Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 15

This apparatus is used for compression test of soil, determine the relationship between deformation

and compression or between void ratio and pressure, and also deformation and time, to calculate
the unit settlement, compression index, resilient index, compression modulus, and consolidation
coefficient and so on. This apparatus is high pressure consolidation apparatus which can proceed
low pressure, middle pressure and high pressure test.


The consolidation properties determined from the consolidation test are used to estimate the
magnitude and the rate of both primary and secondary consolidation settlement of a structure or an
earthfill. Estimates of this type are of key importance in the design of engineered structures and the
evaluation of their performance.

This test is performed to determine the magnitude and rate of volume decrease that a laterally confined
soil specimen undergoes when subjected to different vertical pressures. From the measured data, the
consolidation curve (pressure-void ratio relationship) can be plotted. This data is useful in determining
the compression index, the recompression index and the preconsolidation pressure (or maximum past
pressure) of the soil. In addition, the data obtained can also be used to determine the coefficient of
consolidation and the coefficient of secondary compression of the soil.

The management of parking has a profound impact on our transport system and city streets. The
City of Melbourne manages on-street parking across the municipality and some off-street parking.
Most off-street parking spaces are built and managed by the private sector. The Melbourne Planning
Scheme controls the amount of car parking in new developments.

The City of Melbourne has introduced progressive policies and innovative changes to on and off
street parking since the 1970s. Despite this, there is an oversupply of off-street parking and low
occupancy of on-street in some locations.

The availability of cheap or free parking strongly influences people’s decision to drive. Reforms to
pricing and supply are the among the most influential changes the new Transport Strategy can
make. If parking charges reflected the true cost of providing the infrastructure, substantial changes
to behaviour could be expected.

The City of Fayetteville is invested in improving how residents, employees, and visitors travel
around Fayetteville - whether you drive and park, bicycle, walk, or use public transit.

In 2016, the City partnered with a consulting team, Nelson\Nygaard, to prepare a

comprehensive Mobility Plan. You can learn more about the plan here, explore the Existing
Conditions Factbook, or view interactive maps from stakeholder workshops.

As parking is a key element of a multimodal transportation system, Nelson/Nygaard has

completed a dedicated Parking study and offered subsequent parking management strategies
and recommendations. Fayetteville's long term success will be supported by an effective
parking management plan that helps to strategically maximize existing parking assets while
preparing for future growth.
On and Off Street Parking-Meaning and Difference
Monday, August 20, 2018 11:22 AM

When vehicles are parked on the street, along with the sidewalk or anywhere on the street is
called On-street parking. In some streets, you can always park your vehicle on the street, but
sometimes there are restrictions. There are also on-street parking situations where you need a
parking permit to park. The points of difference between On and Off Street Parking are:

Cost and Time of Construction

The development cost of on-street parking is relatively low, while the construction cost of off-street
parkingis relatively high. Also, the time for development and implementation is likely to be shorter for on-
street parking than for off-street parking facilities. The approx. time for Development required in on street
is relatively short as it includes mainly the selection of site, painting etc. On the other hand, off street
takes relatively long as it requires an arrangement for finance, and construction of facilities, as basics.

Physical and Operational Requirements

On street parking needs some physical changes like painting, installation of signage, parking meters, etc.
Whereas off-street parking needs securing of land, paving, installation of a toll collection system,
equipment, and construction of administrative buildings etc.

If we talk about the operational arrangement, in on-street parking inspection by traffic police or private
sector is required. Off street does not require enforcement and the facility can be operated solely by the
private sector.

Place of Parking and Users

Off-street parking means parking your vehicle anywhere but on the streets. These are usually parking
facilities like garages and lots. Off-street parking can be both indoors and outdoors. Off-street parking
also includes private lots, garages and driveways. The users of on-street parking are casual users who
use the space for a short period of time. Off street parking users differ from short to long-term, i.e.
monthly tenants and regular users. In many urban centers, some areas are exclusively allotted for parking
which will be at some distance away from the mainstream of traffic. Such a parking is referred to as off-
street parking. They may be operated by either public agencies or private firms.
Blog: http://blog.getmyparking.com/
Website: http://www.getmyparking.com/

About Get My Parking

Get My Parking is an award-winning provider of Interoperable Digital Parking Platform that integrates any
parking equipment and connects it to mobile and cloud for a standardized seamless experience. It
enables parking operators and owners to leapfrog to a customized white-label solution with their existing
equipment. It essentially plays the role of connecting all parking and mobility stakeholders on common
platform who were until now operating in silos.
It has presence in over 4 countries and processes over 2 million transactions per month. It was awarded
‘Amazon AWS Mobility Startup of the Year (emerging) 2017’ in Travel category.

