum Weld
Annual Electrode Usage
Audited/Month
Under 100,000 kg (220,000 lb.) 15,000 mm
100,000 – 225,000 kg (220,000 - 500,000 lb.) 40,000 mm
225,000 – 680,000 kg (500,000 - 1,500,000 lb.) 100,000 mm
680,000 kg (1,500,000 lb.) & Over 200,000 mm
Figure 1 - Audit Length

2.5 On parts chosen for the audit, the selection of the weld or welds to be audited on that part
number may be a random and unbiased sample or a complete piece part audit. The total length
of weld audited each month should be taken from a representative mix of the products produced
at the facility.

THE INFORMATION HEREON IS THE PROPERTY OF CATERPILLAR INC. AND/OR ITS SUBSIDIARIES. WITHOUT WRITTEN
PERMISSION, ANY COPYING, TRANSMITTAL TO OTHERS, AND ANY USE EXCEPT THAT FOR WHICH IT IS LOANED, IS PROHIBITED.
DATE CHG NO NUMBER
AUDIT OF EXTERNAL WELD 23 JUN 2016 17 MC1000-901
CHARACTERISTICS
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MANUFACTURING PRACTICE

3.0 WELD CHARACTERISTICS

3.1 External weld characteristics are evaluated as follows:

x
x
Cracks

x
Porosity (Singular, Cluster, and Elongated)

x
Inclusions

x
Convexity/Excess Reinforcement

x
Concavity/Underfill

x
Excess Penetration

x
Lack of Penetration

x
Fillet Weld Size

x
Lack of Fusion

x
Omitted Weld

x
Undercut

x
Toe Radius

x
Overlap

x
Poor Restarts/Tie-Ins
Cleaning, Grinding and Chipping

4.0 DEFECT DESCRIPTIONS

4.1 Cracks - Cracks in base metal or weld metal are not permitted, with the exception of
transverse cracks on hard surfacing welds only.

4.2 Porosity - Clustered porosity at the surface is permitted with a maximum length of cluster
in any weld equal to one half the weld bead width. Maximum size of any single pore is 2 mm in
diameter with no more than six (6) holes (•1 mm in diameter) in any 300 mm of weld, or a
maximum of one (1) pore in any 50 mm of weld in welds less than 300 mm in length. Elongated
cavities can have a maximum height or width of 3 mm and a maximum length of affected area
not to exceed 25 mm, or equal to 10% of the weld length, for welds < 250 mm in length.

4.3 Inclusions - Slag, flux, or oxide inclusions can have a maximum height or width of 1 mm
and a maximum length in any weld is not to exceed 25 mm, or equal to 10% of the weld length,
for welds < 250 mm in length. Puckering (Oxide Inclusion- Aluminum) and metallic inclusions
are not permitted.

4.4 Groove Weld Convexity - It is intended that groove weld be flush or level. Excess
reinforcement often comes in conjunction with overlap or poor toe angle, so it is important to
identify and repair both defect types.

THE INFORMATION HEREON IS THE PROPERTY OF CATERPILLAR INC. AND/OR ITS SUBSIDIARIES. WITHOUT WRITTEN
PERMISSION, ANY COPYING, TRANSMITTAL TO OTHERS, AND ANY USE EXCEPT THAT FOR WHICH IT IS LOANED, IS PROHIBITED.
DATE CHG NO NUMBER
AUDIT OF EXTERNAL WELD 23 JUN 2016 17 MC1000-901
CHARACTERISTICS
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MANUFACTURING PRACTICE

4.4.1 For audit purposes, the following tolerances will be allowed:

Weld Face Width Maximum Convexity


20 mm or Less 2.0 mm
20 mm < Width < 30 mm 3.0 mm
30 mm and Greater 4.0 mm
Figure 2 - Groove Weld Size

Figure 3 - Groove Weld Size

Note: Any groove weld outside the tolerance for convexity will be rated unsatisfactory for size.

4.5 Underfill, Concavity and Sagging - Incompletely filled groove welds are not permitted.
Careful consideration needs to be given when plate mismatch is apparent. The weld depth
must be maintained as a minimum. Root concavity on open root groove welds shall have a
maximum depth of 0.5 mm for any length of weld, measured from the plate or tube root surface.
A slight amount of sagging is permissible only when the drawing specifies “weld flush”. Then, a
maximum sag depth of 5% of the plate thickness, with a maximum value of 0.5 mm is allowed
for up to 25% of the weld length.

