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Agenda- LTE Carriers LTElCarrier? T 1

Data Rate
In /out of core
ate ut>?

MAC IP
RSRP, RSSI, RSRQ
j U | UA2

LTE Carriers tHofrB

- RSRP, RSSI, RSRQ


Frequency-division duplexing ( FDD)
Re-Farming
Time-Division Duplexing (TDD)

05:02 m D
From Last Webiniar
Resource Block represents the basic unit of
resource for LIE
c
i Resource Block is a grid:
S 12 subcarriers in the frequency domain ( 130 kHz )
6 or 7 symbols in the time domain (0.5 s)
72 or 84 Resource Elements per Resource Block
Each Resource Element can accommodate 1
modulation symbol* e.g. QPSK , 16QAM, 64 QAM
7 symbols

Urn [terrain
*
Uttndtd CytiK Bandwidth 1.4 3 5 10 15 20
(MHz )
O
Z
- n ofR 8 s 6 15 25 50 75 100
*
T
O

fen
-
Subcarriers 72 180 300 600 900 1200

n
84 Of DM vrnitwl- .
t 06:31
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£3«
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What are the Reference Signals-Used


for? Physical Cell Identity

c: 41 «

S
What are the Reference Signals-Used
for? Physical Cell t
/ #

Reference Signals - Usedfor cell search, channel


estimation and neighbour cell monitoring
( handover & Cell selection )

»n
3

41 46

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asn <i& > >
I-S3-!

Physical Cell Identity


( PCI) = 20 ref signals Physical Ceil Identity
-
-
/
(PCI) 55
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tg
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if
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,

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Physical Cel) Identity look in control
( PCI) = 20 ref signals Physical Cell Identity
(PCI ) 55 -

l fonrusiT ^d
JWC CONHterrON
nt «*d ( o r » -.J.
> jr/ f -
^
t -t ii
mcowiouMnos SINR + 19dBm
Lip/ fTKK)Ittff + W
Ut4Mrffn«iKi ** *
»n
41 «6

SlNR -4dtLm Down Link Cxr tai: »40


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*
'

Ihit l!
*
N4Wifnint report Vh #lfr^J

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hjvet?
Physical Cell Identity look in control
( PCI) = 20 ref signals Physical Cell Identity
( PCI ) * 55

I #-n connrstfO I nrtd toK^dOw


ffJfC COHNCCTION
HtCONftGUMTION SINR + 19dttm
-*
«t u pv/modify/ f fV< ve
Vwiuffmtrii
»n
T>
***CJ
i
*C
SlNR 4dBoi Down Link
i
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JMO

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i am idle I need
to do cell
I (JO no »v vrnd .1 t h n it s selection
mcjurfmnt report tharnd loulooV Jl Rt ' 1

( P0VCHJ
SIROJIV

IU O
SO +
Vlr J JI MC S
have I?
Physical Cell Identity look in < ot) tiQl
( PCI) = 20 V ref signals Physical Cell Identity
(PG) *SS
*:

I <onwttd I rx«J to hirdow


ftXtCOHHlCTrON
m ii
( COHftGU ATX>N
* *
w ( un/modi w
$iNR * 19dBm

» JJi
IT '
T> *V 41 «
*
SlNR ldBo- Down Link
» ’ i .-
' ^F wKUri
t
3M0

I ui \ > I
jrri ni><' d
*
to do cell
I now vw) Thrt if v f t *c t r o n
A
*
mcdu rrm
* «nt rrf»rt th ird
* .
l i - t v took It Rof
Slflnjtv
UMTS/GPftS
tPDSCHt
Wh.lt . I |>04 j|

I"
M
trer o*S« t (do)
* 21 W

-H» 0 CO

PATH LOSS 0.00

Ct^Vc/ 11 » -IIM oco


r
*21 » 0.00

t 0+00 11'
* * - 300.00 000

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*
2> «
1193

-<1 w.
-22» 100

Csritrf: 11 » -«« 000

0.00
HfO
H50 »13 0.00

200.00 0.00
* 300 00

LESS POWER FOR MORE POWER FOR


OTHER CHANNELS TRAFFIC
tO AtRCOm
*K
^^ 1

«
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< -
CM2 d» >tr) Q*Ht t (< )
*
Zl » 0.00

