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 cd : Change Directory

 cd / : Go to root directory
 cd - : Move one directory back from where you are now
 cd .. : Change current directory to parent directory
 cd -- : Show last working directory from where we moved
 cd ../ ../ : Move two directories up from where you are now
 cd ~ : Move to users home directory from anywhere
 cd . : Change working directory to current working directory

 ls : List files & directories


 ls –t : Open last file edited
 ls -1 : Display one file per line
 ls -d */ : Display only directories
 ls -R : Displays directoris and subdirectories under them
 ls -p | grep -v / : Display only files
 ls –l : Display all information about files/Directories
 File type : - normal file; d directory; s socket file; l link file
 File permissions
 Number of links
 Owner
 Group
 Size
 Last modified date & time
 File name
 ls –lh : Display file size in human readable format i.e. M, MB or KB
 ls –ld : Display directory information
 ls –lt : Order files based on last modified time
 ls –ltr : Order files based on last modified time in reverse order
 ls –lS : Sort files by size
 ls –a : Display hidden files
 ls –R : Display files recursively
 ls –i : Display file Inode number
 ls –n : Display files using UID & GUID
 ls –F : Visual classification of files with colors
 Blue : Output directories
 Green : Soft link
 alias ll = ls –l : You can take some required option and make it as aliases.

 mkdir : make directory


 mkdir test : Create ‘test’ directory
 mkdir test1 test2 : Creates multiple directories
 mkdir –m a=rwx mydir : Create ‘mydir’ directory and set its permission that all users may read, write &
execute.
 Mkdir –p /home/test/a/b: Create directory ‘home/test/a/b’. If parent directory does not exist create one.

 rmdir : Remove directory


 rmdir mydir : Removes the directory ‘mydir’

 rm : Remove files and directories


 rm file1 : Remove file1
 rm file2 file2 : Remove multiple files i.e. file1, file2..
 rm –i file1 : Delete the file interactively. The command will prompt before deleting a file.
 rm –d dir : Deletes an empty directory
 rm –r dir : Deletes a directory recursively using ‘-r’ option
 rm –ri dir : Deletes the files and sub-directories interactively
 rm –f file1 : Deletes file forcefully irrespective of its permissions. –f will not work for write protected
directories.
 rm –I file1 : Prompt once before deleting more than 3 files or recursive delete.
 rm –I files : prompt before every file removal
 rm with REGULAR EXPRESSION
 rm -- \ -store : delete a file with hyphen (-) symbol

 cp : Copy file
 cp project/source.txt project1/destination.txt : copy file from source to destination
 cp project/source.txt project1/ : copy file with same name from source to destination
 cp –r project project1/ : Recursively copy all contents from project (dir) to project1
 cp –I test.txt /home/office/ : Create hard links to files instead of copying them
[Please note: Hardlinks cannot be created on into directories. i.e. files will have same inode number but not
the directories]
 cp –s /home/office/documents/test.txt test.txt : Create symbolic links to files.
[Please note: Creating symlinks can only be done in current directory.]
 cp –n readme.txt /home/office/bin/ : Don’t overwrite an existing file
 cp –i readme.txt /home/office/bin/ : Confirm before overwriting
 cp –p sample.txt test/ : Preserve attributes of file or directory while copying.
It is also possible to preserve only the required properties like mode, ownership, timestamps, etc.
cp –preserve=mode sample.txt test/
 cp –vu *.txt /home/office : Copy only when the source file is newer
 cp –backup=simple –v *.txt ../office : Create backup of each copied file
[--backup = none,off; numbere,t; existing,nil; simple,never]
 cp –attributes-only readme.txt –v ../office : Copy only file attributes

 mv : Move files
 mv test.txt /home/office : Move file
 mv test.txt test1.txt test2.txt /home/office : Move multiple files
 mv dir_1/ /home/office/ : Moving directory
 mv test1.txt test2.txt : Renames test1 file to test2
 mv dir_1 dir_2 : Renames dir_1 to dir_2
 mv –v *.txt /home/office : Print the file movement in detail
 mv –i file_1.txt /home/office : Will provide notification whether to overwrite an existing
file (interactive mode)
 mv –uv *.txt /home/office : Will perform update only if source is newer than
destination file.
 mv –vn *.txt /home/office : Do not overwrite an existing file
 mv –bv *.txt /home/office : Create backup when copying
 -f : will move file forcefully.

