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МИРОВАЯ ЭКОНОМИКА

САРГСЯН К.С.

КРИТЕРИИ И ПРИНЦИПЫ ПОВЫШЕНИЯ ЭФФЕКТИВНОСТИ


ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО АНТИКРИЗИСНОГО РЕГУЛИРОВАНИЯ
Аннотация. В статье обосновывается, что в кризисных ситуа циях основная на грузка и ответственность
в управлении со циально-экономическими процессами и за обеспечение бесперебойной деятельности всей
экономики ложатся на органы государственной власти.
Также отмечается, что в рамках этого процесса государственные власти разрабатывают мероприятия
как по выходу из кризиса , так и их предотвращению, а также в направлении ограждения экономики от
резких спадов. Антикриз исное регулирование основывается как на отечественном, так и на ранее накоп-
ленном зарубежном опыте. Разработка государственно й антикриз исной политики предпола гает использо-
вание накопленно го опыта относительно ранее имевших место кризисов (например, какие кризисы имели
место, каковы были глубинные причины их возникновения, какие последствия о ни вызвали). С этой целью
целесообразно рассмотрение в рамках антикризисной политики всех возможных проявляющихся аспектов и
тща тельный анализ для правильно го и эффективно го противодействия кризисам.
В зависимости о т особенностей и глубины воздействия кризисов, наблюдаемых в о тдельных странах, а
также границ их распространения, государственная антикризисная политика проводится с определенными
особенностям и. Однако, следует отметить, что несмотря на это, можно разработать подгруппу обоб-
щенных методов и критериев отбора инструментов, которую можно применить в различных странах при
выборе инструментария антикризисных мероприятий в рамках государственной антикр изисной политики.
В статье рассматриваются разные аспекты а нтикризисной по литики государства, основные проблемы
сушествуюшие в этой сфере и подходы к совершенствованию антикризисных мероприятий для повышения
их эффективности.
Ключевые слова: государствeнная антикризисная политика, мировой финансово-эко номический кризис,
экономика, мероприятия, совершенствование, эффективность, инстументы, критерии.

SARGSYAN K.S.

CRITERIA AND PRINCIPLES OF ENHANCING EFFECTIVENESS


OF STATE ANTI-CRISIS REGULATION
Abstract. The article justifies that in times of a crisis the main burden and the responsibility for managing socioeco-
nomic processes and ensuring smooth performance of the whole economy is on the public institutions. It is noted that
within these process the p ublic the authorities design measures both for fighting a crisis, a nd their prevention, and for
preventing severe economic downturns as well. Anti-crisis regulation is based on the both experience of the own
country and the practices applied by the other nations. The design of crisis response or mitigation relies on background
informatio n on previous crisis (for exa mple: types of crisis reported, their ca use-roots and the after math). For this
purpose it it is reasonable to apply a comprehensive approach: to consider all possible outcomes and carry out a de-
tailed analysis to order to fight the crisis with well-crafted measures.
Depending o n the characteristics and the negative impact of the crisis reported in different nations, and their transmis-
sion, the state anti-crisis policy needs to be implemented by considering specific characteristics. However, it sho uld be
noted that regardless this fact, a sub-set of generalized methods and aggregates (indicators and/or criteria) could be
designed to be applied in selecting the respective policy toolkit for crisis response measures within the state anti-crisis
policy.
The article discusses various aspects of the state anti-crisis policy based on issues that still need to be addressed in
this area and approaches to improve crisis response measures to increase their efficiency.
Keywords: state anti-crisis policy, the Global Financial and Econo mic Crisis, econo my, measures, improvement,
efficiency, tools criteria

The history of development of economic relations provides evidence on the fact that the crises are
integral part of the social-economic development. Crises, happening after definite time periods, occur
in any kind of social-economic system independent of their peculiarities and character of manage-

