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Larson-13-03.

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908 CAPÍTULO 13 Funciones de varias variables

13.3 Derivadas parciales

n Hallar y utilizar las derivadas parciales de una función de dos variables.


n Hallar y utilizar las derivadas parciales de una función de tres o más variables.
n Hallar derivadas parciales de orden superior de una función de dos o tres
variables.

Derivadas parciales de una función de dos variables


En aplicaciones de funciones de varias variables suele surgir la pregunta: ¿“Cómo afectaría
al valor de una función un cambio en una de sus variables independientes”? Se puede con-
testar esta pregunta considerando cada una de las variables independientes por separado.
Por ejemplo, para determinar el efecto de un catalizador en un experimento, un químico
podría repetir el experimento varias veces usando cantidades distintas de catalizador,
mientras mantiene constantes las otras variables como temperatura y presión. Para deter-
minar la velocidad o la razón de cambio de una función f respecto a una de sus variables
Mary Evans Picture Library

independientes se puede utilizar un procedimiento similar. A este proceso se le llama


derivación parcial y el resultado se llama derivada parcial de f con respecto a la variable
independiente elegida.

DEFINICIÓN DE LAS DERIVADAS PARCIALES DE UNA FUNCIÓN DE DOS VARIABLES

JEAN LE ROND D’ALEMBERT (1717-1783) Si z 5 f sx, yd, las primeras derivadas parciales de f con respecto a x y y son las
funciones fx y fy definidas por
La introducción de las derivadas parciales
ocurrió años después del trabajo sobre el f sx 1 Dx, yd 2 f sx, yd
fxsx, yd 5 lím
lim
cálculo de Newton y Leibniz. Entre 1730 y Dx→0 Dx
1760, Leonhard Euler y Jean Le Rond
f sx, y 1 Dyd 2 f sx, yd
d’Alembert publicaron por separado varios fy sx, yd 5 lím
lim
artículos sobre dinámica en los cuales Dy→0 Dy
establecieron gran parte de la teoría de las
siempre y cuando el límite exista.
derivadas parciales. Estos artículos utiliza-
ban funciones de dos o más variables para
estudiar problemas de equilibrio, movimien-
to de fluidos y cuerdas vibrantes.
Esta definición indica que si z 5 f sx, yd, entonces para hallar fx se considera y cons-
tante y se deriva con respecto a x. De manera similar, para calcular fy , se considera x
constante y se deriva con respecto a y.

EJEMPLO 1 Hallar las derivadas parciales

Hallar las derivadas parciales fx y fy de la función

f sx, yd 5 3x 2 x 2y 2 1 2x 3y.

Solución Si se considera y como constante y se deriva con respecto a x se obtiene


f sx, yd 5 3x 2 x 2y 2 1 2x 3y Escribir la función original.
fxsx, yd 5 3 2 2xy 2 1 6x 2y. Derivada parcial con respecto a x.

Si se considera x constante y se deriva con respecto a y obtenemos


f sx, yd 5 3x 2 x 2y 2 1 2x 3y Escribir la función original.
fysx, yd 5 22x 2y 1 2x 3. Derivada parcial con respecto a y.
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SECCIÓN 13.3 Derivadas parciales 909

NOTACIÓN PARA LAS PRIMERAS DERIVADAS PARCIALES

Si z 5 f sx, yd, las derivadas parciales fx y fy se denotan por


­ ­z
f sx, yd 5 fxsx, yd 5 z x 5
­x ­x
y
­ ­z
f sx, yd 5 fysx, yd 5 z y 5 .
­y ­y
Las primeras derivadas parciales evaluadas en el punto sa, bd se denotan por
­z
­x |
sa, bd
5 fxsa, bd y
­z
­y |
sa, bd
5 fysa, bd.