 pwd : print working directory


 pwd : print current working directory
 pwd –L : Display logical current working directory
 pwd –P : Display physical current working directory
 echo “$PWD $OLDPWD” : Display current and previous working directory

 less : Used to search through files and text.

 more : It displays output in terminal one page at a time.

 head : Outputs the first part of file


 head readme.txt : Displays first 10 lines of file
 head -15 readme.txt : Displays first 15 lines of file
 head readme1.txt readme2.txt : Displays first 10 lines of both the files
 head –n 5 readme1.txt readme2.txt : Displays only first 5 lines of both the files
 head –c 20 readme.txt : Outputs only first 20 bytes (characters) of file
 head –n 5k readme.txt : Displays first 5 thousand lines of file
 head –n 4 *.txt : Displays first 4 lines of every file in directory

 tail : Outputs last part of file


 tail readme.txt –n 100 : Outputs last 100 lines of file
 tail –f readme.txt : Outputs last 10 lines of file and monitors file for updates.
tail then continues to output any new lines that are added
to readme.txt
 head –n 20 readme.txt | tail –n 5 : Print 15th line to 20th line from readme file
 tail –f –s 5 readme.txt : determine the sleep interval for –f

 cat : Create single or multiple files, view contains, concatenate &


redirect.
 cat readme.txt : Display contents of file
 cat file1.txt file2.txt : View contents of multiple files
 cat > file1.txt : Create a file with cat command
 cat –n file.txt : Display line numbers in file
 cat file1.txt; file2.txt : Display multiple files at once
 cat file1 > file2 : Redirect standard output of a file to a new file
 cat file1 >> file2 : Append standard output at the end of file2
 cat file1 file2 file3 > file4 : redirecting multiple file contains into single file
 cat –s file1 : Display contents of file, omitting any repeated blank lines.

 touch : Used to create, change, modify timestamps of a file


 touch file.txt : Creates an empty file with 0 byte.
 touch file1 file2 file3 : Create multiple files
 touch –a readme.txt : Changes file access and modification time
 touch –m readme : Will update the last modification time of file
 touch –c –t YYDDHHMM readme : explicitly set the access & modification time
 touch –r readme redit : Will update the timestamp of redit with the timestamp of
readme.
 touch –t YYMMDDHH.SS readme : Create a file using specified time

 wc : Find out word count, newline count


 wc readme.txt : Prints number of lines, words & bytes of the file.
 wc –l readme : Prints number of lines in the file.
 wc –w readme : Prints number of words in the file
 wc –c readme : Prints number of characters in the file
 wc –L readme : Display length of longest line

 nl : Numbers the line in a file


 nl readme : Prints line# for each row
 nl –i2 readme : Increments line numbers with value using –i option
 nl –s. readme : Add string after line numbers
 nl –w1 readme : Use a different column for line numbers
 nl –bpA readme : Number lines beginning with A
STYLE :
 a : Number all lines
 t : Number only non-empty lines
 n : Number no lines
 pRE: Number only lines that contain Regular
Expression (RE).
 nl –nln readme.txt : FORMAT for inserting line number
 ln : left justified, no leading zeros
 rn : right justified, no leading zeros

 sudo : It allows a user with proper permissions to execute a command as another user, such as supuser.
 sudo mount /dev/had /mnt : Executing command as super user.
 sudo –k : ‘Kill’ sudo authentication for the current user.

 chmod : Change permissions of files or directories.