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ment.
Anti-crisis regulation constitutes a system of regulative measures on diagnosis, anticipation, neu-
tralization and overcoming crisis and their reasons at every level of economy [1].
Anti-crisis regulation at the level of state power supposes foreseeing and continual monitoring of
crises, analysis of their essence, peculiarities and reasons of their rise, cultivation and further elabora-
tion of effective methods toward soothing the negative impacts of crises.
State economic regulation or the state economic policy in market economy can be presented as a
system of model measures of executive and controlling character, implemented by competent state
institutions and public organizations with a view to stabilizing and adapting the existing social-
economic system to the changing conditions [2] In the course of this process the state authorities cul-
tivate measures aimed at both overcoming and preventing crises, as well as protecting the economy
from drastic recession. In the period of crises the major burden of responsibility in regulating the so-
cial-economic processes and also for the maintenance of uninterrupted functioning of the whole
economy lies on the state authorities. The latter act as both organizers and coordinators of economic,
financial, legal, organizational and managerial measures toward overcoming crises at both macro and
micro economic levels.
In the array of instruments under the state’s disposal there exist a wide range of means and meth-
ods of regulating crises in the following directions of normative-legislative activities: finances; in-
dustry; redistribution of income [3]. Anti-crisis measures executed by the state authorities are target-
ed at providing stability at the level of both the whole eonomy and specific organizations and house-
hold economies and at creating precondition of economic growth. State anti-crisis policy to a great
extent is directed toward most vulnerable sections and spheres in terms of economic crises. On the
other hand state's major concerns will be how to financially support specific enterprises, to stimulate
and assist aggregate demand of goods and services of domestic production in domestic market, to
guarantee common weal, to fiancially support the most vulnerable layers of society and finally to
improve the business environment by carrying out economic and adminstrative reforms and eliminat-
ing the barriers in this environment.
To implement anti-crisis policy, wide scale financial resources are invested by the state, yet some-
times the state initiates expansion of the sector of economy to solve state and social problems of stra-
tegic importance in the context of financial-economic crises.
The main aim of the state anti-crisis regulation is the formation of an effective system between the
state and the economy which will guarantee rapid and efficient overcoming of crises occurring at mi-
cro and macro levels.
Anti-crisis regulation is based both on domestic and accumulated foreign experience. Elaboration
of state anti-crisis policy should also rely on the application of the accumulated experience obtained
from recent crises (for instance, what types of crises took place; what were the causes of their occur-
rence and what were the after-effects). With this aim it is expedient to consider and thoroughly ana-
lyze all possible aspects of the anti-crisis policy for correct and effective fighting back of crisis.
Forms, methods and toolkit of state anti-crisis policy are constantly changing in the course of
time.
In the light of the aforementions, let us try to refer to the world financial-economic crisis which
began in recent past, in 2007 and shook the economic and political basis of the world. This crisis oc-
curred in the condition of high level of economic globalization and in the result it rapidly penetrated
into new countries revealing the shortcomings of the financial-economic systems of various countries
of the world and spheres of their regulation.
World financial-economic crisis was characterized by a huge number of negative manifestations,
among which the major ones can be considered the following:
 Drastic reduction of prices for immovables, which simultaneously became one of the main in-
centives of the crisis. It was conditioned by the fact that the high prices were unjustified as they were
formulated on the basis of the real supply and demand but rather, they resulted from speculative deals
which accounted for the collapse of the market.
 Mass capital outflow from the developing countries to the developed ones. The latter accounts
for the fact that in the condition of the reduction of prices for immovables there emerged serious
problems with liquidation, as a result the investors hurried to resell their assets at low prices. In the

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С АРГСЯН К.С.
КРИТЕРИИ И ПРИНЦИПЫ ПОВЫШЕНИЯ ЭФФЕКТИВНОСТИ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО АНТИКРИЗИСНОГО РЕГУЛИРОВАНИЯ

meanwhile, in the developing countries their sales prices were even lower compared to the prices in
the developed countries.
 Considerable growth of budget deficit which has been caused by the fact that many states had to
direct state budgetary means to industrial and financial organizations, which found themselves on the
verge of insolvency as a result of problems with liquidation;
 Formation of a condition of recession on an international scale. It first appeared in the devel-
oped countries, then rapidly spread in the developing countries. In this situation the investments rap-
idly fell down as a result of the negative expectations on the part of the potential investors and the
society. On the other hand, as was mentioned already, the problem of liquidation was also actual. In
various countries this condition was accompanied by drastic job cuts and rising unemployment. And
the latter should not be surprising. As in the condition of crisis the enterprises chose to reduce ex-
penditure. Since the disposal of assets was problematic at that period, the quickest way to reduce ex-
penses was the job cuts.
 Improvement of the US dollar position in relation to other currencies in the condition of crisis,
when on a global scale the purchase and sale of assets of enterprises and financial organizations was
carried out in dollars, which caused considerable growth of demand and consequently rise of the dol-
lar. [4]
Imperfect anti-crisis state policy brought to a condition when in the initial stage of the crisis its
measures were spontaneous. Governments of the developed countries made efforts to stop the rapid
expansion of crises concentrating their attention majorly to the solution of the following problems:
a/ to save financial institutions from bankruptcy
b/ mitigate the economic downturn trying to avoid reduction of production volumes [5].
In ideological and conceptual sense it was a policy of revival of Keynesian economics, the expan-
sion of which took place simultaneously with the deployment of crises and implementation of anti-
crisis measures. The majority of the latter contradicted to once stable political traditions and over-
spread economic thinking. Nationalization of banks, as well as huge volumes of financial injections
into the economy have blurred out the boundaries between the liberals and the conservatives, be-
tween the right and the left wings, between the socialists and capitalists, between the proponents of
Keynesianism and Monetarism [6]. In the light of this the phrase “We are all Keynesians now”,
which appeared on the cover of the Times in the 1960s, regains actuality as far as Keynesianism is
regarded as symbol of state regulation. This is particularly true if we consider the final conclusions of
the Summit of G20 on the financial crises, held in 2009 in London, as one of the main causes of the
crises large scale failures in the financial sector both in terms of regulation and supervision were
mentioned.
The analysis of the domestic and external medium of social-economic system, as well as the high-
lighting of the analysis of major factors influencing the economic processes, allow to define and re-
veal crises in advance. In the meanwhile, the cultivation of a complex program of most effective anti-
crises measures will essentially alleviate their negative influence on the state’s social-economic sys-
tem. In the condition of economic crises each country, proceeding from the level of its economic de-
velopment, as well as from the existing social and political situation, implements unique approaches
to regulating the economy, including the issues of cultivation and elaboration of tax instruments.
Nevertheless, there are certain economic regularities that occur independently at every stage of
the economic cycle. For instance, in the period of recession drastic slump in gross demand can be
avoided or at least its excessive reduction can be prevented by reducing the tax burden. This kind of
measure will stimulate investments, the importance of which should not be underestimated in the
period of economic recession [7].
It is worth mentioning that depending on the peculiarities, the depth and the boundaries of expan-
sion that the crises manifest in different countries, the state anti-crises measures may take various
forms of implementation. Nevertheless, our research allows us to conclude that there can be devel-
oped a subgroup of generalized methods and criteria in the choice of the tools that can be applicable
in many countries.
In regard to the main substantial criteria of the choice of anti-crisis measures, the following are to
be mentioned:
 orientation to supporting the real sector of the economy;

