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TMS- CARDIFF

Okpo, South Korea – January 2014

CRYOSTAR Equipment for LNG Tankers:


Dual Fuel Diesel Electric 4-Stage
Module 2- Concepts

www.cryostar.com contact@cryostar.com LSE-CP_En_02.2_Rev04


Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS

The following document contains partly confidential


information, and is provided for training purposes to
selected shipyards and their customers.

It must not be used for any other purpose, and may not
be provided to a third party without our consent.

This document contains representative data only, and


does not replace the manuals or technical documentation
issued for the vessel.
© Cryostar France, 2014

3 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS

 COURSE SYLLABUS
 Reminders
 LNG tank type and LNG constraints
 LNG configurations:
 Steam propulsion Conventional
 Steam propulsion EcoBot
 DFDE 2-Stage
 DFDE 2-Stage EcoBot
 DFDE 4-Stage arrangement
 Comparison 2-Stage & 4-Stage

4 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
Dome
 Spherical tank type
Protection plate
Moss Verft  Kvaerner  Moss Technologies
Equatorial ring
Central pit

WB
WB

Supporting rings
Main pump

WB WB
WB

Isolated retaining sump

5 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS

 Membrane tank types

 Technigaz type: Mark III


Mainly used in SHI, HHI, …

 Gas Transport Type N096


Only used in DSME, STX

 Combined System 1: CS1


St Nazaire (GDF Vessels)

Technigaz system
G.T.T
Gas Transport System

6 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 Membrane tank types
Technigaz system: MARK III

Aluminium fibre glass coated: Secondary Membrane

Stainless steel corrugated type: Primary Membrane

Internal double barrier


Polyurethane foam

Plywood

7 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 Membrane tank types
Gas Transport System NO96

Secondary INVAR Membrane

Primary INVAR Membrane


Plywood box filled with perlite
Internal Double Barrier

8 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 Membrane tank types
Combined System 1: CS1

Aluminium glass&resin coated: Secondary Membrane

Primary INVAR Membrane


Plywood box filled with perlite
Internal Double Barrier

9 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS

 Technical development on LNG Carriers

 Increase of the tank capacity

 Decrease of the boil-off rates

 Higher service speed for main Engine

 Decrease of power consumption and fuel cost on main


Engine & motors

 Simplified operation with PLC control

 New technologies (DFDE, Reliq, Regas)

10 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS

 Cryogenic liquid constraints

As all cryogenic liquids, LNG at -160°C generates specific containment


constraints for :
 Operation (loading, voyage, unloading, maintenance…)
 Materials (tank, insulation…)

Whatever the tank insulation is, heat will enter into the LNG. This heat will:
 Generate gas evaporation, named Natural Boil Off gas, “NBO” or Boil Off
Gas “BOG”
 Increase the pressure in the tank if this gas is not removed from the tank
(closed system).

11 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS

 BOG rate
The LNG consists of a mixture of substances of differing volatility,
i.e. which evaporate at different rates

12 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS

 BOG rate

The BOG flow rate is related to:

 Tank heat in leak= f (tank design and ambient conditions)


 Mass of the cargo (laden ≠ ballast)
 Cargo composition
 Cargo temperature/pressure
 Sea condition
 Tank conditions before loading (Cargo temperature at loading and Tank
temperature at loading will significantly influence the BOG rate during
the first days after loading)

13 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS

BOG rate

In practice, the following boil-off rates have been recorded :

LNG Carrier of 40/50’000 m3


Loaded : 0.23% per day Relatively old
On ballast : 0.18% per day ship design

LNG Carrier of 145’000 m3


Loaded : 0.15% per day Recent ship
On ballast : 0.08% per day design

14 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS

 BOG composition

The LNG is not pure methane but a mixture of:

 mainly methane (CH4)


 ethane, butane, propane and heavier hydrocarbons
 up to 1 mol% nitrogen (N2)
 traces of H2S and CO2

The LNG composition is not identical from one production place to an other

16 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS

 BOG composition/flow rate


 The BOG (gas vaporized at the liquid surface) has not the same composition
than the LNG.
 The BOG flow rate is related to the LNG composition, vaporizing temperature
being linked its characteristics.

Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi


LNG Methane Brunei Yemen lean Alaska
Rich
QG II Arzew Malaysia
Lean
Skikda Yemen rich

N2 (mol%) 0.00 0.05 0.08 0.10 0.29 0.324 0.35 0.45 0.75 0.85 1.20
C1 (mol%) 100.00 89.40 93.56 99.80 84.85 93.156 87.40 91.10 90.37 91.50 81.50
C2 (mol%) 0.00 6.30 5.02 0.10 13.36 6.241 8.60 6.65 7.01 5.64 16.00
C3 (mol%) 0.00 2.90 1.13 0.00 1.28 0.176 2.40 1.25 1.32 1.50 1.20
C4 (mol%) 0.00 1.30 0.19 0.00 0.22 0.007 0.50 0.54 0.55 0.25 0.10
C5+ (mol%) 0.00 0.05 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.096 0.75 0.01 0.00 0.26 0.00

Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi


BOG Methane Brunei Yemen lean Alaska
Rich
QG II Arzew Malaysia
Lean
Skikda Yemen rich

N2 (mol%) 0.00 1.44 2.05 2.24 8.41 7.988 9.93 11.45 18.44 20.25 31.31
C1 (mol%) 100.00 98.55 97.94 97.76 91.56 92.000 90.06 88.53 81.55 79.74 68.67
C2 (mol%) 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.013 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02

Bubble point (°C) -160.9 -160.0 -160.4 -161.2 -160.3 -161.2 -160.9 -161.4 -162.4 -162.8 -163.5

Flow (t/h) 3700 3412 3480 3551 3559 3617 3593 3658 3785 3824 3961

17 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 LNG carrier: 2 independent duties

1) Tank Pressure Control

2) Power demand Control

Heat ingress Other


consumers

Propulsion
LNG LNG LNG LNG

20 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 LNG carrier: 2 independent duties

1) Power demand control: Propulsion & other consumers


The energy demand varies from minimum (hotel load) to maximum
continuous running (MCR) conditions

2) Tank pressure control


The tanks do not sustain big differential pressure against atmospheric
pressure (Design : 250 to 400 mbarg)

BOG has to be removed from the tank and either be

A: used to produce energy for the ship


B: liquefied and returned into the tank
C: burnt (and wasted) or vented to atmosphere

(The case C is only when A/B are not available)

21 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 Summary

-BOG is used for the ship energy demand

 Steam propulsion
 Dual Fuel Diesel Electric propulsion

-BOG is liquefied and returned into the tank

 Low speed diesel engine with Reliquefaction / EcoRel

22 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 BOG is used for the ship energy demand

Power Steam and/or


NBO electricity
Generation

Heat ingress
Other
consumers

Propulsion
LNG LNG LNG LNG

23 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 BOG is used for the ship energy demand

BOG energy content / flow rate most of the time does not match the
required ship energy demand

 If BOG energy < ship energy demand,


=> complementary energy has to be provided by burning additional :
- gas :Removing more gas than naturally generated (*), or
Pumping & vaporizing LNG (named Forced Boil Off, “FBO”).
- liquid fuel : Marine Diesel Oil, “MDO”, or Heavy Fuel Oil “HFO”.

(*) => If additional gas is taken out of the tank gas phase, the tank pressure will decrease and this mode
can only be operated as long as the tank pressure remains above a minimum value.