PA!H LOSS Tutor, o . oo


COrtVd: jiao m 1AM 0.00
r.
o.oo
»000 0.00
Cannot icc MIB StNRow S
1 have poor RS 1 + IV
/ * town * Uxhet rwtr cm«' c< )
*
.
.
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JV 0 J

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PAlH I OSS
Genrcf : JXW
n« 0.00

MM 0.00

nu o .oo
0 50

>
*
900 00
- »0.00 0.00

LESS POWER FOR MORE POWER FOR


HffiAmC _

o
to
^Uw T2
You need to understand how LTE operates before changing power.
May improve one channel at the expenses of others .
What about the Uplink ?
tW (40 vKr ) - * (<*)
M- W

0.00

«i,«4 ij. w
PA!H LOSS fr
*rtc; 0.00

uw 000

aw 0.00

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Cannot icc MIS StNRawr $
1 hav poor RS I+ N
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LESS POWER FOR MORE POWER FOR
OTHER CHANNEL ' HFRAFFIG — =

a 17:54 £ D
UE measurements
Cell selection/ reselection

In cellular networks, when a mobile moves


from cell to cell and performs cell mu
i ITE

vs
selection/reselection
HI
i <£ ! K l M t k V

In handover, it has to measure the signal


strength / quality of the neighbour cells & send
GSM
A
UE makes the decision based on
a report to the network .
Handover
CONHtCTtON RtCONItGUKATION

Repot AS
'
rH’ighbouiiugcell

13:51 TT m

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UE measurements
Cell selection/ reselection
m
In cellular networks, when a mobile moves
from cell to cell and performs cell IDK
ii
selection/reselection
LTI
k
In handover, it has to measure the signal
strength / quality of the neighbour cells & send
GSM
il
UE makes the decision based on
a report to the network .
Evcnt AS , Serving cell become; worse then an absolute Handover
Htt( CONNf t TtON to CONfKMKATlON
threshold and the neighbouring cell; is better than another
absolute threshold .,***
—— <** 1 1
'

Meetu* efrnMii
Repot A *J
'
k.
neighbouiingcelt

r
II 19:25 w e jt HiM Q
UE measurements
Cell selection/ reselection

In cellular networks, when a mobile moves


from cell to cell and performs cell
il 3G

IDU
LIE

selection/reselection
LTI
4 El ' II

In handover, it has to measure the signal GSM


il
strength / quality of the neighbour cells & send UE makes the decision based on
a report to the network .
Event AS, Serving cell become; worse than an absolute Handover
un< count ( non m < OWHAJHAHON
threshold and the neighbouring cells is better than another
absolute threshold ^ t

E3Me > T1
In LTE network , a UE measures two parameters
on reference signal:
*Sule*t>ent
Report AS
i
a *

• RSRP ( Reference Signal Received Power )


k
tH’ightXHJMOgU'h

• RSRQ ( Reference Signal Received Quality )


11 19:53
UE measurements
In LTE network , a UE measures two parameters on reference signal:

• RSRP ( Reference Signal Received Power )

* RSRQ ( Reference Signal Received Quality )

Cell selection /reselection


•Qrxlevmin used for cell
selection in 3GPP release 8
•Minimum required RX level in
k IDLC
the cell (dBm)

J
V H t/ l
1
foi

•Qrxlevmin and Qqualmin used


for cell selection from 3GPP
release 9
k
Intra Freq Cell Reselection

21:40
*£3P

UE measurements
In LIE network , a UE measures two parameters on reference signal:

* RSRP ( Reference Signal Received Power )

* RSRQ ( Reference Signal Received Quality )

Cell selection / reselection


•Qrxlevmin used for cell
selection in 3GPP release 8
Minimum required RX level in
i. IDLE
i
the cell (dBm)
i
v n j/ i

P«r «mrtrrvlbv k
Qrxlevmin ind Qqualmin used
for cell selection from 3GPP
release 9
k
Minimum required quality Intra Freq Cell Reselection
level in the cell ( dB)
21:59 D
- 5i

UE measurements
In LIE network , a UE measures two parameters on reference signal:

• RSRP ( Reference Signal Received Power )

