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NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Conversion to Digital Radiography from Film Radiography Steve Mango Worldwide Technical

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Conversion to Digital Radiography from Film Radiography

Steve Mango Worldwide Technical Manager Carestream NDT Rochester, NY

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Overview: •   Overview of digital •   Basic computed radiography

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Overview:

Overview of digital • Basic computed radiography (CR) • Basic digital radiography (DDA) • Image quality measures • ASTM standards • Digital radiography system qualification • Customer acceptance of digital • Audit criteria

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference What is Digital Radiography? •   Sources, shielding, image: same as

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

What is Digital Radiography?

Sources, shielding, image: same as film • Detector: different type for both CR & DR (film is a detector also) • Everything after exposure to image formation is different from film • Need computer and monitor • Image is an array of rows and columns of pixels • Each pixel has a value proportional to dose, which eventually produces an analog “gray value” (brightness) on a display monitor

Digital radiography is a way for you to improve your throughput and reduce consumable expenditures
Digital radiography is a way for you to improve your throughput and
reduce consumable expenditures while improving the end customer
image experience.

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference What is a Digital Image? Digital Image Analog Image Golden Nugget

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

What is a Digital Image?

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference What is a Digital Image? Digital Image Analog Image Golden Nugget Hotel,

Digital Image

Annual Conference What is a Digital Image? Digital Image Analog Image Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas,

Analog Image

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Digital Conversion •   Other industries have converted (for example; photography)

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Digital Conversion

Other industries have converted (for example; photography)

Medical and dental radiography have converted

NDT is the last to go, still primarily film

It’s not a matter of “if”; it is a matter of “when”

not a matter of “if”; it is a matter of “when” Reduce consumables, reduce re-work, eliminate
Reduce consumables, reduce re-work, eliminate chemical disposal charges, eliminate film storage costs, improve image
Reduce consumables, reduce re-work, eliminate chemical disposal
charges, eliminate film storage costs, improve image evalua?on , share
and store files electronically.

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference What’s so Great about Digital? The user can; • adjust brightness

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

What’s so Great about Digital?

The user can;

adjust brightness

adjust contrast

apply magnification

apply image processing

apply measurements, do calculations, and obtain statistics

apply annotations

include stamps

Saves inspector ?me and consumable cost while improving produc?vity.
Saves inspector ?me and consumable cost while improving produc?vity.

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference What do your people need to learn to be prepared for

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

What do your people need to learn to be prepared for digital?

Digital Imaging Fundamentals – it not the same as film! • ASTM Standards pertaining to Digital • Digital System Qualification • Digital System Performance Baselining & Monitoring • Image Quality Measures • Computer Literacy • A Totally New User Interface!

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Varied requirements for digital certification •   ASNT training requirements •

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Varied requirements for digital certification

ASNT training requirements • Level I: 24 total hours, 16 hours hands-on • Level II: 24 total hours, 16 hours hands-on • NAS410 training requirements • NAS410 Level I: 16 total hours, 8 hours hands on • NAS410 Level II: 40 total hours, 8 hours

hands on •   NAS410 Level II: 40 total hours, 8 hours hands-on The Industry has
hands on •   NAS410 Level II: 40 total hours, 8 hours hands-on The Industry has

hands-on The Industry has standardized on training

MAI

MAI with Level common I: 8 hours guidelines formal training from FWGIDR, plus 20 DWGNDT,

hours and OJT MAI.

MAI Level II: 40 hours formal training plus 120 hours OJT

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Kinds of Radiography •   Radiographic Testing (RT) film •  

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Kinds of Radiography

Radiographic Testing (RT) film • Computed Radiography (CR) • Digital Radiography (DR) • Digital Detector Array (DDA) • Linear Detector Array (LDA) • Computed Tomography (CT)

Linear Detector Array (LDA) •   Computed Tomography (CT) Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February
Linear Detector Array (LDA) •   Computed Tomography (CT) Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Computed Radiography Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Computed Radiography

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Computed Radiography •   Invented in 1975 by George Lucky at

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Computed Radiography •   Invented in 1975 by George Lucky at Kodak

Computed Radiography

Invented in 1975 by George Lucky at Kodak • First commercialized in the mid 1980’s • Digital image from “film like” plates • Work flow is more like film • Imaging plates are flexible like film • Dynamic range is “four decades”

(i.e., 1X to 10,000X)

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Components of Computed Radiography •   Imaging Plate (IP) – photostimulable

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Components of Computed Radiography