 chmod options permissions filename
 Roles: u=user, g=group, o=others, a=all
 Permissions: r=read (4), w=write(2), x=execute (1)
 + : Add specified permission to the mentioned user/group/others/all
 - : Remove specified permission to the mentioned user/group/others/all
 = : Replicate specified permission to the mentioned user/group/others/all
 chmod u=rwx, g=rx, o=r readme .txt : user can read, write, execute, group can read & execute
and others can read only.
 chmod u+w filename : Add write permissions to a group
 chmod u=g filename : Replicate user permissions to a group
 chmod u-x filename : Removing execute permissions to a user
 chmod –R 755 directory-name : Apply permissions to all files under directory recursively.

 Chown : change owner of a file


 chown option user: group file/folder
 chown himanshu file_1 : Changed owner of the file_1 to Himanshu
 chown :family file_1 : Changed group to family
 chown himanshu:friends file_1 : Changed both owner and group of the file
 chown –h root:friends tmp_link : Forcefully change the owner/group of symbolic file
 chown --from=himanshu root file_1 : Change owner to root only if existing owner is himanshu
 chown --from=:friends :family file_1 : Change group to family only if existing group is friends
 chown --reference=file tmpfile : Copy the owner/group settings from one file to another
 chown –R himanshu:friends file_1 : Change owner/group of files by traveling the directories recursively
 chown –v –R guest:friends file_1 : List all the changes made by chown command

 chgrp : Change group ownership of file/files.


 chgrp options groupname file/foldername
 chgrp hrgroup file_1 : Changed groupname to ‘hrgroup’
 chgrp –hR staff /office/files : Change the ownership of /office/files, and all subdirectories, to
group staff.
 chgrp –f apache /var/apache : Change group ownership forcefully

 chroot : Runs a command or an interactive shell from another directory and treats that dir. As root.
 chdir : System function for changing the current working directory

 chage : To change user’s password aging and expiry information.


 chage [-m mindays] [-M maxdays] [-d lastday] [-I inactive] [-E expiredate] [-W warndays] user

 Passwd : To change the password of a user account.


 Files
 /etc/passwd : User account info.
 /etc/shadow : Secure user account info.
 /etc/pam.d/passwd : PAM configuration for passwd
 passwd : Change your own password
 passwd Raj : Change password for Raj user
 password –S Raj : Display password status information
 PS = Password Set, LK = Password Locked, NP = No Password)
 password –Sa : Display password info. for all accounts.
 passwd –d Raj : Remove password of Raj
 passwd –e Raj : set password expiry immediately
 passwd –l Raj : Lock the password of system user
 passwd –u Raj : unlock the user password
 passwd –i 10 Raj : Setting inactive days using –i option
 passwd –n 90 Raj : Set minimum days to change password
 passwd –w 12 Raj : Set warning days before expiring password

 finger : Check the information of any user.


 finger –s user : Display’s user login name, real name, terminal name, write status, idle time,
login time, office location, phone number.
 finger –l user : Displays –s info. as well as user’s home directory, home phone number,
login shell, mail status, and the contents of file from user home directory.
 finger –p user : same as –I except it does not include contents of file from user HD.
 finger –m user : avoid returning info. of users with almost similar names.

 login : Begins a session on the system


 File
 /var/run/tmp :
 /var/log/wtmp :
 /etc/passwd :
 /etc/shadow :
 /etc/motd :
 /etc/nologin :
 /etc/ttype :
 newgrp :

