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CE513 . WATER RESOURCE ENGINEERING

PRELIMS MEETING NO. 1 A. Course Introduction as per CE513 Institutional PAASCU Syllabus: Ref SEA - BSCE - CE513 2018 note: Document Will be uploaded to SLU Portal for common Reference.

Important items to highlight:

Course De scription

Course Learning Outcomes

Topic Learning Outcome (Prelim, Midterm, Finals) Coverage

Final Course Requirement

Assessment and Grading System

Reference Books

B. Class Rules and Requirements

Attendance shall be checked 15 minutes after the 2nd bell.

Students can still attend class after 15 min but will still be marked absent (school policy, 15 min late means absent)

Observe proper decorum as expected from a 5th year Civil engineering Student.

Every Student is required to have a notebook, calculator, writing material, and a 2 - 3 pcs formatted paper every meeting

Formatted paper: Short bond paper, with margin similar to formatted paper, only 1/2 inch margin all around instead of 1", color green.

C. Other Items:

Grouping of Students into 5 groups. (pick your own group mates)

DRAW LOTS for reporting (CS No. 1. Research work on introductory Topics)

Seating Arrangement

Discussion of CS No. 1 topics and deliverables.

Note: CS No. 1 Guidelines: (for all reporting)

1. Groups shall abide by the allotted time limi t. (assign a timer to raise flags at 1 min. before time, 30 sec before time and end of time)

2. If AVP will be used, First group to present will be responsible for the AVP and set - up, the class will only use 1 - computer (for all presentation of the day) equ ivalent to 1 set - up.

3. Set - up should be done until the first 5 min of the class only. Anything over will be equally divided and deducted to the time of each group presenting for the day.

4. All report (e - copy) shall be submitted 5 min before time. The last re porter shall be in - charge in submitting the data (save the data in a class thumbdrive/ usb )

5. All reporters shall submit a report summary, printed in a formatted paper with a Cover Page, at the beginning of the class period (first 8 min only, beyond that is c onsidered late)

6. Cover page: With heading, date of submission, subject and sched, instructor name, group member names and rating table.

Rating Table as Per SEA Rubrics (applicable to all research work with reporting)

CRITERIA

CEILING

SCORE

Content

10

 

Research Quality

10

 

Mastery of the Subject

10

 

Presentation and Visual Appeal

7

 

Delivery

7

 

Time Management

6

 

TOTAL GROUP SCORE

 

PRELIMS MEETING NO2. CE513. WATER RESOURCE ENGINEERING

TOPIC1: What is Water Resource Engineering?

ž Deals with the problems associated with the USE and CONTROL of Water

ž Supports Water Resources Management

ž about solving problems to secure water for people, based on a sound scientific understanding of hydrologic and hydraulic processes . This includes protection from excess water and from water shortage, as well as providing sufficient water for a sustainable environment.

ž branch of civil engineering concerned with maximizing the social and economic benefit associated with the world’s water resources while minimiz ing the adverse environmental impacts due to modifications to the

natural environment.

ž deals with the principles and analysis of water resources systems such as: multi - purpose reservoir, water supply distribution system, storm water drainage, irrigation sy stem, and agricultural drainage system.

ž Special topics: river and flood control, drought mitigation and water resource planning management

ž How much water is needed? Utilization (diversion vs consumption)

ž How much water can be expected? control

ž Who may use the water? Water rights

ž What kind of water is it?

ž What structural problems exist?

ž Does the project affect wild life or natural beauty?

ž Is the project economic?

wild life or natural beauty? ž Is the project economic? Fig. 1: Inter - relationship of

Fig. 1: Inter - relationship of Water Resource Engineering with Other Sciences

Fig. 2 Wate r Resource Engineering Framework The Dublin Principles of 1992 as Guiding Principles

Fig. 2 Wate r Resource Engineering Framework

The Dublin Principles of 1992 as Guiding Principles for Water Management:

of 1992 as Guiding Principles for Water Management: In commending this Dublin Statement to the world

In commending this Dublin Statement to the world leaders assembled at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Ri o de Janeiro in June 1992, the Conference participants urge all governments to study carefully the specific activities and means of implementation recommended in the Conference Report, and to translate those recommendations into urgent action programmes fo r water and sustainable development .

Water Resource Systems:

1. Water Control Systems

— Drainage ditches

— Flood Control embankments, levees, channels, dams

— Salinity control pumping, filters

— Sediment control fencing, reservoirs

— Pollution abatement pumping, filt ering, flocculation

2. Water Use Systems

— Domestic and industrial supply reservoirs, towers, lines

— Wastewater treatment plants, sewers

— Irrigation, aquifers, canals, ditches

— Hydropower generation, reservoirs, spillways

Uses of Water (Beneficial Use)

1. for domes tic purposes - drinking, washing, bathing, cooking, or other household needs, home gardens and watering of lawns or domestic animals

2. for municipal purposes - water requirements of the community

3. for irrigation – for producing agricultural crops

4. for power ge neration - producing electrical or mechanical power

5. for fisheries - propagation of culture of fish as a commercial enterprise

6. for livestock raising - for large herds or flocks of animals raised as a commercial enterprise

7. for industrial purposes - in factor ies, industrial plants and mines, including the use of water as an ingredient of a finished product

8. for recreational purposes - swimming pools, bath houses, boating, water skiing, golf courses, and other similar facilities in resorts and other places of re creation.