Imaging Plate (IP) – photostimulable phosphor • Laser scanner or reader • Computer, Software, and Monitor (image viewing)

reader •   Computer, Software, and Monitor (image viewing) Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February
reader •   Computer, Software, and Monitor (image viewing) Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February
reader •   Computer, Software, and Monitor (image viewing) Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Computed Radiography Imaging Process Stimulating Laser Detector (PMT) Filter Galvo-driven

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Computed Radiography Imaging Process

Stimulating Laser Detector (PMT) Filter Galvo-driven scanning mirror (Fast scan) Translation stage "Slow
Stimulating Laser
Detector
(PMT)
Filter
Galvo-driven
scanning mirror
(Fast scan)
Translation
stage
"Slow scan"
*
Clock/sync
Display
Computer
A/D
convert
Hard-copy
output
Storage
device

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Computed Radiography: Imaging Plate Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Computed Radiography: Imaging Plate

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Computed Radiography: Imaging Plate Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13,
NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Computed Radiography: Imaging Plate Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13,

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Imaging Plates Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Imaging Plates

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Imaging Plates Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Imaging plate selection Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13,

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Imaging plate selection

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Imaging plate selection Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Imaging plate payback compared to film   •   • •

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Imaging plate payback compared to film

One 14 X 17” plate typically costs about the same as one box (100 sheets) of film Imaging plates wear out over time • Film wears out too over time Proper care and handling of IPs is required to achieve favorable payback!

Imaging plates are a reusable media compared to film which is only used once. With
Imaging plates are a reusable media compared to film which is only used
once. With proper handling of the imaging plates they can easily be used
hundreds (or thousands) of ?mes. The longer they last, the faster the
payback.

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Comparison of CR to Film Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Comparison of CR to Film

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Comparison of CR to Film Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Digital Radiography/DDAs Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Digital Radiography/DDAs

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Digital Radiography •   Invented in the early 1960’s, the worlds

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Digital Radiography

Invented in the early 1960’s, the worlds first digital radiograph was via fluoroscopy • Image is immediate • The detector is an electronic device • Workflow is less like film, more like a digital camera • DDA is rigid, not flexible • Highest sensitivity • Has excellent image quality due to frame averaging

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Digital Radiography System D R S y s t e m

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Digital Radiography System

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Digital Radiography System D R S y s t e m DR

DR System

Digital Radiography System D R S y s t e m DR Flat Panel Detector (DDA)

DR Flat Panel Detector (DDA)

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Components of Digital Radiography •   Radiation source •   Object

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Components of Digital Radiography

Radiation source • Object manipulator (for different exposure positions) • Digital Detector Array, DDA • Analog to Digital Converter • Computer, Software & Monitor

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Digita l Radiography Imaging Process Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Digital Radiography Imaging Process

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Digita l Radiography Imaging Process Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Digital Radiography Detectors - Indirect •   Contain a thin film

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Digital Radiography Detectors - Indirect

Contain a thin film transistor photodiode array pixel grid • Converts radiation to light • Scintillators typically utilize Gadolinium Oxysulfide Terbium doped particle phosphors • Scintillators can utilize Cesium Iodide Thallium doped needle phosphors • Light is converted to electronic signal by the panel • amorphous silicon, α -Si • Analog to Digital conversion produces pixel value

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Digital Radiography Detector Handling •   DR detector contains sensitive electronics

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Digital Radiography Detector Handling

DR detector contains sensitive electronics • Semi portable • Drop shock adversely affects detector • Temperature and moisture dependent • Radiation damage increases with kV; generally above

200kV

Periodic detector maintenance required

DR panels contain very sensi?ve electronics. In a sta?c environment, where the panel is not
DR panels contain very sensi?ve electronics. In a sta?c environment,
where the panel is not moved, the risk is reduced. However, panels can
damage easily. Replacement panel costs run about $75K.

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Calibration and Corrections Raw images obtained from a DDA must be

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Calibration and Corrections

Raw images obtained from a DDA must be calibrated (corrected) to create an ideal image.

These corrections consist of:

Offset (dark image) – the noise level in the absence of radiation is characterized and subtracted from raw images. Gain – the individual pixel to pixel non uniformity (gain) is normalized (x-ray on) and applied to the raw images. Bad pixel correction – underperforming pixels are characterized, mapped, and corrected in the raw image.

