Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

re-design | JNMC HOSPITAL

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN VI | (AR-452N)

Submitted By:

Group-2nd
Gaurav Chaudhary (15arb570)
Hemant Kumar(15arb566)
Md. Ghaus(15arb555)
Sameer Naqvi(15arb559)
Tariq Jameel(15arb567)

Submitted To:

Ar. Nawab Ahmad


Ar. Khan Amad-ur-Rehman
(Dept. of Architecture, AMU)
contents

1 2 3 4
intro- classi- plan- about
duction fica- ning site
tion
• History and Evolution of hospitals • Objective • Factors in Hospital Planning • Site Consideration
• Intoduction to Hospital • System of Medicines • Basic objectives • Site Location
• Architecture of Hospitals • IPH-10905 and Indian Standars Code • Data Requirement • Road Network To Site
• Site Selection • Immediate Surroundings
• Fundamental Needs

5 6 7 8 9 10
site climate litera- case case area
analy- analy- ture stidy stidy anal-
sis sis study 1st 2nd ysis
• Site History • Wind • Time Savers Data • About JNMC Hospital • About Jamia Hamdard Hospital • Administrative Services
• Existing Structures on Site • Temperature • Neuferts data • Site Plan • Site Plan • Clinical Services
• Community Services • Precipitation • Matrics Handbook Data • Access to Hospital • Access to Hospital • Nurcing Services
• Stite Topography • Humidity • IPHS norms and Guidelines • Emergency, OPD and IPD • Emergency, OPD and IPD • Ancillary Services
• Utility • Solor Analysis • MCS Norms and Guidelines • OT Complex Layout • OT Complex Layout
• Mahoney Table • Cath. Lab • Services
• ICU Layout
• Sterlizing Complex
• CTVS
• Services
HISTORY & EVOLUTION OF HOSPITALS 1.
The original facilities for the sick were most likely temples dedicated to “healing gods.” Imhotep was the Egyptian healing god
while Asclepius was revered in the Greek civilization. Prayers, sacrifices, and dream interpretations played a role in their healing
process, but the ancient physicians also stitched wounds, set broken bones, and used opium for pain. Plans for a 5th century BC
temple in Athens dedicated to Asclepius show a large room 24 x 108 for multiple dreamer-patients.

Some believe the earliest dedicated hospitals were in Mesopotamia, while other researchers believe they were at Buddhist
monasteries in India and Sri Lanka. Ancient writings indicate that the Sinhalese King Pandukabhaya had hospitals built in pres-
ent day Sri Lanka in the 4th century BC. The oldest architectural evidence of a hospital appears to be at Mihintale in Sri Lanka
which can be dated to the 9th century AD. The extensive ruins suggest there were patient rooms which measured 13 x 13 which
is surprisingly close to the patient rooms used today. In addition to surgical instruments, archeologists found a stone “medicinal
trough” approximately seven feet in length and 30 inches wide that may have been used for the first hydrotherapy with mineral
water or medicinal oils.

While the Greeks were recognized as the originators of “rational” medicine, they did not have hospitals. The physicians made
calls and treated patients in their homes, a practice that continued for hundreds of years. The Romans provided us with the root
of the word “hospital” from the Latin word “hospes” for host or “hospitium” meaning a place to entertain. While medical schools
were established in Greece in the 6th Century BC, there is general consensus that the first teaching hospital with visiting physi-
cians and scholars from Egypt, India, and Greece was founded at Gondisapur in present day Iran in 300 AD. Among the early,
well-documented healthcare facilities were the Roman military hospitals. The plans for the one in Vindossa in present day Swit-
zerland built in the 1st century AD shows small patient rooms with ante rooms built around courtyards. Each room was thought to
hold three beds indicating the ward concept was used early in the history of hospital development. One source indicated that
similar hospitals may have also been built for gladiators and slaves due their financial value, however public hospitals were not
available and physicians made house calls.

As the Roman Empire turned to Christianity, the Church’s role in providing for the sick became firmly established. After 400 AD,
many monasteries were constructed generally including accommodations for travelers, the poor, and the sick. The monarchs
of the 6th century reinforced this role with emperors, such as Charlemagne, who directed that a hospital should be attached
to every cathedral that was built in his empire. Religious institutions continued to provide most of the healthcare to the poor in
large, open wards, while physicians continued the practice of making house calls to the upper class. The religious influence in
early healthcare is illustrated by duties of the Warden (Administrator) of St Mary’s Hospital in England in 1390. He was required
to not only satisfy himself of the seriousness of the medical complaint, but to also hear the confession of the patient before ad-
mission.