EJEMPLO 2 Hallar y evaluar las derivadas parciales

Dada f sx, yd 5 xe x y, hallar fx y fy, y evaluar cada una en el punto s1, ln 2d.
2

Solución Como
z
(x0, y0, z0) fxsx, yd 5 xe x ys2xyd 1 e x
2 2y
Derivada parcial con respecto a x.

la derivada parcial de f con respecto a x en s1, ln 2d es


fxs1, ln 2d 5 e ln 2s2 ln 2d 1 e ln 2
5 4 ln 2 1 2.
Como
fysx, yd 5 xe x ysx 2d
2

5 x3ex y
2
x y Derivada parcial con respecto a y.
Plano: y = y0 la derivada parcial de f con respecto a y en s1, ln 2d es
­f fys1, ln 2d 5 e ln 2
5 pendiente en la dirección x
­x
Figura 13.29 5 2.

Las derivadas parciales de una función de dos variables, z 5 f sx, yd, tienen una inter-
pretación geométrica útil. Si y 5 y0, entonces z 5 f sx, y0d representan la curva intersec-
z
(x0, y0, z0) ción de la superficie z 5 f sx, yd con el plano y 5 y0, como se muestra en la figura 13.29.
Por consiguiente,
f sx0 1 Dx, y0d 2 f sx0, y0d
fxsx0, y0d 5 lím
lim
Dx→0 Dx
representa la pendiente de esta curva en el punto sx0, y0, f sx0, y0 dd. Nótese que tanto la
curva como la recta tangente se encuentran en el plano y 5 y0. Análogamente,
f sx0, y0 1 Dyd 2 f sx0, y0d
fysx0, y0d 5 lim
lím
Dy→0 Dy
x y
Plano: x = x0 representa la pendiente de la curva dada por la intersección de z 5 f sx, yd y el plano
­f x 5 x0 en sx0, y0, f sx0, y0dd, como se muestra en la figura 13.30.
5 pendiente en la dirección y
­y Informalmente, los valores ­fy­x y ­fy­y en sx0, y0, z0d denotan las pendientes de la
Figura 13.30 superficie en las direcciones de x y y, respectivamente.
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910 CAPÍTULO 13 Funciones de varias variables

EJEMPLO 3 Hallar las pendientes de una superficie


en las direcciones de x y de y

Hallar las pendientes en las direcciones de x y de y de la superficie dada por


x2 25
f sx, yd 5 2 2 y2 1
2 8
en el punto s 2, 1, 2d.
1

Solución Las derivadas parciales de f con respecto a x y a y son


fxsx, yd 5 2x y fysx, yd 5 22y. Derivadas parciales.

Por tanto, en la dirección de x, la pendiente es

fx 112, 12 5 2 21 Figura 13.31a.

y en la dirección de y, la pendiente es

fy 112, 12 5 22. Figura 13.31b.

z z
Superficie:
2
4 f(x, y) = − x − y2 + 25 4
2 8

( 12 , 1, 2 )
( )
1 , 1, 2
2

y y
2 2
3 Pendiente en la dirección de x: 3 Pendiente en la dirección y:
x x
( )
fx 1 , 1 = − 1
2 2 ( )
fy 1, 1 = −2
2
a) b)
Figura 13.31

EJEMPLO 4 Hallar las pendientes de una superficie


Superficie: en las direcciones de x y de y
f(x, y) = 1 − (x − 1)2 − (y − 2)2
z
Hallar las pendientes de la superficie dada por

(1, 2, 1)
fx(x, y) f sx, yd 5 1 2 sx 2 1d2 2 s y 2 2d 2
1
fy(x, y) en el punto (1, 2, 1), en las direcciones de x y de y.
1
2
3 Solución Las derivadas parciales de f con respecto a x y y son
4 y
x
fxsx, yd 5 22sx 2 1d y fysx, yd 5 22s y 2 2d. Derivadas parciales.

Por tanto, en el punto (1, 2, 1), las pendientes en las direcciones de x y de y son
fxs11, 2d 5 22s1 2 1d 5 0 y fys11, 2d 5 22s2 2 2d 5 0
Figura 13.32 como se muestra en la figura 13.32.
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SECCIÓN 13.3 Derivadas parciales 911

Sin importar cuántas variables haya, las derivadas parciales se pueden interpretar
como tasas, velocidades o razones de cambio.