 useradd : It’s a low-level utility that is used for creating/adding user accounts in linux
 useradd command does following after you run it –
 edits /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow, /etc/group & /etc/gshadow files for the newly created user account.
 Creates & populates a home directory for the new user.
 Sets permissions & ownership to home directory
 useradd test_user : Adds a new user called test_user
 useradd –d /office/documents test_user : Create a user with different home directory
 useradd –u 999 navin : Create a user with specific user ID. In linux, every user has
its own UID.
 useradd –u 1000 –g 500 raj : Create a user with specific group ID
 useradd –G admin, webadmin, developer Raj : Adding user Raj to multiple groups
 useradd –M Raj : Add a user without home directory
 useradd –e 2017-12-21 Raj : Create a user with account expiry date
 useradd –e 2017-12-21 –f 45 Raj : Create a user with password expiry date
 useradd –c “Raj Dutt” Raj : Add user with custom content e.g. phone#, full name,etc.
 useradd –m –d /var/www/ravi –s /bin/bash –U ravi : Add user with specific home directory, default shell
and group with same name as user.
 useradd –m –d /var/www/ravi –s /usr/bin/nologin ravi : Add user with home directory, but no shell
 useradd –M –N –r –s /bin/false raj : -M creates user w/o home directory, -N create username
without group. –r creates system user.
 /etc/passwd : User account information
 /etc/shadow : Secure user account information
 /etc/group : Group account information
 /etc/gshadow : Secure group account information
 /etc/default/useradd : Default values for account creation
 /etc/skel : Directory containing default files
 /etc/login.defs : Shadow password suite configuration
 Exit Status
 0 : Everything was completed successfully.
 1 : Couldn’t update the password file
 2 : Syntax of command was invalid
 3 : One or more options were given invalid argument
 4 : user ID is already in use
 6 : Specified group doesn’t exits
 9 : Username already in use
 10 : Couldn’t update the group file
 12 : Couldn’t create the home directory
 14 : Couldn’t update SE linux user mapping

 usermod : It is used to modify or change any attributes of an already created user account.
 usermod –c “This is comment” Raj : Adding information to user account.
 usermod –d /var/www/ Raj : Change user home directory to /var/www
 usermod –e 2017-12-21 Raj : Set user account expiry date
 usermod –g Cybage Raj : Change user group to Cybage
 usermod –a –G Cogni Raj : User is added to supplementary Cogni group along with
Cybage group
[NOTE: Never use only –G option only. As it will assign you a
new group deleting existing/old groups for that user.]
 usermod –l Rajdutt Raj : User login name is changed from Raj to Rajdutt
 usermod –L Raj : Lock system user account. After the account is locked we
can’t login using the password.
 usermond –U Raj : unlock user account
 usermod –d /var/raj –m Raj : Move user home directory to new location
 usermod –p password Raj : Create un-encrypted <password>
 usermod –s /bin/bash Raj : Change user shell to /bin/bash
 usermod –u 888 Raj : Change UserID to 888
 usermod –g 777 Raj : Change GID of user

 userdel : It is a low-level utility for removing users.


 Files :
 /etc/group
 /etc/login.defs
 /etc/passwd
 /etc/shadow
 Exit Status
 0 : Success
 1 : Couln’t update passwd file
 2 : Invalid command syntax
 6 : Specified user doesn’t exist
 8 : Couldn’t delete user because specified user is currently logged in
 10 : Couldn’t update group file
 12 : Couldn’t remove home directory
 userdel Raj : Remove user/account name Raj
 userdel –r Raj : Files in user’s home directory will be removed along with
the home directory itself and the user’s mail spool.
 -Z : Remove any SELinux user mapping for the user’s login.
 deluser : Removes users from the system.
 Return Value
 0 : The action was successfully executed.
 1 : The user to delete was not a system account. No action was performed.
 2 : There is no such user. No action was performed.
 3 : There is no such group. No action was performed.
 4 : Internal error. No action was performed.
 5 : The group to delete is not empty. No action was performed.
 6 : The user does not belong to the specified group. No action was performed.
 7 : You cannot remove a user from its primary group. No action was performed.
 8 : The required perl-package 'perl modules' is not installed. This package is required to
perform the requested actions. No action was performed.
 9 : For removing the root account the parameter "--force" is required. No action was
performed.
 /etc/deluser.conf
 deluser Raj : delete the user account Raj
 deluser --remove-home Raj : delete the user account and remove’s user home
directory.
 deluser –force Raj : deletes user account Raj even if that user is
logged-in.
 deluser –backup-to /directory Raj : Deletes the user account Raj and backs up their file
in a tar archive called Raj.tar which is created in the
directory ‘/directory’