* RSRQ ( Reference Signal Received Quality )

Cell selection /reselection


•Qrxlevminljsed for cell
selection in 3GPP release 8
•Minimum required RX level in
A IDLE
k
the cell (dBm )

k i ‘
'Mill/ I

tot 4
•Qrxlevrnin and Qaualmin jsed
for cell selection from 3GPP
release 9
A
•Minimum required quality Intra Freq Cell Reselection
level in the cell ( d & )
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Reference Signal Receive Power


RSRP ( Reference Signal
Receive Power ) is the Antenna 1
average power of Resource
O £2
Elements ( RE ) that carry 5 *
cell specific Reference 5 <T5
O

Signals ( RS ) over the entire O 3


CO

bandwidth, so RSRP is only


CNJ

measured in the symbols


carrying RS
Reference Signals occupy 8
out of 168 symbols ( 14 xl 2 )

TT E3
-
E3P

Reference Signal Receive Power


RSRP ( Reference Signal Receive Power ) is the average power of Resource Elements
( RE ) that carry cell specific Reference Signals ( RS ) over the entire bandwidth, so RSRP
is only measured in the symbols carrying RS
Antenna 1
Reference signals similar to CPICH in
WCDMA O
03
E
Reference signals are distributed in both 5 <13
O
the time and frequency domains 5
"
-o
o 03
<Nl
Used for cell search, channel estimation u
and neighbour cell monitoring 1 ms

Reference signals reduce the maximum Reference Signals occupy 8


achievable user plane bit rate by occupying out of 168 symbols
a subset of the resource block symbol
locations

26:10 « i LU D
r

Reference Signal Receive Power


RSRP ( Reference Signal Receive Power ) is the average power of Resource Elements
( RE ) that carry cell specific Reference Signals ( RS) over the entire bandwidth, so RSRP
is only measured in the symbols carrying RS
Antenna 1
Reference signals similar to CPICH in
WCDMA O
CD
E
Reference signals are distributed in both 5 o
I
the time and frequency domains 3
O 3
to
CNJ
Used for cell search, channel estimation -T
v
and neighbour cell monitoring

Reference signals reduce the maximum Reference Signals occupy 8


achievable user plane bit rate by occupying out of 168 symbols
a subset of the resource block symbol
locations

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^interference from ofchar sec t m


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Reference Signal Receive Power
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Received Signal Strength Indicator
RSSI is effectively a measurement of all of the power contained in the applicable
<
spectrum 1.4 , 3, 5, 10, IS or 20 MHz ) .

This could be signals, control channels, data channels, adjacent cell power, background
noise, everything *

RSSI varies with LTE downlink bandwidth

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Reference Signal Receive Quality


RSRP provides information about signal strength andl IRSSl helps in determining
interference and noise information.

This \ s the reason, RSRQ (Reference Signal Receive Quality ) measurement and
calculation is based on both RSRP and RSSI


i T«

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RSRQ is defined as t*
the ratio NxRSRP /
( B- UTRA carrier
RSSt )
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Reference Signal Received Quality


(RSRQ )
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RSRQ affected by cell loads.

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Reference Signal Receive Quality
Bandwidth 1.4 3 5 10 IS 20
(MHz) N
# of RB 6 15 25 50 75 100
* IUfFUtunJ 1 V J

Subcarrier 72 ISO 300 600 900 1200 I


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Point of interest

B
Reference Signal Receive Quality
Bandwidth 1.4 3 5 10 IS 20
( MHz ) N

# Of RB $ 6 IS CffSOTH

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f if £ <UIft b«r*J li
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Subcarrier 72 160 FlJBf .
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Point of interest
RSRQ = n x RSRP/RSSI

RSRQ = 10 log 25 + ( -102.77 -( - 82 .71)


=13.97 + ( - 20.06)
u
= -6.09

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Frame Structures '* > (W
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Frequency- division duplexing!FDD ) * «4

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Time - Division Duplexing ( TDD )


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Frequency-division duplexing(FDD )
Sand 1

receiver 2110- 2170 MHz

transmitter 1920- 1980 MH 2


T
Frequency -division duplexing (FDD ) means that the transmitter and receiver
operate at different carrier frequencies.