 If BOG energy > ship energy demand,

- gas is accumulated (can only be done as long as maximum pressure is not reached), then,
gas is burnt (and dumped for steam systems), or vented to atmosphere

24 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 BOG is used for the ship energy demand

Liquid fuel (MDO or HFO) Steam dumping Water


Power Steam and/or Condenser
NBO electricity
Vent / Generation
Burner
FBO
Heat ingress
Other
consumers

Propulsion
LNG LNG LNG LNG

25 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 Choice of complementary fuel

Except for some manoeuvring situation during which liquid fuel (HFO/MDO)
use is required by rules (for steam vessels only), the choice of complementary
fuel is dictated by fuel COST versus cargo gas cost.

Historically on conventional LNG carrier with steam propulsion complementary


fuel was HFO.

On the new ones with dual fuel engines, since MDO is more expensive than
gas, gas only mode (NBO + FBO) will be the preferred mode of operation.

26 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 BOG is liquefied and returned into the tank.

Liquid fuel (HFO) Electricity


Power
Generation
NBO
Vent / Liquefaction
Burner system
Heat ingress
NBO liquefied
Other
consumers

Propulsion
LNG LNG LNG LNG

27 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 Comparison of propulsion plants for LNG carrier

28 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 LNG Carrier Cargo Handling: Cryostar System Alternatives
Steam Turbine Dual Fuel Diesel Electric
Diesel+
Equipment Gas Turbine
Reliquefaction
Conventional EcoBOT Conventional EcoBOT

HD Compressor YES(2) YES(2) YES(2) YES(2) YES(2) YES

LD Compressor Variable
Fixed speed
Single Stage Speed

LD Compressor
Two speed Two speed Two speed
2-Stage
LD Compressor
Fixed speed YES
4-Stage
Ecorel YES
BO/WU
YES (2) YES (2) YES (2) YES (2) YES (2)
Heaters
HD Gas Heater Altern. (1) Altern. (1) Altern. (1) Altern. (1) YES (1) Altern. (1)
LD Heater Altern. (1) Altern. (1) Altern. (1) Altern. (1) Altern. (1)
LNG Vaporizer YES YES YES YES YES YES
Forcing
YES YES YES YES YES
Vaporizer
Mist separator YES YES YES (YES)

Present Concepts Future Prop.


Systems
29 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 Propulsion Configuration Efficiencies

 Steam Turbine Propulsion ~29%

 Dual-fuel Diesel-electric Propulsion ~43%

 LS Diesel Engine with Re-liquefaction Plant ~46%

 Gas Turbine Electric Propulsion ~35%

 Gas Combined Cycle ~43%


= Gas turbine engine + Steam turbine engine

30 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 System comparison for propulsion & electrical production

Conventional Dual Fuel Diesel Electric


Steam
Turbine

8
Dual Fuel
motors
BOG Propulsion BOG
Boiler Steam G Electrical
 = 29%
n°1 MDO Motors
HFO

8
BOG
BOG
Boiler G
Steam MDO
HFO n°2 G Propulsion
turbo- BOG  = 43%
generators G
G
Electrical
Production
MDO
M
MDO  = 25%* BOG
G Electrical
MDO
G Production
Diesel motor
 = 47%

BOG = Boil-Off Gas


BOG = NBO, Natural Boil-Off Gas (Evaporation) HFO = Heavy Fuel Oil
BOG + FBO, Forced Boil-Off Gas (vaporization) MDO = Marine Diesel Oil
*only Turbo generator

31 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 System comparison for propulsion and electrical production

Reliquefaction Plant

HFO

8 Propulsion

8
 = 46%
HFO

HFO G

HFO G
Auxiliaries
HFO G

HFO G

32 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 System configurations :

1. Steam propulsion with Conventional arrangement

2. Steam propulsion with EcoBOT arrangement

3. DFDE propulsion with Conventional arrangement

4. DFDE propulsion with EcoBot arrangement

5. 4-Stage propulsion

6. Comparison 2-Stage and 4-Stage machines

33 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 1- Steam propulsion - Conventional arrangement
Block flow diagram