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Calibration frequency   •   • •   Offset is the

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Calibration frequency

Offset is the most frequently required calibration. This can be performed as often as every image. As such, these are not normally saved. Gain calibrations last much longer. They are required for different energy and geometry conditions. They may need to be done if the scintillator develops irregularities due to burn in. These calibrations are saved, and are recalled as required. Bad pixel mapping is provided by the manufacturer, and is required very infrequently. As the DDA develops bad pixels with age and/or use, an updated bad pixel map may be required.

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference DDA Calibration Example Calibrated Uncalibrated Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

DDA Calibration Example

Calibrated Uncalibrated
Calibrated
Uncalibrated
Annual Conference DDA Calibration Example Calibrated Uncalibrated Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015
Annual Conference DDA Calibration Example Calibrated Uncalibrated Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Digital Radiography Bad Pixels Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Digital Radiography Bad Pixels

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Digital Radiography Bad Pixels Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13,

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Comparison of DR to Film Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Comparison of DR to Film

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Comparison of DR to Film Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Image Quality Measures Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13,

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Image Quality Measures

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Digital Image quality measures •   •   •   With

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Digital Image quality measures

With film, inspectors only had to understand film density With digital radiography inspectors need to understand terms such as; • pixel value, digital detector response (PV, DDR) • digital driving level (DDL) • contrast to noise ratio (CNR) • signal to noise ratio (SNR) • interpolated basic spatial resolution (iSRb) • equivalent penetrameter sensitivity (EPS) An understanding of digital image quality measures is required to qualify a system, gain customer approval, and produce optimum images

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Exposure Linearity Equal increments of Log Exposure (doubling mAs) should yield

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Exposure Linearity

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Exposure Linearity Equal increments of Log Exposure (doubling mAs) should yield a

Equal increments of Log Exposure (doubling mAs) should yield a straight line response of pixel values in a 12-bit Log system

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Dynamic Range or Latitude Pixel value or density Digital Latitude Film

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Dynamic Range or Latitude

Pixel

value or

density

Digital Latitude Film Latitude Digital Film
Digital Latitude
Film Latitude
Digital
Film

Exposure

CR has a huge dynamic range rela?ve to film. It’s easy to get a good
CR has a huge dynamic range rela?ve to film. It’s easy to get a good shot
the first ?me. Fewer reshoots, no double loading!

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Pixel Value (Pixel Intensity, DDR) •   Proportional to Dose! •

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Pixel Value (Pixel Intensity, DDR)

Proportional to Dose! • Can not be treated the same as optical film density • The numerical representation of the pixel intensity depends on the chosen scale (i.e., log vs linear) • Bit depth determines total range of pixel values • Example 12 bit log = 2^12 = 4096, values 0 to 4095 • Example 16 bit linear = 2^16 = 65536, values 0 to

65535

Pixel values are converted to analog brightness for viewing

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Pixel Value Adjustment •   “Gray scale” (display) value is the

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Pixel Value Adjustment

“Gray scale” (display) value is the number assigned to pixel value • Window & level change the display values, not the underlying pixel values Display value is the “digital driving level” DDL • DDL is the shade of gray on the monitor • Monitor bit depth determines # of possible gray levels (8-bit = 256 levels)

depth determines # of possible gray levels (8-bit = 256 levels) Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas,

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Contrast •   Pixel value difference between parts of image •

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Contrast

Pixel value difference between parts of image • Radiographic contrast • Subject contrast: atomic no. (Z), density, thickness • KV, filter, scatter • Detector sensitivity • Contrast enhancement with processing • Use step wedge to define contrast (image sensitivity) and latitude

Use step wedge to define contrast (image sensitivity) and latitude Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV
Use step wedge to define contrast (image sensitivity) and latitude Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Contrast Sensitivity •   Minimum percent change in an object which

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Contrast Sensitivity

Minimum percent change in an object which produces a perceptible change in the image • Computed Radiography – lower contrast sensitivity • Digital Radiography – higher contrast sensitivity

•   Digital Radiography – higher contrast sensitivity Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13,
•   Digital Radiography – higher contrast sensitivity Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13,

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) •   Difference between pixel values

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR)

Difference between pixel values of adjacent areas • Divided by standard deviation of pixel value

(N2 – N1)/ σ

N = pixel value

σ = standard deviation

Standards specify this contrast is measured inside the 4T hole, and adjacent to it

this contrast is measured inside the 4T hole, and adjacent to it Golden Nugget Hotel, Las

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) •   SNR = N/ σ

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)

SNR = N/ σ N= pixel value; σ = standard deviation • Signal – desirable part of image: dose • Noise – undesirable part of image • Scatter • Geometric distortion • Statistical variation or quantum noise

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Spatial Resolution (SR) •   Amount of detail in the image

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Spatial Resolution (SR)

Amount of detail in the image • Minimum resolvable separation between high contrast objects • SR affected by many factors

high contrast objects •   SR affected by many factors Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Spatial Resolution (SR) Resolution is limited by effective pixel size! Golden

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Spatial Resolution (SR)

Resolution is limited by effective pixel size!
Resolution is limited
by effective pixel size!