The wards housing multiple patients continued to be expanded and became the standard for the public hospitals for hundred
of years. Often the wards were configured so the sick could see the altar to assist with their recovery. The cross-shaped plan,
which is thought to have originated in Florence, Italy, in the 1400s achieved this goal with the altar in the middle and multiple
wards radiating from it. The plan is similar to many hospitals today with the nurse’s station rather than the altar at the center.
Florence was well known for quality hospitals with good physicians and clean beds. Martin Luther, who was generally critical of
all Roman Catholic institutions, even recognized the quality of the facilities during a visit in 1500.

As the wards became larger, they often became more dangerous. By the mid 1700s the Hotel-Dieu, one of the earliest and larg-
est hospitals in Paris, had deteriorated to horrific conditions. Some wards had over 100 beds with multiple patients per bed. The
wards were dark, poorly ventilated, unsanitary, and often located adjacent to other wards with infectious patients. The answer
to this problem was the new “pavilion” plan, which was first implemented in the Hospital Lariboisiere built in 1854. This approach
was consistent with the improvements pioneered by Florence Nightingale after seeing a mortality rate of over 42% at a military
hospital in Turkey during the Crimean War. The pavilion plan provides fresh air and daylight, which improved patient recoveries
and reduced infections. This plan retained the multiple patient ward approach, which was sometimes called the Nightingale
Ward. The pavilion plan was used on two notable facilities-St Thomas Hospital in London and later on Johns Hopkins in Baltimore
with 24 beds per ward.
INTRODUCTION TO HOSPITAL 1.
A hospital is an integral part of social and medical organisation, the function of which is to provide for the population complete health care, both curative and preventive, and whose outpatient
services reach out to the family and its home environment. The hospital is also a centre for the training of health workers and biosocial research.
(WHO defines hospital)

Hospitals play an important role in the health care system. They are health care institutions that have an organized medical and other professional staff, and inpatient facilities, and deliver medical,
nursing and related services 24 hours per day, 7 days per week.Hospitals offer a varying range of acute, convalescent and terminal care using diagnostic and curative services in response to acute
and chronic conditions arising from diseases as well as injuries and genetic anomalies. In doing so they generate essential information for research, education and management.
Traditionally oriented on individual care, hospitals are increasingly forging closer links with other parts of the health sector and communities in an effort to optimize the use of resources for the promo-
tion and protection of individual and collective health status.

The basic form of hospital is, ideally, based on its functions:


Bed – related inpatient functions
Outpatient – related functions
Diagnostic and treatment functions
Administration functions
Service functions (food supply )
Research and teaching functions

A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treat-


ment with specialized staff and equipment. The best-known
type of hospital is the general hospital, which has an emer-
gency department. A district hospital typically is the major
health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds
for intensive care and long-term care. Specialised hospitals
include trauma centres, rehabilitation hospitals, children’s
hospitals, seniors’ (geriatric) hospitals, and hospitals for deal-
ing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric problems
(see psychiatric hospital) and certain disease categories.
Specialised hospitals can help reduce health care costs com-
pared to general hospitals.

Over the last 60 years, there have been recurring trends in


thinking about the planning and design of hospital facilities,
which seem to go through cycles. Specialty hospitals, new
standards for patient rooms, ideas for efficient nursing unit
planning, and design for healing environments; all have been
the subject of architectural thinking in the past and then
interest has subsided – but all will certainly be back again. As
planners in one of the world’s largest healthcare design practices, we spend every day talking with hospital managers about future planning issues, which are often linked to marketing
responsiveness, new technologies, and changing expectations about healthcare delivery.