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Frequency-division duplexing(FDD )
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Frequency-division duplexing(FDD )
LTC
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receiver «
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* Type 1: used for the LTE
On
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transmitter
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sub

Duplex \ s a scheme whereby transmissions may be sent in both directions simultaneously

Channel separation between the transmission and reception frequencies must be sufficient to
enable the receiver not to be unduly affected by the transmitter signal.
.Hi* ff'nuiff'd
:ilttrt
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Frequency-division duplexing(FDD )
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transmitter i
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Duplex is a scheme whereby transmissions may be sent in both directions simultaneously

Channel separation between the transmission and reception frequencies must be sufficient to
enable the receiver not to be unduly affected by the transmitter signal.

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Filters are required within the base station and also CR ( MiUl

the handset to ensure sufficient Isolation of the


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Frequency-division duplexing(FDD )
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Sub

Channel characteristics different in both directions as a result of the use of different


frequencies
Requires paired spectrum with sufficient frequency separation to allow simultaneous
transmission and reception

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Frequency-division duplexing(FDD)
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Band 8:is currently used mostly by GSM . The
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Frequency-division duplexing(FDD)
Band 8 :is currently used mostly by GSM . The
band is attractive from a coverage point of
Ut |Mill| Dt ( IM tj|
view due to the lower propagation losses.
Supported Ch«nnels (non-overfappIng)
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Time-Division Duplexing (TDD)


TOO means the transmission and reception occur on the same frequency

Same frequency
T
>

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i i »
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Sp cU
* * U)P u» CtMrn Down Oowri Down
k
*
*
*tii I
* -
i »
*

TDD in unpaired
spectrum,
whereby the same
frequency channel
is used for both
downlink and
uplink
communication
53-37
TOO means the transmission and reception occur on the same frequency

Same frequency
*

Up I Up
*
Down Down OfrAH
*

—E3—
i P m »
p
*

TDD in unpaired
spectrum,
whereby the same
frequency channel
is used for both
downlink and
uplink
communication
•t

54 *21
Time-Division Duplexing (TDD )
While FDD transmissions require a guard band
between the transmitter and receiver
frequencies.

i
il nrA
r-Do .-
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1
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Down Special
TDD schemes require a guard time or guard
interval between transmission and reception. i
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i
This must be sufficient to allow the signals i Down
travelling from the remote transmitter to
arrive before a transmission is started and the
receiver inhibited. 10D i\ rvoi rwnwIlyMiiuWffofUM Owi lofi
' ^
..
divt ancoi i‘ lhc guJtd time irKr« j^ j»d the*
Large guard period will limit capacity. iMiinrU'llkiotKY I.tils
(

Down Spatial Up Up Down Down Down Down Down Down

el OJOJt
Type 2 LTE Frame Structure
The 10 ms frame comprises two half frames, each 5 ms long. The LTE half - frames are
further split into five subframes, each 1ms long

* #
m
m
*#
«
One radio frame = 10ms i

**
One half frame = Sms
-
i

m
V v
i

m
I» i
* *
! # a.
Down Up Up Down Down Down Down Down Down
* •-

The sub- frames may be divided into


Spec ! I
Standard sub - frames or *
Special sub - frames.

In the case of the 10 ms periodicity, the Downlink 9 tk>t Uplink Pilot Tim <* Slot ,
lim *- DwPTS UpPTS
special sub - frame exists in the first half I—
.

frame only Guard Period


u AIRCOrn
Type 2 LTE Frame Structure
The 10 ms frame comprises two half frames, each 5 ms long . The LTE half - frames are
further split into five subframes, each lms long
DwPTS C *urk* % downlink UpPTS uvdlot
c ontrokhjnnel - PKiM H ,m<i
*
vt IK?du1inR j r>d con t r ol ourvdtng reference
* One radio frame = 10ms \
i

*
information
m


One half frame = Sms *

*

4
* k *
Down * * *
Up Up Down Down Down Down Down
« 4
* * *
4 4
* * *

The sub - frames may be divided into


$p«d« 1
Standard sub - frames or
Special sub - frames.
«1

In the case of the 10 ms periodicity, the Oownhnk Pilot Uplink Pilot Time Slot,
Tim Sk>t , DwfMS UpPTS
special sub - frame exists in the first half *
frame only Guard Period
u AIRCOm til
f
*I * •4 k t( 4 g|
#|
Type 2 LTE Frame Structure