EJEMPLO 5 Derivadas parciales como velocidades


o razones de cambio

El área de un paralelogramo con lados adyacentes a y b entre los que se forma un ángulo
a
q está dada por A 5 ab sen q, como se muestra en la figura 13.33.
A = ab sen θ a sen θ
θ p
a) Hallar la tasa o la razón de cambio de A respecto de a si a 5 10, b 5 20 y u 5 .
6
b
p
El área del paralelogramo es ab sen q b) Calcular la tasa o la razón de cambio de A respecto de u si a 5 10, b 5 20 y u 5 .
Figura 13.33 6
Solución
a) Para hallar la tasa o la razón de cambio del área respecto de a, se mantienen b y q cons-
tantes y se deriva respecto de a para obtener
­A
sin u
5 b sen Derivada parcial respecto a a.
­a
­A p
5 20 sen
sin 5 10. Sustituir a b y q.
­a 6
b) Para hallar la tasa o la razón de cambio del área respecto de q, se mantiene a y b cons-
tantes y se deriva respecto de q para obtener
­A
5 ab cos u Derivada parcial respecto de q.
­u
­A p
5 200 cos 5 100!3. Sustituir a, b y q.
­u 6

Derivadas parciales de una función de tres o más variables


El concepto de derivada parcial puede extenderse de manera natural a funciones de tres o
más variables. Por ejemplo, si w 5 f sx, y, zd, existen tres derivadas parciales cada una de
las cuales se forma manteniendo constantes las otras dos variables. Es decir, para definir
la derivada parcial de w con respecto a x, se consideran y y z constantes y se deriva con
respecto a x. Para hallar las derivadas parciales de w con respecto a y y con respecto a z se
emplea un proceso similar.
­w f sx 1 Dx, y, zd 2 f sx, y, zd
5 fxsx, y, zd 5 lim
Dx →0
lím
­x Dx
­w f sx, y 1 Dy, zd 2 f sx, y, zd
5 fysx, y, zd 5 lím
lim
­y Dy→0 Dy
­w f sx, y, z 1 Dzd 2 f sx, y, zd
5 fzsx, y, zd 5 lím
lim
­z Dz→0 Dz
En general, si w 5 f sx1, x 2, . . . , xnd, hay n derivadas parciales denotadas por
­w
5 fxksx1, x2, . . . , xnd, k 5 1, 2, . . . , n.
­xk
Para hallar la derivada parcial con respecto a una de las variables, se mantienen constantes
las otras variables y se deriva con respecto a la variable dada.
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912 CAPÍTULO 13 Funciones de varias variables

EJEMPLO 6 Hallar las derivadas parciales

a) Para hallar la derivada parcial de f sx, y, zd 5 xy 1 yz 2 1 xz con respecto a z, se con-


sideran x y y constantes y se obtiene

­
fxy 1 yz 2 1 xzg 5 2yz 1 x.
­z

b) Para hallar la derivada parcial de f(x, y, z) 5 z sen(xy 2 1 2z) con respecto a z, se con-
sideran x y y constantes. Entonces, usando la regla del producto, se obtiene

­ ­ ­
fz sen
sinsxy 2 1 2zdg 5 szd fsen
fsinsxy 2 1 2zdg 1 sen
sinsxy 2 1 2zd fzg
­z ­z ­z
5 szdfcossxy 2 1 2zdgs2d 1 sen
sinsxy 2 1 2zd
5 2z cossxy 2 1 2zd 1 sen
sinsxy 2 1 2zd.

c) Para calcular la derivada parcial de f sx, y, z, wd 5 sx 1 y 1 zdyw con respecto a w, se


consideran x, y y z constantes y se obtiene

­ x1y1z x1y1z
­w 3w
52 4
w2
.

Derivadas parciales de orden superior


Como sucede con las derivadas ordinarias, es posible hallar las segundas, terceras, etc.,
derivadas parciales de una función de varias variables, siempre que tales derivadas existan.
Las derivadas de orden superior se denotan por el orden al que se hace la derivación. Por
ejemplo, la función z 5 f sx, yd tiene las siguientes derivadas parciales de segundo orden.