HFO
MIST FUEL GAS FUEL GAS BOILERS
SEPARATOR COMPRESSOR HEATER

FORCING
VAPORIZER

Vent
Mast

Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3 Tank 4

34 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 1- Steam propulsion - Conventional arrangement
Process flow diagram 1,96bar(a)
+25°C HFO BOILERS

1,03 bar(a)
-40°C*
1,96 bar(a)
10°C*

6 bar(a)
-163°C Cargo pump pressure is lost
after vaporizer

1,06 bar(a) Vent


Mast

Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3 Tank 4

* Value given with NBO+FBO in operation

35 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 1- Steam propulsion - Conventional arrangement
Compressor curve and Ship/Boiler demand

Speed control

IGV control

36 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 1- Steam propulsion - Conventional arrangement
Compressor curve and Ship/Boiler demand

Maximum pressure at
compressor ~ 1.96 bara
Boiler load curve 2 Burners

Compressor discharge pressure


Adiabatic Head Rise

1 Burner

Pressure at compressor
outlet without forcing
vaporizer running

0
MCR
0 Volume Flow
NATURAL BOG FORCED GAS
37 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 2- Steam propulsion - EcoBOT arrangement
Conventional arrangement simplification

Mist separator not longer


needed!!

X
HFO
MIST FUEL GAS FUEL GAS BOILERS
SEPARATOR COMPRESSOR HEATER

X
FORCING FBO bypasses the LDC, then the NBO pass
VAPORIZER through the demister is useless

Vent
Mast

Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3 Tank 4

38 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 2- Steam propulsion - EcoBOT arrangement
Block flow diagram

FUEL GAS HFO BOILERS


FUEL GAS
COMPRESSOR HEATER

Results are:
-The NBO & FBO separation
FORCING
VAPORIZER -Arrangement greatly simplified
-Considerable cost reduction

Vent
Mast

Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3 Tank 4

39 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 2- Steam propulsion - EcoBOT arrangement
Process flow diagram
HFO
BOILERS

GAS
LD HEATER
COMPRESSOR

Temp.
Control

FORCING
VAPORIZER

Vent
Masts

Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3 Tank 4

40 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 2- Steam propulsion - EcoBOT arrangement
Process flow diagram
1,92 bar(a)
+25°C HFO
BOILERS

1,96 bar(a)
1,03 bar(a) -110°C*
-140°C*

1,96 bar(a)
-40°C

4 bar(a)
-163°C
Vent
Masts

Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3 Tank 4

* Laden case (temperature higher in ballast case)


41 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 The Ecobot system

90

80 Frcd

Variable speed
70
not required !

X
60
Adiabatic Head Rise (kJ/kg)

50

24000
40

22000
30
18000

18000
20
Nat.BO 16000
14000
10 12000

0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
Volume Flow (m3/h)

42 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 2 - Steam propulsion - EcoBOT arrangement
Compressor curve and Ship/Boiler demand
Compressor discharge pressure
Boiler load curve
Maximum pressure at
forcing vaporizer outlet #
1.96 bara
Maximum pressure at
compressor outlet # 1.96
bara

2 Burners
Adiabatic Head Rise

1 Burner

Pressure at compressor
outlet without forcing
vaporizer running

MCR
0
0 NATURAL BOG FORCED GAS Volume Flow

43 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 The Ecobot system

Operation principle
2
MCR

Forced
1.8 Gas

Pressure at
mixing point Actual consumption
Pressure [barA]

1.6
Laden, max

1.4
Natural BO Laden

Ballast min
Ballast
1.2

Pressure Natural BO Fcd. Gas


at boiler 1
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
Flow to Boiler [kg/h]

44 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 The Ecobot system: motor sizing

Conventional low duty Compressor


90
~ 300 kW

80 Frcd

70

60
Adiabatic Head Rise (kJ/kg)

50

24000
40

22000
30
18000

18000
20
Nat.BO 16000
14000
10 12000

0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
Volume Flow (m3/h)

45 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 The Ecobot system : motor sizing