Get My Parking was conceived with a view to affordably digitize the global parking industry.
With a dream run of achievements and appreciation by Prime Ministers of India and UK both,
it is also working with several city governments to provide smarter parking for smart cities. Its
strong foundation of team, technology, and partnerships with leading system integrators and
parking equipment manufacturers enables it to provide a single seamless platform for all
stakeholders involved like operators, consumers, equipment manufacturers, and city
administrations. The company aims to create future-proof parking technology and connect
parking industry internally as well as with urban mobility players.

SUBJECT: Accept Downtown San Bruno Parking Study - Parking Management



In 2016, the City initiated the preparation of a comprehensive Downtown parking study
in the form of a prepared Downtown Parking Management Plan ("Plan") for Downtown
San Bruno. This Plan served to implement the City's General Plan (2009) and Transit

Corridors Plan (2013) and to support the City Council's on-going efforts and interests in
development and revitalization of San Bruno's Downtown while respecting the existing
residential neighborhoods and parking demand in the City. It is anticipated that
significant changes in parking demand and needs will occur over time resulting from
new development allowed in the Transit Corridors Plan. This comprehensive Plan serves
 analyze the existing parking supply and usage,

 project future parking demand,

 recommend parking management strategies,

 analyze potential options for future new parking supply, and

 examine the potential costs and revenues of implementing the Plan.

 On-street parking on San Mateo Avenue is heavily used during the weekday midday, but
other areas are well below capacity at this time. On the weekend, midday parking occupancy
is heavier and is sustained throughout the afternoon along both San Mateo Avenue and
nearby side streets.

 Off-street parking supply experiences extended periods of occupancies above the 85 percent
practical capacity level on both the weekdays and weekends.

 In the evening on both weekdays and weekends, including the overnight count, off-street
parking in residential areas is near or over capacity, implying that there is very high demand
for residential parking.

 Public off-street facilities are less well-used during the day, when primarily employees and
short-term visitors are in the area. On the weekend, they are well used by visitors who are
staying for longer durations or are possibly less familiar with parking options in the area.

 Vehicles on San Mateo Avenue tend to stay for longer durations on weekends than on
weekdays, with many vehicles exceeding the 2-hour time limits on the weekend.

 Adjust time restrictions, primarily to convert 5-hour spaces to 10-hour spaces for employee

 Install improved signage to help drivers locate available parking

 Improve parking lot maintenance and security

 Explore temporary use of the Sylvan Avenue Caltrain Station as additional public parking

 Explore converting parallel parking on San Mateo Avenue to diagonal parking to increase

 Install parking meters on San Mateo Avenue to encourage short-term parking and direct
long-term parkers into lots

 Formalize overnight parking arrangements in public lots to increase supply available to


 Begin process of planning and securing funds for a parking garage These strategies will be
further analyzed as they are reviewed in more detail when they are proposed for
implementation in the future. They are identified as recommendations, with no decisions
made with Plan acceptance.

Concern over parking issues in downtown San Bruno has intensified over recent years
and outreach efforts related to the Plan found that residents generally find the current
conditions unacceptable. Population and job growth and housing costs have resulted in
increased occupancy in the housing and car ownership in surrounding neighborhoods,
resulting in demand for parking that exceeds the existing supply. Spillover parking by
downtown employees may have some effects in adjacent neighborhoods during the
busiest hours, but this was not found to be a major cause of high parking occupancy.

The City of San Bruno received a $1 10,000 grant in 2016 to prepare the
Plan from the City/County Association of Governments (C/CAG), funded
through the Priority

Development Area Parking Policy Technical Assistance Program. This grant application
was approved by the City Council on June 14, 2016. Many of the City's long range plans
including the General Plan and the Transit Corridors Plan (TCP) aligned with the
objectives of the Parking Policy Technical Assistance Program to implement parking
management strategies in areas with transit-focused development to ensure efficient
utilization of parking, including existing city-owned parking facilities, and an adequate
supply of parking to meet anticipated future demand. These policy documents include
policies to manage parking and to make better use of existing city parking facilities. Both
the General Plan and TCP include policies to evaluate the need for a centrally located
parking structure to serve merchants and shoppers in Downtown, including identifying
potential sites, and assembling parcels.

CDM Smith was hired by C/CAG to prepare the plan starting in 2016. Key community
engagement items consisted of a community meeting on November 29, 2017 that was
attended by approximately 35 community members and staff, and stakeholder
interviews of business and community members in May 2018. The existing conditions
memorandum was provided to the City Council for their meeting on May 8, 2018. This
22-page memorandum is now incorporated into the final Plan which is being presented
to the City Council for review and acceptance.