1. Derivar dos veces con respecto a x:

­ ­f
­x ­x 1 2
­ 2f
5 2 5 fxx .
­x

2. Derivar dos veces con respecto a y:

­ ­f
­y ­y 1 2
­ 2f
5 2 5 fyy .
­y

NOTA Observar que los dos tipos de


notación para las derivadas parciales 3. Derivar primero con respecto a x y luego con respecto a y:
mixtas tienen convenciones diferentes
para indicar el orden de derivación.
­ ­f
1 2
5
­ 2f
5 fxy .
1 2
­ ­f ­f ­y ­x ­y­x
2
5 Orden de derecha a
­y ­x ­y­x izquierda.

4. Derivar primero con respecto a y y luego con respecto a x:


s fx dy 5 fxy Orden de izquierda a
derecha.

Se puede recordar el orden de ambas


­ ­f
­x ­y 1 2
5
­ 2f
­x­y
5 fyx .
notaciones observando que primero se
deriva con respecto a la variable más
“cercana” a f. n Los casos tercero y cuarto se llaman derivadas parciales mixtas (cruzadas).
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SECCIÓN 13.3 Derivadas parciales 913

EJEMPLO 7 Hallar derivadas parciales de segundo orden

Hallar las derivadas parciales de segundo orden de f sx, yd 5 3xy 2 2 2y 1 5x 2y 2, y deter-


minar el valor de fxys21, 2d.

Solución Empezar por hallar las derivadas parciales de primer orden con respecto a x y y.
fxsx, yd 5 3y 2 1 10xy 2 y fysx, yd 5 6xy 2 2 1 10x 2y
Después, se deriva cada una de éstas con respecto a x y con respecto a y.
fxxsx, yd 5 10y 2 y fyysx, yd 5 6x 1 10x 2
fxysx, yd 5 6y 1 20xy y fyxsx, yd 5 6y 1 20xy
En s21, 2d, el valor de fxy es fxys21, 2d 5 12 2 40 5 228.

NOTA En el ejemplo 7 las dos derivadas parciales mixtas son iguales. En el teorema 13.3 se dan
condiciones suficientes para que esto ocurra. n

TEOREMA 13.3 IGUALDAD DE LAS DERIVADAS PARCIALES MIXTAS

Si f es una función de x y y tal que fxy y fyx son continuas en un disco abierto R,
entonces, para todo sx, yd en R,
fxysx, yd 5 fyxsx, yd.

El teorema 13.3 también se aplica a una función f de tres o más variables siempre y
cuando las derivadas parciales de segundo orden sean continuas. Por ejemplo, si
w 5 f sx, y, zd y todas sus derivadas parciales de segundo orden son continuas en una
región abierta R, entonces en todo punto en R el orden de derivación para obtener las
derivadas parciales mixtas de segundo orden es irrelevante. Si las derivadas parciales de
tercer orden de f también son continuas, el orden de derivación para obtener las derivadas
parciales mixtas de tercer orden es irrelevante.

EJEMPLO 8 Hallar derivadas parciales de orden superior

Mostrar que fxz 5 fzx y fxzz 5 fzxz 5 fzzx para la función dada por
f sx, y, zd 5 ye x 1 x ln z.

Solución
Derivadas parciales de primer orden:
x
fxsx, y, zd 5 ye x 1 ln z, fzsx, y, zd 5
z
Derivadas parciales de segundo orden (nótese que las dos primeras son iguales):
1 1 x
fxzsx, y, zd 5 , fzxsx, y, zd 5 , fzzsx, y, zd 5 2
z z z2
Derivadas parciales de tercer orden (nótese que las tres son iguales):
1 1 1
fxzzsx, y, zd 5 2 2, fzxzsx, y, zd 5 2 2, fzzxsx, y, zd 5 2
z z z2
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914 CAPÍTULO 13 Funciones de varias variables

13.3 Ejercicios
Para pensar En los ejercicios 1 a 4, utilizar la gráfica de la super- En los ejercicios 41 a 44, utilizar la definición de derivadas par-
ficie para determinar el signo de la derivada parcial indicada. ciales empleando límites para calcular fx冇x, y冈 y fy冇x, y冈.
y