II. Quality of Water Resources

* Water quality - the characteristics of water that define its use and measured in terms of physical, chemical, biological, bacteriological, or radiological characteristics by which the acceptability of water is eva luated, to classify water resources and their beneficial use.

- ambient standards for measuring water quality have been formulated by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). DAO 34 , issued in 1990, includes classifications for both surfac e and coastal water.

- In the absence of water quality index, these parameters may be used:

§ dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), and heavy metals for inland surface waters

§ fecal coliform, nitrates, and salinity (chloride content) for groundwater as defined in the Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water (PNSDW).

§ While salinity is not directly related to pollution, it is also used as a common parameter for groundwater qua lity assessment to measure the level of contamination from saline water.

Water Quality Classification

• Water Quality Classification Legal and policy framework : Laws pertaining to water use and management

Legal and policy framework : Laws pertaining to water use and management

• Water Quality Classification Legal and policy framework : Laws pertaining to water use and management

II I . Water Quality Assessment

Dissolved oxygen (DO) is the amount of oxygen that is dissolved in water and is essential to healthy streams and lakes. National standard for DO is 5 mg/L. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD ) - measures the amount of oxygen consumed by microorganisms in decomposing organic matter in stream wate r. National standards for BOD vary from 1 to 15 mg/L based on beneficial water usage and classification. Total suspended solids (TSS) - measures the amount of undissolved solid particles in water such as level of siltation, decaying plant and animal matter , and domestic and industrial wastes. For water bodies used for water supply the standard for TSS is 25 mg/L for Class AA and 50 mg/L for Class A. Total dissolved solids (TDS) - used as an aggregate indicator of the presence of a broad array of chemical c ontaminants. The primary sources of TDS in receiving waters are agricultural runoff, leaching of soil contamination, and point source water pollution from industrial or domestic sewage. Heavy metals - EMB reports that heavy metals are parameters included in monitoring activities only for receiving water bodies where mining, electroplating, tanning, and other similar activities are operating. * In assessing quality of groundwater resources, the standard for TDS is 500 mg/L and a “negative” for coliform.

NOTE: Dissolved Oxygen is one of the water quality parameters used as an indication of how polluted the water is and how well the water can support aquatic plant and animal life. A higher dissolved oxygen level usually indicates better water qual ity. If d issolved oxygen levels are too low, some fish and other organisms may not be able to survive (Stevens Institute of Technology, The Global Water Sampling Project 2007).

The DENR identified three main sources of pollution:

2007). The DENR identified three main sources of pollution: IV . Status of water use and

IV . Status of water use and su pply

The country’s major water users are the agricultural sector which accounts for 85.27 percent of the total water supply, the industrial sector which consumes 7.46% and lastly the domestic users which use the remaining 7.27percent (PEM, 2003; 2004).

Ba sed on 2003 data, 63 percent of groundwater is consumed by the domestic sector and the remaining is shared by agriculture (17 percent), industry (13 percent), and other sectors (7 percent) (PEM, 2004). PEM 2003, on the other hand, reports that about 86 per cent of piped - water supply systems use groundwater as source.

Estimated water withdrawals as of 2003, based on water - right grantees registered with NWRB is 77,456 MCM/year. About 60 percent of groundwater extraction is without permit, resulting in indiscr iminate withdrawal. Over - abstraction from 6,441 registered wells has led to the lowering of aquifers, resulting in saline intrusion and ground subsidence in some areas.

Water shortage and scarcity

NWRB has identified nine water - critical urbanized areas where water is consumed intensively. This includes: Metro Manila, Metro Cebu, Davao, Baguio City, Angeles City, Bacolod City, Iloilo City, Cagayan de Oro City, and Zamboanga City.

Despite the abundant water resources in the Philippines, distribution of th ese resources varies widely in time and place as a result of the different geographic and climate conditions prevailing in different parts of the country (Barba, P, 2003). Water resources are unevenly distributed throughout the country, often resulting in water shortages in highly populated areas, especially during the dry season.

Most of the problems encountered in the water sector today arise from an issue of conflicts of use and water allocation. With the increase of population coupled with worsening po llution of water, lack of infrastructure and facilities result in allocation issues and conflicting rights over limited water supply. The principle in the Water Code of "first in time priority in right" may no longer be an equitable approach in resolving s uch conflicts.

In times of drought or emergency, a national policy exists wherein domestic water supply gets priority over all others within the limits of its water rights (National Water Resources Board, 1976, as cited in Jose, A. and Cruz, N., 1999).