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 stimulation of aggregate demand;


 financial support to companies in hard economic condition;
 defense of domestic market and interests;
 social orientation of the anti-crisis regulation;
 orientation to development of scientific-technical and human potential;
 maintenance of stability of the financial market and structures;
 maintenance of availability of credit resources;
 expansion of the system of state guarantees;
 effective distribution and redistribution of state resources.
From our point of view the following principles of elaboration and implementation of the state
anti-crisis measures cen be highlighted:
 accurate definition of the aims of anti-crisis measures;
 avaiability of a clear-cut schedule of implementation of anti-crisis measures;
 scientific justification of anti-crisis measures;
 legal security of anti-crisis regulating measures;
 information support of anti-crisis measures;
 publicity and transparency of adoption and implementation of anti-crisis measures;
 financial support of anti-crisis measures;
 regular control over the implementation of anti-crisis measures and their periodocal revision
depending on the state-of-affairs in the given period.
To sum up, let us note that the success of anti-crisis measures executed by the state is highly de-
pendant on to what extent appropriately the above mentioned criteria and principles were applied.
Литература
1. Антикризисное управление: Учебное пособие / Рук. авт. колл. проф. И. К. Ларионов. – 2-е изд., пере-
раб. и доп. – М.: Издательско-торговая корпорация «Дашков и Ко », 2004. –с.15 (292 с.) (на русском
языке)
2. Маренков Н.Л. Антикризисное управления для студентов вуза. Серия «Шпаргалк». Ростов н/Д: Фе-
никс, 2004. –c.89-90 (224 с.) (на русском языке)
3. Кошкин В.И. и др. Антикризисное управление: 17-модульная программа для менеджеров «Управление
развитием организации». Модуль 11. – М.: «ИНФРА-М», 1999. - c.23-25 (560 с.)(на русском языке)
4. Аганбегян А.Г. Кризис: беда и шанс для России, М., АСТ, Астрель, 2009, с.46 (на русском языке)
5. Арутюнян В.Л. «Мировой финансово-экономический кризис: причины, антикризисные мероприятия и
уроки», Ер., Изд-во ««Гитутюн» НАН РА , 2009г., 146с. (на армянском языке)
6. Торнилл Дж. Год политики ,,шоколадной коробки,,//газета,,Файнэншел Таймс,,, 24 дек.2008, с.6 (на
английском языке)
7. Саргсян К.С. Реформы налоговой системы в РА в контексте а нтикризисной политики.Сборник ма-
териаловVIII международной научно-практической конференции, Экономика и Управление: анализ
тенденций и перспектив развития Новосибирск 2013, стр. 184-189 (на русском языке)
References:
1. Anti-crisis Management: Educational Manual, Ed. Larionov, I.K., 2nd edition, revised with additions, M.:
“Dashkov and Co” publishing and trading corporation, 2004, p.15( 292 pages,) (in Russian)
2. Marenkov, N.L., Anti -crisi management for university students, “Shpargal” Series, Rostov-on-Don, Pheniks,
2004, pp.89-90 (224p.) (in Russian)
3. Koshkin V.I., and others, Anti-crisis Management: 17-module program for managers, Module 11
“Managing the growth of organization”, M.: Infra-M, 1999, pp. 23-25(560p.) (in Russian)
4. Aganbekyan, A.G., Crisis: Misfortune and Chance for Russia, M., AS T, Astrel, 2009, p.46 (in Russian)
5. Harutyunyan V.L, The global financial crisis: Reasons, the Anti-crisis Measures and Lessons Learnt - Yere-
van, National Academy of Sciences "Science" publishing house, 2009, p. 146. (in Armenian)
6. Thornill J. A year of chocolate box politics // Financial Times. 2008. Dec.24,p.6. (in English)
7. Sargsyan K.S., Reforms o f the tax system in the Republic of Armenia in the context of Anti-crisis Policy, Pro-
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