Figure 4 - Underfill And Concavity

4.6 Excess Penetration - Excess penetration may be visible in the case of an open root weld
that has some form of inspection access to the root. The maximum allowable weld metal
protrusion beyond the back plate surface is 2 mm for any length of weld, in welds without
drawing limitations. The maximum allowable weld metal protrusion beyond the back plate
surface is 1 mm for any length of weld, in welds with “melt-thru” and “flush” weld symbols. No
excess penetration is allowed in welds with the “grind flush” weld symbols. If the penetration is
not accessible to the auditor, this characteristic will not be considered.

THE INFORMATION HEREON IS THE PROPERTY OF CATERPILLAR INC. AND/OR ITS SUBSIDIARIES. WITHOUT WRITTEN
PERMISSION, ANY COPYING, TRANSMITTAL TO OTHERS, AND ANY USE EXCEPT THAT FOR WHICH IT IS LOANED, IS PROHIBITED.
DATE CHG NO NUMBER
AUDIT OF EXTERNAL WELD 23 JUN 2016 17 MC1000-901
CHARACTERISTICS
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MANUFACTURING PRACTICE

4.7 Lack of Penetration - The maximum reduced penetration is equal to 10% of nominal
penetration, not to exceed 1 mm. The maximum allowed total length of reduced penetration is
equal to 25 mm or 10% of the weld length. If the penetration is not accessible to the visual weld
auditor, this characteristic will not be considered.

4.8 Fillet Weld Size - A weld will be classified as undersize or oversize on either leg or the
throat. Both legs of fillet welds are to meet the minimum blueprint size.

4.8.1 Maximum undersize allowed on either leg is 1 mm, with a maximum length of undersized
leg equal to 10% the total length of any weld if at least 10% of the total length is at least 1 mm
over nominal size, otherwise, no undersize length is permitted.

4.8.2 Maximum oversize allowed on either leg is an additional 25% of the nominal weld size,
with a maximum of 3 mm. According to 1E0099, “Fillet Weld Leg Sizes May be Left Oversized
(Within Defect Limitations or Beyond) Without Repair, Provided The Excess Does Not Interfere
With Satisfactory End Use Of The Component (i.e., Distortion, Fit- Up Interference, etc.) A
Documented Deviation Process Shall Be Used, And Corrective Action Pursued To Eliminate
Further Deviations”.

4.8.3 The minimum throat size for an equal leg fillet weld is to be 0.7 times the specified leg
length, not including any penetration beyond the weld root. The weld throat may be reduced at
a weld crater only. Here, the maximum allowed undersize is 2 mm, and not to exceed 20% of
the specified throat, not including any penetration beyond the weld root.

Figure 5 - Fillet Weld Size

4.8.4 The linear length tolerance is plus or minus 6.5 mm for welds less than or equal to 6.5
mm in size and plus or minus 12.5 mm for welds greater than 6.5 mm in size. However, no
excess length may enter a specified “no weld” area.

THE INFORMATION HEREON IS THE PROPERTY OF CATERPILLAR INC. AND/OR ITS SUBSIDIARIES. WITHOUT WRITTEN
PERMISSION, ANY COPYING, TRANSMITTAL TO OTHERS, AND ANY USE EXCEPT THAT FOR WHICH IT IS LOANED, IS PROHIBITED.
DATE CHG NO NUMBER
AUDIT OF EXTERNAL WELD 23 JUN 2016 17 MC1000-901
CHARACTERISTICS
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MANUFACTURING PRACTICE

4.9 Lack of Fusion - Visual lack of fusion (breaking the surface) is not permitted. The high
speed welding processes can leave a thin non-uniform feather-edge of weld metal at the toe of
the weld that is not fused to the base metal. This defect is not always easy to see in the as-
welded condition, but becomes plainly visible after painting, when capillary action draws the
paint under the thin edge and leaves a crack-like line on the painted surface. This lack of fusion
or failure to wet the base metal is unacceptable.

4.10 Omitted Welds - Although omitted welds are not addressed specifically in 1E0099 as
being a type of defect, omitted welds will affect the structural integrity of the weldment, and
cannot be identified by sight without knowledge of the drawing requirements. Omitted welds
shall be recorded as “Omitted Weld” for the entire length of omission.

4.11 Undercut - It is intended that the toe of the weld blend smoothly and gradually into the
base metal. When the undercut is more than 0.5 mm deep, measured from the plate surface,
the weld shall be considered defective.

Figure 6 - Undercut

4.12 Toe Radius - When 1E2995 applies, the intersection at the toe is expressed as a toe
radius rather than a toe angle. The minimum toe radius is specified in 1E2995 or on the
drawing.

4.13 Overlap - Overlap is a profile defect in which there is a protrusion of weld material
beyond the toe of the weld (see Figure 15). Overlap can occur at the toe of a fillet or groove
weld. A weld will be judged to have excessive overlap when the angle at the toe of the weld
between the weld metal and the plate is less than 90°. Overlap can also be detected between
passes of a multipass weld cap, with the 90° requirement existing between adjacent weld
passes as it does at the base material. Weld toe angles below 90° will reduce fatigue life. A
weld toe angle of 135° or more is desired.