41. f x, y 3x 2y 42. f x, y x2 2xy y2


z
1
43. f x, y x y 44. f x, y
2 x y

−5 En los ejercicios 45 a 52, evaluar fx y fy en el punto dado.


y
5 45. f x, y ey sen x, ,0
x
5 46. f x, y e cos y, 0, 0
x
47. f x, y cos 2x y, ,
4 3
1. fx共4, 1兲 2. fy共⫺1, ⫺2兲 48. f x, y sen xy, 2,
3. fy共4, 1兲 4. fx共⫺1, ⫺1兲 4
y
49. f x, y arctan , 2, 2
En los ejercicios 5 a 8, explicar si se debe usar o no la regla del x
cociente para encontrar la derivada parcial. No derivar. 50. f x, y arccos xy, 1, 1
xy
x y x y 51. f x, y , 2, 2
5. 6. x y
y x2 1 x x2 1
2xy
xy xy 52. f x, y , 1, 1
7. 8. 4x 2 5y 2
2 2
x x 1 y x 1
En los ejercicios 53 y 54, calcular las pendientes de la superficie
En los ejercicios 9 a 40, hallar las dos derivadas parciales de en las direcciones de x y de y en el punto dado.
primer orden.
53. g共x, y兲 ⫽ 4 ⫺ x 2 ⫺ y 2 54. h共x, y兲 ⫽ x 2 ⫺ y 2
9. f x, y 2x 5y 3 10. f x, y x2 2y 2 4 共1, 1, 2兲 共⫺2, 1, 3兲
z z
11. f x, y x2y3 12. f x, y 4x3y 2
13. z x y 14. z 2y 2 x 4 7
6
15. z x2 4xy 3y 2 16. z y3 2xy 2 1
5
17. z e xy 18. z ex y
4
2 2y y x
19. z x e 20. z ye 3
2
x
21. z ln 22. z ln xy
y
x 3
x y 2
3
23. z ln x2 y2 24. z ln 2 y y
x y x

x2 3y 2 xy
25. z 26. z
2y x x2 y2
x 2
y 2 CAS En los ejercicios 55 a 58, utilizar un sistema algebraico por compu-
27. h x, y e 28. g x, y ln x2 y2
tadora y representar gráficamente la curva en la intersección de
29. f x, y x2 y2 30. f x, y 2x y3 la superficie con el plano. Hallar la pendiente de la curva en el
31. z cos xy 32. z sen x 2y punto dado.
33. z tan 2x y 34. z sen 5x cos 5y
35. z ey sen xy 36. z cos x 2 y2 Superficie Plano Punto
37. z senh 2x 3y 38. z cosh xy 2
55. z ⫽ 冪49 ⫺ x 2 ⫺ y 2 x⫽2 共2, 3, 6兲
y
39. f x, y t2 1 dt
56. z ⫽ x 2 ⫹ 4y 2 y⫽1 共2, 1, 8兲
x 57. z ⫽ 9x 2 ⫺ y 2 y⫽3 共1, 3, 0兲
y x
40. f x, y 2t 1 dt 2t 1 dt 58. z ⫽ 9x 2 ⫺ y 2 x⫽1 共1, 3, 0兲
x y
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915