 groupadd : Creates a new group account using the values specified in command line.
 -f : (force) Simply exit with success status if the specified group already exists.
 -g : (GID) Numeric value of group’s ID
 -K : Overrides /etc/login.defs defaults
 -o : It permits to add a group with a non-unique GID
 -p : Encrypted password. Option not recommended as password will be visible.
 -r : Create a System group.
 -R : Apply changes in CHROOT_DIR directory.
 groupdel : Used by a superuser or root to remove a group
 groupdel group

 groupmod : Enables a superuser or root to modify a group


 groupmod –g 600 Cybage : Change group ID
 groupmod –n Cognizant Cybage : Change groupname to Cognizant
 groupmod –o 0 Cybage : Change the group ID with non-unique
 groupmod –p adada@234328479 Cybage: Change the group password

 gpasswd : To administer /etc/group & /etc/gshadow


 gpasswd –a Raj Cybage : Add raj to Cybage group
 gpasswd –M Raj Suraj Nitesh Cybage : Add multiple users to Cybage group
 gpasswd –d Suraj Cybage : delete Suraj from Cybage
 gpasswd –A Raj Cybage : Set Raj as group administrator
 gpasswd –R Cybage : Restrict group to just the specified members
 gpasswd –r Cybage : Remove a group password
 gpasswd Cybage : Changing password of Cybage group

 rlogin
 rsh
 stty
 crontab : cron is a daemon to run schedule tasks.
 Crontab format :
- MIN(0-59) HOUR(0-23) DOM(1-31) MON(1-12) DOW(0-6) CMD(Any command to be execute)
 SPECIAL CHARACTERS :
- * : Every day/Month/day of the week
- - : To define range
- / : 1st Field/10 meaning every ten minute or increment of range
- , : To separate items
 SPECIAL STRINGS :
- @reboot : Command will run when the system reboot
- @daily : once per day or may use @midnight
- @weekly : once per week
- @yearly : Once per year. We can use @annually keyword also.
 Crontab Files :
- /etc/cron.allow
- /etc/cron.deny
 && : Multiple commands with double amper-sand ‘&&’
- @ daily <command1> && <command2>
 crontab -e : edit your crontab
 crontab –l : list the contents of your crontab
 crontab –r : Remove your crontab
 sudo crontab -u charles -e : Edit the crontab of user named Charles

 at : Execute commands at specified time.