THE INFORMATION HEREON IS THE PROPERTY OF CATERPILLAR INC. AND/OR ITS SUBSIDIARIES. WITHOUT WRITTEN
PERMISSION, ANY COPYING, TRANSMITTAL TO OTHERS, AND ANY USE EXCEPT THAT FOR WHICH IT IS LOANED, IS PROHIBITED.
DATE CHG NO NUMBER
AUDIT OF EXTERNAL WELD 23 JUN 2016 17 MC1000-901
CHARACTERISTICS
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MANUFACTURING PRACTICE

Figure 7 - Overlap

4.14 Poor Restart (Tie-In) - Visual characteristics of the restart in terms of overlap, lack of
fusion or insufficient weld throat. Overlap (a weld toe angle of less than 90°) is not permitted.
No visual lack of fusion is permitted at a restart. Insufficient weld throat is not permitted at a
restart.

4.15 Cleaning, Grinding, and Chipping - All finished welds shall have heavy flux and slag
completely removed. Some facilities and product lines have part specific weld cleaning
requirements and limitations. Assemblies containing 1E4436 will define cleaning levels for
specific areas. Refer to these specific requirements and Manufacturing Practice MC1003 for
cleaning levels required. Length of nonconformance will be measured as the length of weld
adjacent to the area not meeting the desired cleanliness level. Welds where grinding is required
for engineering function will be specified on the drawing. When grinding and chipping is
necessary to improve weld appearance or to remove whisker or fused-in electrode, this work
shall be performed in such manner to provide quality results. Local damage caused by stray
arc strikes is not permitted.

5.0 RECORDING AUDIT

5.1 The audit is to be recorded on a form, like that in Attachment A. Each weld is checked for
conformance of all applicable characteristics. Only unsatisfactory weld characteristics need to
be marked, and recorded in defective length. One line is used for each weld checked. If a
particular weld is defective under two or more characteristics in the same length, the additional
defective characteristics will be bracketed so that the defective lengths are not counted twice.

5.2 Calculation of Quality Level - Total the non-bracketed amounts of defective weld for
each row in the last column. Divide the total defective weld length shown in the last column by
the total weld length checked. Multiply the result of this column by 1000000. The resulting
number is the defective weld length per million units of length of weld checked (DPM). All defect
lengths (bracketed or not) shall be totaled in each column to use as section indicators of the
most prevalent defect types.

THE INFORMATION HEREON IS THE PROPERTY OF CATERPILLAR INC. AND/OR ITS SUBSIDIARIES. WITHOUT WRITTEN
PERMISSION, ANY COPYING, TRANSMITTAL TO OTHERS, AND ANY USE EXCEPT THAT FOR WHICH IT IS LOANED, IS PROHIBITED.
DATE CHG NO NUMBER
AUDIT OF EXTERNAL WELD 23 JUN 2016 17 MC1000-901
CHARACTERISTICS
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MANUFACTURING PRACTICE

5.3 Calculate DPM as follows:

Figure 8

6.0 USE OF AUDIT

Major welded components are to be audited on a random and unbiased basis with every weld
section, weld station and welded assembly having an equal opportunity of being selected within
a particular plant.

7.0 REFERENCES

Caterpillar 1E Specifications 1E0099, 1E2995, 1E4436


Caterpillar Manufacturing Practice MC1003

THE INFORMATION HEREON IS THE PROPERTY OF CATERPILLAR INC. AND/OR ITS SUBSIDIARIES. WITHOUT WRITTEN
PERMISSION, ANY COPYING, TRANSMITTAL TO OTHERS, AND ANY USE EXCEPT THAT FOR WHICH IT IS LOANED, IS PROHIBITED.
DATE CHG NO NUMBER
AUDIT OF EXTERNAL WELD 23 JUN 2016 17 MC1000-901
CHARACTERISTICS
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MANUFACTURING PRACTICE

Attachment A - Inspection Record


THE INFORMATION HEREON IS THE PROPERTY OF CATERPILLAR INC. AND/OR ITS SUBSIDIARIES. WITHOUT WRITTEN
PERMISSION, ANY COPYING, TRANSMITTAL TO OTHERS, AND ANY USE EXCEPT THAT FOR WHICH IT IS LOANED, IS PROHIBITED.
DATE CHG NO NUMBER
AUDIT OF EXTERNAL WELD 23 JUN 2016 17 MC1000-901
CHARACTERISTICS
Caterpillar: Confidential Green - Reproduction Constitutes an Uncontrolled Document - PAGE 8 OF 8