Compressor sized for common piping


90

80

70

60
Adiabatic Head Rise (kJ/kg)

Ballast
50 ~ 160 kW

40

Laden
30

20

10

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
Volume Flow (m3/h)

46 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 The Ecobot system: Advantages

 Reduced compression energy

 Fixed speed motor used

 Energy saving

 Simple control concept

 Mist separator not required

 Compressor smaller than in conventional propulsion

47 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 DFDE propulsion – 2-Stage Conventional arrangement
Original Process flow diagram

MDO DUAL
MIST FUEL GAS AFTER FUEL GAS
FUEL
SEPARATOR COMPRESSOR COOLER HEATER
ENGINES

PRE
COOLER GCU

FORCING
VAPORIZER

Vent
Mast

Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3 Tank 4

48 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 DFDE propulsion - 2-Stage Conventional arrangement
Last process flow diagram

WATER
COOLER

MDO DUAL
MIST FUEL GAS FUEL
SEPARATOR COMPRESSOR ENGINES

PRE FUEL GAS


COOLER HEATER GCU

FORCING
VAPORIZER

Vent
Mast

Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3 Tank 4

49 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 DFDE propulsion - 2-Stage Conventional arrangement
Last process flow diagram FRESH WATER
COOLER

MDO
DFDE
LD 2 STAGE ENGINES
COMPRESSOR

MIST
SEPARATOR GCU
GAS
HEATER

PRECOOLER

Vent
Mast

Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3 Tank 4

50 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 DFDE propulsion - Conventional arrangement
Compressor curve and Ship demand
Compressor discharge pressure
Engine load curve

Maximum pressure at
compressor # 6.5 bara
Adiabatic Head Rise

Pressure at compressor
outlet without forcing
vaporizer running

VDV VDV
0% 100%

0
0
MCR Volume Flow
NATURAL BOG FORCED GAS

51 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 DFDE propulsion - 2-Stage EcoBOT arrangement
Block flow diagram

MDO DUAL
MIST FUEL GAS AFTER FUEL GAS
FUEL
SEPARATOR COMPRESSOR COOLER HEATER
ENGINES

PRE GCU
COOLER

FORCING LIQUID
VAPORIZER SEPARATOR

Vent
Mast

Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3 Tank 4

52 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 DFDE propulsion - 2-Stage EcoBOT arrangement
New block flow diagram

MDO DUAL
MIST FUEL GAS WATER FUEL GAS
FUEL
SEPARATOR COMPRESSOR COOLER HEATER
ENGINES

PRE GCU
COOLER

FORCING MIST
VAPORIZER SEPARATOR

Vent
Mast

Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3 Tank 4

53 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 DFDE propulsion - 2-Stage EcoBOT arrangement
New process flow diagram
GAS
WATER HEATER MDO DFDE
COOLER ENGINES
LD 2 STAGE
COMPRESSOR

PRE COOLER GCU

MIST
SEPARATOR
TEMP. CONTROL

LIQUID
FORCING SEPARATOR
VAPORIZER

Vent
Mast

Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3 Tank 4

54 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 DFDE propulsion - 2-Stage EcoBOT arrangement
Compressor curve and Ship demand
Compressor discharge pressure
Engine load curve Maximum pressure at
forcing vaporizer
outlet ~ 6.5 bara
Maximum pressure at
compressor with forcing
vaporizer running
~ 6.5 bara
Adiabatic Head Rise

Pressure at compressor
outlet without forcing
vaporizer running

MCR

0
0
NATURAL BOG FORCED GAS Volume Flow

55 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS

 DFDE EcoBOT challenges


 High pressure ratio: 6.5 Bara (i.e. 2.5 barg per stage)

 Higher inlet temperatures  Pre-cooling required

 Higher outlet temperatures  After-cooling required

 Special scenario for starting and bypass operation

 Forced Boil-off Gas conditioning (Methane Number)