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference ASTM Standards for Digital Radiography Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

ASTM Standards for Digital Radiography

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference ASTM Standards for both CR and DR (DDAs) •   Standard

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

ASTM Standards for both CR and DR (DDAs)

Standard Guides (tutorials) • Standard Practices for Performance Evaluation and Long Term Stability • Standard Practices for Manufacturer Classification & Qualification • Standard Practices for Examination

Major revisions to CR standards in progress! DDA Standards due for update this year

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference ASTM E 2 445 CR Phantom Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas,

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

ASTM E2445 CR Phantom

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference ASTM E 2 445 CR Phantom Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference ASTM/USAF CR Phantom for low energy Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas,

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

ASTM/USAF CR Phantom for low energy

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference ASTM/USAF CR Phantom for low energy Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference HPX-1 Diagnostic Tool CR Phantom Valida?ng digital system performance at the

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

HPX-1 Diagnostic Tool CR Phantom

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference HPX-1 Diagnostic Tool CR Phantom Valida?ng digital system performance at the start
NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference HPX-1 Diagnostic Tool CR Phantom Valida?ng digital system performance at the start
Valida?ng digital system performance at the start and finish of a project can be a
Valida?ng digital system performance at the start and finish of a project
can be a sellable benefit to a customer (confirms work) as well as risk
management for the inspec?on company.

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference SMPTE TV test pattern to evaluate display monitor performance Golden Nugget

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

SMPTE TV test pattern to evaluate display monitor performance

SMPTE TV test pattern to evaluate display monitor performance Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference ASME code acceptance •   ASME Article 2, Appendix VIII •

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

ASME code acceptance

ASME Article 2, Appendix VIII

Replacement of film by CR

ASME Article 2, Appendix IX

Replacement of film by DR

ASME code, section V, Article 2

2T hole or essential wire must be displayed

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Digital Radiography System Qualification Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Digital Radiography System Qualification

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Example of a CR System Qualification Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas,

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Example of a CR System Qualification

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Example of a CR System Qualification Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Minimum pixel value qualification   • Establishes an exposure range for

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Minimum pixel value qualification

Establishes an exposure range for optimum image quality

Determines the minimum pixel value to achieve a pre- determined image quality level • Equivalent penetrameter sensitivity • Signal to noise ratio

Allows users to know that they have good image quality based upon the pixel value (pixel intensity) that they achieve

Must be “qualified” for specific systems/parameters!

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Customer Acceptance of Digital Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Customer Acceptance of Digital

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Customer acceptance of digital •   What’s in it for them?

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Customer acceptance of digital

What’s in it for them? Why change? Is it as reliable as film? Demonstrate the same result as film. • Productivity • Will it make them more profitable? • ROI (Note; may not recoup investment with one job) • Operating expenses • Image management and storage

People can be reluctant to change. Digital imaging has a significant cost advantage rela?ve to
People can be reluctant to change. Digital imaging has a significant cost
advantage rela?ve to film. It’s worth the effort to convert.

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference RT inspection cost Source: Radiographic Inspection of Aircraft Components, Quality Digest,

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

RT inspection cost

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference RT inspection cost Source: Radiographic Inspection of Aircraft Components, Quality Digest,

Source:

Radiographic Inspection of Aircraft Components, Quality Digest, June 2006; Steven A. Mango.

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Digital radiography audit criteria How to assess / prepare / comply?

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Digital radiography audit criteria

How to assess / prepare / comply? Have comprehensive written procedures and be prepared to demonstrate S/W features & image quality measures! • Window/level/zoom/pan/1:1 pixel mapping • Histogram, ROI stats, variable width line profile • Display of DDRs and DDLs • Neg/Pos image polarity • Annotations • DICONDE compliance, lossless image format • Process controls (SNR, EPS tests, etc.) • Written procedures include scanner settings, viewing cond.

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Thank You! Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference

Thank You!

NDTMA 2015 Annual Conference Thank You! Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015

Golden Nugget Hotel, Las Vegas, NV February 10-13, 2015