Plan Objective

The Plan identifies appropriate supply, distribution and management of parking within
the Downtown to meet current and future parking demands and minimize spillover into
residential areas. The Plan projects future parking demand based on build out
projections of the TCP, which anticipated that the increased densities allowed by the
TCP will result in changing parking needs. It identifies parking strategies to meet
parking needs in the near-term, medium-term and long-term timeframes, and
recommends priorities based on the input of decision makers, stakeholders, and City
The study area for the Plan includes the portion of San Bruno from San Mateo Avenue
between Walnut Street to the north and El Camino Real and Taylor Avenue to the south,
including two to three blocks to the east and west of this corridor.

Plan Summary

The report contains three key components, as follows:

Existing Conditions

The existing conditions analysis included an occupancy and duration survey of parked
vehicles within the study area, to establish a baseline understanding of current parking
conditions. Overall, the study finds that parking facilities near San Mateo Avenue are
well used during the day on both weekdays and weekends, while the residential street
blocks are more heavily used in the evenings and overnight, with total overnight parking
occupancy close to capacity. In certain instances, individual blocks were observed to be
exceeding the capacity of spaces on those blocks. A detailed analysis of occupancy and
duration by time of day and location, along with the methodology for data collection, are
described in the Plan.

Specifically, the Plan finds:

Parking Demand

While the current parking deficiency is primarily caused by an increase in the area
population, future planned development in the area may exacerbate the issues by
generating new demand for office and retail uses. A parking demand analysis was
developed to project the future parking demand expected to be created by new
development, so that the needs of these developments may be addressed by new parking
facilities and improved parking management -preventing additional neighborhood
impacts. The future parking demand analysis involved developing a parking demand
model calibrated to the existing conditions data, and then projecting future demand that
may occur as the result of new development in the area. The City provided phased
growth projections that were developed as part of the Transit Corridors Specific Plan for
residential, office, and retail developments in the downtown area. The demand analysis
found that up to 76 additional parking spaces may be needed to meet parking demand in
2030, an additional 109 spaces would need to be added in 2040 (for a total of 185 new
parking spaces), and an additional 248 spaces may be needed by 2050, resulting in a
total of 433 additional spaces required across all phases to meet projected demand.
These projections are based on existing parking demand patterns and projected growth,
and thus may be altered as conditions, planned development, and behavior change. The
details of the analysis are described in Chapter 2 of the Plan.

Parking Management Recommendations

A set of phased parking management recommendations were developed to manage the

high afternoon and evening parking demand, help users find and use available parking,
improve parking availability for residents, and potentially increase the parking supply.
Specifically, this Plan recommends that the City:

 Adjust enforcement hours to better manage the heavy-use evening period

Other Plan Components

The Plan also included an analysis of site factors to consider in the future analysis of
downtown parking garage sites. A garage is anticipated to be needed to increase the
parking supply to meet the additional demand projected by the parking demand
analysis. However, along with the analysis of site factors, the Plan also includes a
financial analysis of garage and the future. The Plan provides ballpark cost and revenue
estimates for the Plan and a potential city parking garage. The estimates provide a
professional opinion of likely costs based on experience with previous parking programs
and information from parking equipment and service providers, to be used for planning

There are many variables affecting the cost to construct a parking garage, resulting in a
wide range of possible costs even within the Bay Area. Cost estimates for parking
garages range from $25,000 per space to $52,000 per space, depending on land costs,
site conditions, project complexity, and other factors. Based on the conditions at the
potential garage sites, it is estimated that a garage in San Bruno may cost between
$35,000 and $45,000 per space.

At $40,000 per space, a 450-space garage would cost approximately $18 million. The
City would need to find a way to finance such a large capital project. This could be done
through meter revenue (though this is likely to be insufficient), a parking assessment
district, in-lieu parking fees, or public-private partnerships.

It is estimated that the parking management program would require approximately

$230,000 in capital costs, including meters, enforcement technology, and signage.
Labor costs, which include enforcement, administration, maintenance and collections
could cost between $500,000 and $550,000 annually. Depending on the details of the
technology selected, additional software and integration costs may be required. Program
revenue would primarily be collected from the 186 parking meters recommended for the
short-term on-street spaces. Revenue could be collected 10 hours a day, between 8 AM
and 6 PM, 5 days a week. Based on the recommended pricing, hours, and existing
demand for these spaces, the expected daily revenue per space is $13.80 and the total
annual revenue for all metered spaces is estimated to be $640,000. The actual projected
costs of meter installation and enforcement, and the revenues, will require a more
detailed study in the future to refine these estimates. There may be additional revenue
from a parking permit program, but this is likely to be a small proportion of total
Council Action on the Plan

The proposed City Council action would accept the Plan. It would not include any action
related to actual implementation, funding, or physical construction. When actual
implementation or construction is proposed in the future as part of a City-initiated
project, more detailed analysis, funding identification, and environmental review will be
conducted at that time.