SECCIÓN 13.3 Partial


13.3
13.3 Derivadas
Partial parciales
Derivatives
Derivatives 915
915
915
13.3 Partial
13.3 Partial Derivatives
Derivatives 915
915
13.3
13.3 Partial
13.3 Partial Derivatives
Partial Derivatives
Derivatives 915
915
915
En
In los ejercicios
InExercises
Exercises 59–64,
59– 64, 59 find
find a the 64,
thefirstcalcular
firstpartial partial lasderivatives
derivadas with
derivatives parciales
with de
respect
respect In En
In los ejercicios
Exercises
Exercises 93–96,
93–96, 93 show
show a 96, that
that mostrar
thethemixed mixed quepartial las derivadas
partial derivatives
derivatives parciales
fxyy, ,
fxyy
In Exercises
In Exercises 59–64,
59– 64, findfind the the firstfirst partial partial derivatives derivatives withwith respect
respect In
In Exercises
Exercises 93–96,
93–96, show
show that
that the
the mixed
mixed partial
partial derivatives
derivatives ffxyy
xyy,,
primer
tox,x,y,y,and
to orden
and z.z. con respecto a x, y y z. fmixtas
fyxy andffxyy
, ,and
yxy fyyx, are
yyx
fare yequal.
yxy equal. fyyx son iguales.
to x, y,
to x, y, and
and z. z. ffyxy and ffyyx
yxy,, and yyx are are equal.
equal.
In
InExercises
In Exercises 59–
59– 64,
64,find
64, find the the first
first partial partial derivatives derivatives with with respect
respect In
In Exercises
Exercises 93–96,
93–96, show
show that that the the mixed mixed partial partial derivatives derivatives ffxyy xyy,,
59.
59.
to
to
59.
59.
Exercises
x,H
x, H
H
Hy,
y, x,
x, y,
and
and
x,
x,
y,
y,
y,
z
z
z
z.
zz.
59–sen
sen
sen
sen
xfind
x 2y
x
x
the
2y first
2y
2y
3z 3z partial derivatives with respect
3z
3z
In93.
fff93.
Exercises
,, f f x,x,y,
and
and ffy,zzare 93–96,
are xyz xyz show that the mixed partial derivatives fxyy ,
equal.
equal.
to x, y, and z. 22 93. ff x,
93. x, y, y,
yyxzz
yxy , and fyyx are equal.
yxy
yxy yyx xyzxyz
60. f f x,x,y,y,zz 3x
60. 3x2y2y 5xyz 5xyz 10yz 10yz2222 94. f f x,x,y,y,zz xx2222 3xy
94. 3xy 4yz 4yz zz3333
60. H
60.
59.
59. fHf x,
x,
x,
x, y,
y,
y,
y, zzzz 3x 3x
sen
sen yy xx 5xyz 5xyz
2y
2y 3z10yz
10yz
3z 94.
94.
93.
93. ff
ff x,
x,
x,
x, y,
y,
y,y, zz
zz x
xyz x
xyz 3xy 4yz
3xy 4yz zz
59. H x, y, z sen x 2y 3z 7xz
7xz 93. f ffx,x,
95.
95. x,y,y,
y,zzz eexyz x x sen yz
sen yz
2 2 2 2 2 2 7xz
7xz x
x
61. wffwx,
61.
60. xx 3x yy 2
2 zz5xyz 62. 62.222 ww 95. ff x,
95. x, y, y, zz xexxe222 sen sen 3xyyz yz 4yz 4yz zz333
60.
61. w
61.
60. fwx,x, y,
y, zzzxx22 3x
y, 3xyy22yyy zz5xyz 5xyz 10yz
22 10yz
10yz 62. w
62. w xx yy 94. fff x,
94.
94. x, y,
x, y, zzz
y,
2z
3xy
2z 3xy 4yz z
xx yy 96.
96. f f x,x, y,y, z z 2z
2z
x
7xz
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y
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86.
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function.Determine Determine 113. ffxDibujar
x is is always la gráfica negative de una and función
whose 5 f sx, yd fcuya
zderivative is derivada
first and
first and second second partial partial derivatives derivatives of of thethe function.
function. Determine Determine 114. Sketch
114. Sketch
fSketch
x is always
always thegraph
the graphnegative and
ofofaafunction
negative function whose zz derivative
f f x,x,yy whose ffyy is
whose always
always
deriva-
y isderiva-
In
CAS EnIn Exercises
Exercises
whether
CAS whether
CAS
In los
Exercises there
ejercicios
there 89–92,
89–92, exist
exist 89 avalues use
use
values
92,
useutilizar of ofxxand
aaa computer
computer unand yyalgebra
algebra
sistema suchalgebraico
such that
that fxfxx,x,yto
system
system yto find
por 00and
find
compu-the