 at 10.00 AM : Schedule task at coming 10am
 at 10.00 AM Sun : Schedule task at 10am coming Sunday
 at 10.00 AM July 25 : Schedule task at 10.00 AM on coming 25th July
 at 10.00 Am next month: Schedule task at 10am on same date next month
 at 10.00am tomorrow : Schedule task at 10.00am tomorrow
 at now + 1 hour : Schedule task to execute just after 1 hour
 at now + 1 week : Schedule task to execute just after 1 week
 at midnight : Schedule task to execute at mid night
 atrm 3 : Remove any at job using atrm using their job id
 wget:
It retrieves file from world wide web using protocols like Http, Https & Ftp.
It works on slow or unstable network connections.
It automatically starts download where it was left off in case of network problem and will keep trying until file
has retrieves completely.
 It downloads file recursively.
 Single file download
 wget https://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/wget/wget-1.5.3.tar.gz
 Download file with different name: Send messages to log file
 wget -o wget.zip https://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/wget/wget-1.5.3.tar.gz\
 Download multiple files with http & ftp
 Wget https://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/wget/wget-1.5.3.tar.gz ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/wget/wget-
1.5.3.tar.gz
 Read URL’s from a file
 wget -i /wget/temp.txt
 Resume uncompleted download
 wget -c http://mirrors.hns.net.in/centos/6.3/isos/x86/centos-6.3-x86_64-LiveDVD.iso
 Download files in background
 wget -b /wget/log.txt ftp://ftp.iinet.net.au/debian.ssxx..xxx..iso
 Restrict download speed limits and all logs will be created under /wget/log.txt
 wget -c –limit-rate=100k /wget/log.txt ftp://ftp.sadjsd......iso
 Restricted ftp and http downloads with username and password
 wget –http-user=raj -http-password=test@123 http://xyz.iso
 Do not download multiple verions. E.g. if we try to download same file twice it won’t with option
nc = No Clobber
 wget -nc https://sdahdh.iso
 Don’t check SSL/TLS certificate
 wget https://localhost/file.txt --no-check
 Change progress bar
 wget –progress=dot https://
 Retry failed download: -t option followed by number of retries
 wget -t 10 https://xyz..iso
 Wait time: Delay the next retry to download
 time wget -w 10 -i to-download.txt
 Hide output
 wget -q https://scsckl.iso
 If download takes too much of time, we can abort and cancel it automatically
 wget -T 30 https://xyz.iso
 Download a file but save it in specific folder
 wget –directory-prefix=folder/subfolder xyz.com
 Download a file but only if the version on server is newer than local copy
 wget –continue—timestamping text.zip
 Download a list of sequentially numbered files from a server
 wget http://example.com/images/{1..20}.jpg
 Download all MP3 files from a sub directory
 wget –level=1 --recursive --noparent --accept mp3, MP3 http://example.com
 Download all images from a website in a common folder
 wget –directory-prefix=files/pictures –no-directories --recursive --no-clobber --accept
jpg,gif,png,jpeg http://example.com/images
 Download pdf files from a website through recursion but stay within specific domains
 wget --mirror –domains=abc.com, files.com accept=pdf http://abc.com/
 Download all files from a website but exclude a few directories
 wget --recursive --no-clobber --no-parent --exclude-directories /forums, /support
http://example.com

 Find the size of a file without downloading it


 wget --spider --server-response http://example.com/file.iso
 Download a file and display the content on screen without saving it locally
 wget --output-document --quiet http://example.com/file.iso

 wget Vs curl
 curl supports much more protocols and platforms.
 curl supports more authentication methods
 wget has major ability to download recursively, can recover from prematurely broken transfer and continue
downloading.

 curl : It is a tool to transfer data from or to a server using http/s, ftp/s, scp, sftp, ldap, telnet.
 Download a single file
 curl http://www.centos.org
 Save the cURL output to a file
 curl -o mygettext.html http://ww.gnu.org /software/gettext/manual/gettext.html
 Fetch multiple files at a time
 curl -o url1 -o url2
 Follow HTTP location headers with -L options
 curl -L http://www.google.com
 Continue/Resume Previous download
 curl -o http://ww.xyz.html
 curl -c http://www.xyz.html
 Limit the rate of data transfer
 curl --limit-rate 1000B -O http://www.xyz.html
 Download a file only if its modified before/after the given time
 curl -z 21-dec-11 http://xyz.com
 Pass HTTP authentication in Curl
 curl -u username:password URL
 Download files from Ftp server
 curl -u ftpuser:ftpasswd -0 ftp://ftp_server/public_html
 List/Download using Ranges
 curl ftp://ftp.abc.com/pool/main/[a-z]
 Upload files to Ftp server
 curl -u ftpuser:ftpasswd -T “{file1,file2}” ftp://ftp.testserver.com
 Use proxy to download a file
 curl -x proxyserver.test.com:3128 http://google.co.in
 Send mail using SMTP protocol
 curl -mail-from test@abc.com --mail-rcpt test@xyz.com smtp://mailserver.com

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