The City of San Bruno received a $110,000 grant in 2016 from the City/County
Association of Governments (C/CAG), funded through the Priority Development Area
(PDA) Parking Policy Technical Assistance Program. A local matching grant was not
required. As part of the future budget process, specific implementation projects and
items will be studied and proposals presented for Council action. Additional funding will
be needed for implementation of the various recommendations within the Parking
Management Plan. However, at this time, staff is not seeking an appropriation of funds
for implementation action, such request will be presented to Council as the
recommendations are further analyzed and resources are needed.


The project meets criteria set forth in State California Environmental Quality Act
(CEQA) Guideline Section 15262 "Planning and Feasibility Studies" which can be used
for projects or actions involving only feasibility or planning studies for possible future
actions which the agency has not approved, adopted or funded and does not require
preparation of an EIR, but does require consideration of environmental factors; and
where the exceptions listed in CEQA Guidelines Section 15003.2 would not apply. The
City Council is taking action to accept the Plan which qualifies as a "planning and
feasibility study," as no actual implementation or construction will occur as a result of
the plan acceptance. When actual implementation or construction is proposed in the
future as part of a project subject to CEQA, environmental review will be conducted at
that time.

Therefore, the project qualifies for a Categorical Exemption pursuant to CEQA

Guidelines Section 15262 "Planning and Feasibility Studies," and none of the potential
exceptions to the use of this Categorical Exemption apply to this project. The project has
no potential to cause a significant effect on the environment and therefore also qualifies
for a Categorical Exemption pursuant to CEQA Guidelines Section 15061 (b) (3) "Review
for Exemption."


 No action. Staff does not recommend this alternative as it does not allow for the Plan to be
accepted and implementation of the Plan strategies.

 Direct staff to work with the consultant to revise the Plan.

 RECOMMENDATION: Accept the Downtown San Bruno Parking Study- Parking

Management Plan.

Robert Riechel

Send your articles and photos to:

E=Mail: SanBrunoPatch.Robert@Yahoo.com
WEB: http://SanBrunoPatch.com

Photo Credit: San Bruno CA Patch Archives

Source Credit: City of San Bruno CA

Web Site: https://sanbruno.ca.gov/

CLICK on link below to Subscribe to News Alerts and a Daily Email Newsletter for San
Bruno Patch


Parking Occupancy Data Collection

The following guidelines have been prepared to assist transportation engineering personnel in
gathering and documenting basic parking generation data. These guidelines are intended to be used
in conjunction with the parking demand survey form downloadable Excel spreadsheet.

Site Selection
Site selection is critical in achieving representative and consistent parking generation rates. Failure
to select sites appropriately may lead to inaccurate parking generation rates and equations. Use of
unrepresentative sites as a basis for parking generation estimates can result in overestimating or
under estimating the number of parking spaces to be needed by the development.
Historically the parking generation data has been dominated by isolated, suburban sites in the
United States and Canada. With the update to Parking Generation, we are encouraging the
submission of data for sites with a variety of characteristics (active TDM, heavy transit use,
downtown, shared parking, mixed-use, bicycle parking, sites with parking cost, as well as isolated,
free-standing single-use sites).
However, as site selection for a land use moves away from an isolated site, it is most
important to clearly identify all locations where potential parking demand may be occurring
(such as on-street parking, shared parking areas, adjacent lots, remote employee lots or
other locations where significant parking demand may be occurring which is not in the
immediate site parking facility).
Data Collection

 Site Selection
 Permissions
 Background Data
 Procedure
 Existing Data
 New Surveys

Independent Variables
Data Submission

 Excel Spreadsheet

Suggested criteria for identifying sites are as follows:

 Data should be transferable; therefore, it is critical that both parking data and development
characteristics be representative of the land uses to be analyzed.

 The development should have reasonably full occupancy (i.e., at least 85 percent) and
appear to be economically healthy. The percent occupancy at the time of the survey is
important, and should therefore be recorded.

 The development should be mature (i.e., at least two years old) and located in a mature

 The site should be selected on the basis of the ability to obtain accurate parking demand
data for the land use under consideration.