 Sudden engine gas trips to be considered

 Starting time of Gas Combustion Unit (GCU) too slow

 Vaporizer and Heater Control optimization

 No free-flow to engines, limited free-flow to GCU

56 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 Steam and DFDE propulsion comparison

Steam propulsion DFDE propulsion

High Efficiency
 Flexibility : gas mode (1%
diesel) -> diesel mode (100%
diesel)
 Reliable, proved
Advantages technology  Redundancy
 Low maintenance  Reactivity
Reduced Emissions (CO2,
NOx, SOx)
 mass and place sparing
 Low Efficiency
Limited power -> LNG
  GCU (Gas Combustion Unit)
Inconveniences carriers capacity limited necessary

 Less and less skilled crew  Process more complicated


(last steam boats)

57 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 Propulsion System Alternatives

Steam Turbine Propulsion (~30%)

NBO (laden) 50% MCR 100%

Additional Energy
Dual-fuel Diesel-electric Propulsion (~43%)

NBO (laden) MCR 70%

~60% Savings
58 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
Propulsion System Alternatives

Steam Turbine Propulsion (~30%)

NBO (Ballast) 20% MCR 100%

Additional Energy
Dual-fuel Diesel-electric Propulsion (~43%)

NBO (Ballast) MCR 70%

~40% Savings
59 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 DFDE propulsion - 4-Stage arrangement
- Intercooler + Water Aftercooler
MDO DFDE
ENGINES
K
G H I
Aft Clr
F GCU
J
I/C

D C

B
Vent
Mast
A

Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3 Tank 4

60 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 DFDE propulsion - 4-Stage global arrangement

61 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 DFDE propulsion - 4-Stage arrangement
- Intercooler + Water Aftercooler
MDO DFDE
ENGINES

1x VDV

Aft Clr

GCU

I/C
No VFD

Vent
Mast

Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3 Tank 4

62 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 DFDE Propulsion
Comparison 2-Stage & 4-Stage

CM2 CM4
Stages 2 cryogenic 1 cryogenic, 3 warm
1xVDV on stage 1, recycling
Flow control 2 x VDV’s and load sharing
for low flows
3 shaft, wheels on both
3 shaft, wheels on front of
Gearbox sides of each high speed
each high speed shaft
shaft
2 loops each with 1 valve,
Single loop, 1 valve with
Anti-Surge one loop to stage 1 inlet,
return to vapour header
one loop to stage 2 inlet.
Operating range -140°C to -90 °C -140°C to -20°C
(with full pressure)
Bulkhead Seal Gearbox side as usual Motor side of bulkhead
Required to keep inlet
Precooling Not required
colder than -90°C

63 Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 DFDE Propulsion

Comparison 2-Stage & 4-Stage

1. 6.5 bara from BOG compressor

2. Tank temperatures vary with BOG between -140°C and -20°C

3. If tanks are to be completely emptied, warm gas enters BOGC


2-stage cannot handle warm gas (if Spray Precooler cannot be fed with LNG
due to pumps losing prime)

64 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 DFDE Propulsion
Comparison 2-Stage & 4-Stage 4-stage can still feed DF engines
even with high Temperature inlet

Pressure for 100% engine load


6.5 bara

5.0 bara

~< 2 bara
When spray Precooling either stops,
or inlet gets above -90°C, then ½
speed has to be used to protect the
machine against high temperatures
-120° -100° -80° -60° -40° -20° 0 20° 40°
°
Approximate curves
65 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 DFDE Propulsion

Comparison 2-Stage & 4-Stage

 CM4-200 can operate in more extreme conditions (warm inlet)

 CM4 can recycle and achieve low flows

 Heel-out operation is possible with CM4

 Power is almost same due to higher efficiency

66 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 DFDE Propulsion

67 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS
 DFDE Propulsion

CM4-200

CM2-200

68 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04
Module 2.2 – SHIPBOARD BASIC CONCEPTS

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

ANY QUESTION?

69 For training purpose only ©2014 CRYOSTAR SAS. All rights reserved. Rev 04