\
ARCHITECTURE
Modern hospital buildings are designed to minimise the effort of medical personnel and the possibility of contamination while maximising the efficiency of the whole system. Travel time
for personnel within the hospital and the transportation of patients between units is facilitated and minimised. The building also should be built to accommodate heavy departments such
as radiology and operating rooms while space for special wiring, plumbing, and waste disposal must be allowed for in the design
CLASSIFICATION OF HOSPITALS BASED ON...CLASSIFICATION OF HOSPITALS BASED ON... 2.
OBJECTIVE: IPHS & IS CODE 10905: ON IPHS & IS (INDIAN STANDARD) CODE – 10905 (1984):

• GENERAL HOSPIT • PRIMARY HOSPITAL – WHICH SUPPORTS UP TO SUB CEN-


• CATEGORY A – 25 TO 50 BEDS TRES OR FIELD UNITS, CREATING TO A POPULATION OF ABOUT
• SPECIALITY & SUPER-SPECIALITY HOSPITAL 1000000.
• TEACHING & RESEARCH HOSPITAL • CATEGORY B – 51 TO 100 BEDS
• SECONDARY HOSPITALS – WHICH PROVIDE SERVICE TO
• CATEGORY C – 101 TO 300 BEDS THE PATIENT REFERRED FROM PRIMARY HEALTH CARE FACILITIES,
SYSTEM OF MEDICINE: THESE ARE GENERALLY DISTRICT HOSPITALS.
• CATEGORY D – 301 TO 500 BEDS
• ALLOPATHY • TERTIARY HOSPITALS – WHICH PROVIDES SUPERIOR LEVEL
• UNANI • CATEGORY E – 500 TO 750 BEDS OF CARE, SUPER SPECIALITIES TO THE PATIENTS REFERRED FROM
• AYURVEDA SECONDARY LEVEL FACILITIES.
• HOMEOPATHY

HOSPITAL PLANNING 3.
PLANNING INVOLVES SIX QUESTIONS FACTORS IN HOSPITAL PLANNING BASIC OBJECTIVES WHICH ARE TO MET BY THE HOSPITAL
1. What we expect to do? 1. Community interest over individual interest 1. Sound architectural plan
2. Why it will be done? 2. Preventive services over curative services 2. Economic viability
3. Where will it be done? 3. Services catering to the weaker sections of the 3. Effective community orientation
4. When we expect to do it? community 4. Quality patient care
5. Who all are going to do it? 4. Rural over urban
6. How will it be done? 5. Regionalized planning

DATA REQUIRED IN PLANNING THE HOSPITAL SELECTION OF SITE HOSPITAL MUST MEET TWO BASIC FUNDAMENTAL NEEDS
1. Geographic data 1. Needs of the community
2. Morbidity & mortality status 2. Ease of accessibility 1. Must meet the needs of the patient it is going to
3. Need & demand 3. Range of services offered 2. serve adequately.
4. Details of existing facilities 4. Availability of specialists 3. It must be in a size & proportions which the owners or
5. Financial feasibility 5. Availability of technology promoters will be able to build & operate
6. Demographic details
ABOUT AND ACCESS TO SITE 4.
SITE CONSIDERATIONS
The modern medical center is so large and so complex that it should be located on the edge of the university campus rather
than within it. This location will emphasize the fact that the medical center is a satellite in the university orbit, but has a degree of
autono my . It is important that students and staff in the medical center have easy access to the main university campus, and
that the medical center be accessible to all areas of the university . The site should be large enough to accommodate growth
of the school programs and concurrent parking for at least 20 years . The minimum size recommended for a medical center in-
cluding a teaching hospital is 50 acres, and 50 to 150 acres is preferable . Buildings should be placed on the site so that additions
can be made as programs develop and as enrollment increases.
Due to small width of medical road there is a need for new access road .Which can be provided from iqra quarsi road.

LOCATION ROAD NETWORKS TO SITE


• Medical road : primary road connecting the site presently with
Aligarh is located at the coordinates 27.88°N 78.08°E.[7] aligarh city
It has an elevation of approximately 178 metres (587 • University road : road that connects the site with university
feet).
• Hadi hassan road : road that brings traffic from dohra to site
The city is in the middle portion of the doab, the land
between the ganges and the yamuna rivers. • Aligarh bypass : road proposed to directly connect the site
The g.T. Road passes through.
JNMC COLLEGE, AMU

INDIA MAP UTTER PRADESH MAP


SITE SURROUNDINGS 4.
IMMEDIATE SURROUNDINGS
NEW GIRLS HOSTEL Medium Height structures up to 3-5 floors
Structures located at suitable distances.
DHORRA Public market on southern side.
MEDICAL COLONY General services