 Locations where total parking demand can clearly observed for the selected land use (this
may include not only the on-site parking lot/facility, but other shared/remote lots and/or on-
street parking)

 There should be minimal or no on-site construction or adjacent roadway construction.

 Permission should be obtainable from the owner/manager of the prospective survey site.

 The use of a site vehicle trip generation count (comprehensive in/out observations) to create
observed parking demand is acceptable only if:

1. site parking demand was observed immediately before and/or after the trip
generation counts; and
2. there is no potential for through trips or other trips within the trip generation counts
(such as significant vehicle, transit or truck trips of other sites).

Permission of Owner/Manager of Site

Permission to conduct a parking generation survey should always be requested from the
owner/manager of a prospective survey site. The purpose and details of the survey should be fully
explained. An offer should be made to share the results of the survey with the owner/manager.

Background Data
Provision of an independent variable is essential to estimating parking demand ratios. Physical and
functional characteristics of the site (e.g., number of acres, gross floor area, number of employees),
that are not evident from a site inspection may be obtained from the owner/manager. Other sources
of site data may include developers, architects, planners, government offices, consultants, realtors,
assessors, or the home office of the development. The owner/manager should be able to furnish
details of transit service and utilization of car or van pools. The owner/manager should also have a
good idea of the days and hours of peak parking demand. An important statistic for the surveyor to
ascertain is the occupancy of the site under study. The percentage of office space being utilized, the
number of apartment units occupied, the number of spectators at a sporting event, etc., have a direct
bearing on the parking generation rates. If all of the data cannot be obtained, provide as much as
possible and complete the survey.
For shopping centers it has been found that parking demand can vary significantly with the
percentage gross square feet devoted to restaurant or entertainment activity. This additional variable
should be collected as part of the survey and recorded in the data forms under "Notes". Restaurants
would include any eating/drinking establishment, fast food restaurant or other food service related
activity. Entertainment would include any theater space, amusement park, night club or other
entertainment activity. This information should be provided with any shopping center (land use code
820) survey, shown as a percentage (%) of the total gross square feet of shopping center area.

The objective of the survey is to count the number of vehicles parked at the time of peak parking
demand. It is valuable to provide parking demand data for other hours of the day to establish the
variation of parking demand over the hours of the day, but observation of peak parking demand
should be the objective of each survey.
Usually one can predict when peak parking accumulation will occur. Examples would include:

 residential land use would generally peak at night or very early in the morning,
 restaurants at meal times (noon time and dinner time),
 office or employment uses typically peak in the mid-morning or mid-afternoon, and
 stadiums during capacity crowd events.

Peak parking accumulation at other types of land uses may be uncertain. These may require spot
counts at specified intervals such as every one-quarter, one-half, one, or two-hour intervals
throughout the day or portions of the day in order to assure accurate data. While multiple
observations may be performed in one hour, only the highest observed parking demand for each
hour should be entered on the parking demand survey form. Correlating the parking demand
observation to the hour of day that the survey was conducted is critical element of the
parking generation data. The parking survey should also be sensitive to the fact that land uses
may exhibit different parking trends from day to day. For example, a sales oriented office may show
higher parking demand on Monday mornings and Friday afternoons than during the mid-week when
the sales force is out of town. List all information on the parking demand survey form including any
observations or characteristics of the site that would be of interest. The web-based data entry form
asks questions with pull-down selections about site characteristics that are important for
consideration of parking demand (eg. parking costs, type of surrounding area, etc…). For sites with
complex characteristics (TDM, extensive transit use, shared parking, bicycle parking) a separate
web-data entry form is being developed (under construction at this time).

Existing Data
Many agencies and consultants have existing parking occupancy survey data on file. You are urged
to use that data and fill out the survey form so that as much data as possible can be available in the
ITE data warehouse of parking generation. Again, it is not imperative that all data questions be
answered; provide as much as possible and forward the data to ITE.

New Surveys
New parking demand surveys are needed to enhance the statistical value of the parking generation
data. It is highly recommended that when a trip generation survey is conducted for a site, that
parking demand observations also be performed. ITE is working cooperatively with universities and
ITE Student Chapters to conduct parking demand surveys on an annual basis. For information
regarding this program, please contact Lisa Fontana Tierney at lfontana@ite.org.

Data Submission
There are three ways to submit parking data. The Excel spreadsheet is the preferred method of
submission. However, if a prior study was completed with all the required background data, those
studies can be submitted via mail to ITE at:
Parking Generation Survey
Institute of Transportation Engineers
1627 Eye Street, NW, Suite 600
Washington, D.C. 20006

Похожие интересы