* When switching from DL to UL a guard period is inserted between DwPTS and the
UpPTS field .
* Guard period depends on the propagation time
* Duration of the Guard period depends on cell size
* The fields are individually configurable in terms of length , although the total length
of all three together must be 1ms

4 «
Down Up Up Down Down Down Down Down Down
» «
*

Sp«l«l

Down! ink Pilot Uplink Pitot Tim«* Slot ,


Itnx* Slot. OwFIS UpPTS

I Guard Pe ^od j
59i42
*i E3
Type 2 LTE Frame Structure

* When switching from DL to UL a guard period is inserted between DwPTS and the
UpPTS field.
* Guard period depends on the propagation time
* Duration of the Guard period depends on cell size
* The fields are individually configurable in terms of length , although the total length
of all three together must be 1ms

Down Special Up Up Down Down Down Down Down Down

Spe< l«l Every UE is informed by the enodeB as to


when it must start Transmitting. The greater
the distance the earlier the UE starts
OownlmkPitor Uplink Pitot Tirm* Slot . transmitting. The TA prevents conflicts when
Imv Slot, DwPTS UpPIS
switching from the uplink to downlink
Guard Period
u AIRCOm
*
w£3m

Type 2 LTE Frame Structure


F rjmc S
«
# * 4
4 *I* * 4

Down *
4
Special Up Up Up Down Spatial Up Up Up
a a
**
4 4
*4 *

..
4' a
* *
a
* a a
* a a
Down Sp ct 1 Up Up Down Down Special Up Up Down
a a » a
a
* » a a # a

a m
« *a
i
* i i
Down Special Up Down Down Down Spatial Up Down Down
a
»
a 4 «
*
a
a # a
* * 4

t
• a a
Down Special Up Up Up Down Down Down Down Down
a
*
* a * * a
*
ft a a
* 4 *4 a a *a a a a a
4 ( a a
Down *
Spatial Up Up Down Down Down Down Down Down
4 a »
> a » a a
a a a a a a a
4
*
a 4 a 4 a
« 4 ' a 4 a
» 4' V
*
Down Special Up Down Down Down Down Down Down Down
a a
« « m
* a A

a
a a * *
I
a
a
Down
m
Special Up Up Up Down Spatial Up Up Down
* * A *

Frame 0 and frame 5 ( always downlink in TDD)

01:01:39 m m
Type 2 LTE Frame Structure
FfiirmoO Ffwwl FfjmfS FiilW' 6
**a
i
* « # b
* # »' *
A t

Down Special Up Up Up Down Special Up Up Up


«
A
*
a * # #
*4 *

..
a 4
* *
4 w
i m m *
Down Sp cl 1 Up Up Down Down Special Up Up Down
4' 4 4 t v
4 4 « A # 4 i
* *
* 4 *A P
i A > *
Down *
Special Up Down Down Down Special Up Down Down
* a
4'

*
» t
* *
1

Down Special Up Up Up Down Down Down Down Down


+ r i 8 a
4' A 4 4 4
*
4 4 # « 4
4 4' 4 » 4 4 * 4 *a
4 A 4 4

Down * *
4
Special Up Up Down Down Down Down Down Down
4' 4 I
4 4 I 4
* 4
* *
V
«
m
4 t
«4 i a
4
4
w

Down Special Up Down Down Down Down Down Down Down


«' t A

-
4

4 .
8'
4
*
'8'
'

- »
I
4
Bi
v

*
Down Special Up Up UP Down Special Up Up Down
a i a

Frame 0 and frame 5 ( always downlink in TDD)


Frame 1 and frame 6 is always used as for synchronization in TDD
1

preamble formats
When we talk about the cell size, we usually think of RF coverage first .

The cell radius is also related to the parameter configuration for the random
access procedure

There are 5 PRACH preamble formats


formats 0 to 3 applicable to FDD and TDD
format 4 is only applicable to TDD ( short preamble )

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01:04 :13 & em LU E


OUtCKt OLL
'

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Beslc overview of LTE radio coverage
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LTE Protocols - UE and eNodc B

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