AL
IG
AR
HB
YE
PA
SS
DH
O
RR
OAD
A
RO
AD
AN R

MEDICAL COLONY
I HAS
DHAD

NEW JNMC TRAUMA BLOCK

SS PARK

DENTAL COLLEGE

UN
IVE
RSI
TY R
OA
D
GRAVEYARD

+2 BOYS SCHOOL
AD
RO
RIA
ZAK

SIR SYED NAGAR


ALLAMA IQBAL BOARDING HALL

NEW GIRLS HOSTEL MEDICAL COLONY HADI HASHAN HOSTEL


SITE ANALYSIS 5.
SITE HISTORY TOPOGRAPHY
Drainage
Towards public drain on
FORMER SITE USES western side.
Underground Drainage.
Hazardous Dumping : Non Natural Gradient
Yes
Landfill : Yes but long Soil Type
Archaeological sites : No Composite Alluvial
Bearing Capacity :

Seismic Loads
HISTORY OF EXISTING Seismic Zone : 3
STRUCTURES Richter Scale : 7.8

Historic Worth : Average Damage


Affiliations : Jawaharlal Light - Moderate
Nehru Medical College,
AMU Existing Waterways
Floor Elevations : No existing waterway.
3500mm floor to floor. Unique Site features
Type : Hospital and Well levelled
Health care
Condition : Poor Visual Characteristics
Use : Public Medium Trees, Lawns

COMMUNITY SERVICES UTILITIES


Schools : University Poly- Existing Access and
technic ( 700 mts.) Circulation
Shopping Centres : Fair- See Adjacent Figure
price (500 mts.)
Parks : Gulistan – e – Water Supply,
Syed (600 mts.) ElectricIty, Telephone,
Recreational Facilities : Fuel Onsite Water Tanks
NO Overhead Wired Elec-
Banks : State Bank of tricity transmission Poles
India ( 700 mts.) Underground tele-
Public transportation phone line
: Battery Rickshaws, Onsite Fuel delivery
Aligarh Railway St. ( 4.4 through government
km), Aligarh Bus Stand vendors
(4.3 km)
Fire Protection
Fire Dept. at 3.5- 4km
CLIMATE STUDY AND ANALYSIS 6.
Preva ilin g Win d s N –W t o S E
Ra in f a ll o f 1 .5 i n c h
T em p era tu re : 4 2 C ma x to 7 C m in
A vg . Clou d Cover : 2 0 %
Veg eta tion 1 5 % - 1 8 %.
H u m id ity Ra n g e s : 2 0 % – 9 5 %
A vera g e : 2 0 - 5 5 %
Precip ita tion A n n u a l : 2 9 .6 i n c h

NORTH

DRAINAGE & VEGETATTION


CLIMATE ANALYSIS | MAHONEY’S TABLE
MAHONEYS TABLE FOR ALIGARH
6.

SPACING

6
CLIMATE ANALYSIS | MAHONEY’S TABLE 6.
MAHONEYS TABLE FOR ALIGARH

7
8.
JNMC HOSPITAL, AMU, ALIGARH | CASE STUDY-1 8.
about |
JNMC HOSPITAL, AMU, ALIGARH | CASE STUDY-1 8.
JNMC HOSPITAL, AMU, ALIGARH | CASE STUDY-1 8.
JNMC HOSPITAL, AMU, ALIGARH | CASE STUDY-1 8.
JNMC HOSPITAL, AMU, ALIGARH | CASE STUDY-1 8.
JNMC HOSPITAL, AMU, ALIGARH | CASE STUDY-1 8.
JNMC HOSPITAL, AMU, ALIGARH | CASE STUDY-1 8.
JNMC HOSPITAL, AMU, ALIGARH | CASE STUDY-1 8.
JNMC HOSPITAL, AMU, ALIGARH | CASE STUDY-1 8.
JNMC HOSPITAL, AMU, ALIGARH | CASE STUDY-1 8.
JNMC HOSPITAL, AMU, ALIGARH | CASE STUDY-1 8.
JNMC HOSPITAL, AMU, ALIGARH | CASE STUDY-1 8.
REFERENCES

• TIME SAVERS DATA for architects

• NEUFERT’S DATA

• MATRIC HANDBOOK DATA

• MCI Guidelines for hospital design

• IPHS 10905 CODES

• INDIAN STANDARDS CODE 12433

• THEISIS REPORT(Anam Fatima, Dept of Arch. AMU)

• https://www.wikipedia.org/

• https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Elza_
Costeira/publication/282852376_Healthcare_Ar-
chitecture_History_Evolution_and_New_Visions/
links/561ea20108aec7945a26d74f/Healthcare-Archi-
tecture-History-Evolution-and-New-Visions.pdf

Оценить