the
and 114. positive.
114. Sketch
fx sea siempre
positive. the graph
the graph of aa and
of
negativa function
function
whose
y cuya derivada
derivative
zz ff x, x, yyfy seawhose
whose
always
deriva-
deriva-
siempre po-
whether
whether there89–92,
there exist values
exist values computer
of xx and
of and yyalgebra such that
such thatsystem x, yyto find
ffxx x, the
00 and
and tives
tives
positive. fxfxand andfyfyare arealways
alwayspositive. positive.
fyfirst
first
first
ftadora x,
x, y y
and
and y second
0 0
second
hallarsimultaneously.
simultaneously. partial
partial
las derivadas derivatives
derivatives parciales of
of the
the de function.
function.
primero Determine
Determine
y segundo tives
tives
sitiva. and ffyy are
ffxx and are always
always positive. positive.
x, yyand second
ffyyy x, 00 simultaneously.
simultaneously. partial derivatives of the function. Determine 114.
114.
115.
115.
114. IfSketch
Sketch
If
Sketchf f isis athe the
athe graph
graph of
graph
function
function ofofaaaxfunction
of
of xfunction
and yy such
and zzzsuchfffthat
x,x, yyyfxy
x,
that fwhose
whose
andand fderiva-
deriva-
fyx are
are
whether
whether
orden
whether dethere there
la función. exist
exist values
values
Determinar of xxx and
of
of and yy such
si existen
90. fyf x,
such that fffxx x,
that
valores x,deyy x y 0y0 tales
x x, yxx2 2 0yy
and
and 115.
115. IfIf ff is fis aa lafunction
function of xuna
of xfunction
and
and yy such suchz 5 that
that
whose
f sx,ffxy
xyydand
xy and deriva-
yx
ffyx are
are
f89.
89.
f89.
que x,
x,f fyyx,x,
xx,yythere
y0
0c xxsec
simultaneously.
exist
sec
simultaneously.
5 0 y yfy xvalues
x, y c 5 0
and
90.
simultáneamente.
such
x,yy that 25 25 22
and
22 114. tives Dibujar
tives
continuous,
continuous,
tives ffxx and
and
and
gráfica
ffwhat
f are
are
yywhat
are always
isis
de
always
always the
the
función
positive.
positive.
relationship
relationship
positive. between
between
cuyas
the
the yx deri-
mixed
mixed
89.
fy x, y
yy ff x x,
x, y y x x
0 simultaneously. sec
sec y
y y 90.
90. ff x,
x, y y 25
25 x
x y22
y vadasx fx y fywhat
continuous,
continuous, ywhat is
sean is the relationship
the
siempre relationship
positivas. between between the the mixed
mixed
xx xy xy 115.
115. IfIf
115. partialpartial
If fff isis aaa function
function
derivatives?
isderivatives? function Explain. of
of xxx and
Explain.
of and yyy such
and such that
such that fffxy
that xy and and fffyx
and yx are
are
partial
partial derivatives? Explain. yx are
91.91. ffff x,x,
89.
89.
91. ff x,
91.
89.
x,yyyy ln
x,
x, yy xln
xln xlnsec
sec
xsec
xx
x2222 yyy yy2222
92.92. ffff x,x,
90.
90.
92. ff x,
92.
90.
x,yyyy
x, yy xx 25
x, xy
xy25 22
25yy xxx 2 yyy 2
22
Si f esderivatives?
115. continuous,
continuous, una what función
what is
is
Explain.
de
the
the x relationship
y y tal que fxybetween
relationship y fyxxysonthe
between continuas,
the mixed
mixed
xx yy xx yy continuous, what is the relationship between the mixed
¿qué relación
partial existe entre las derivadas parciales mixtas?
xxx xy
xy
xy partial derivatives?
partial derivatives? Explain.
derivatives? Explain.
Explain.
91.91. fff x,
91. x, yyy
x, lnln ln xx222 yy222 92. fff x,
92.
92. x, yyy
x,
x Explicar.
x y xx yyy
60. f x, y, z 3x y 5xyz 10yz 94. f x, y
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916 96. f x, y
63. F x, y, z ln x 2 y2 z2
1
64. G x, y, z Laplace’s E
1 x2 y2 z2
satisfies La
916 CAPÍTULO 13 Funciones de varias variables
916 916916Chapter 13 13
Chapter Functions
Chapter of Several
13 Functions Variables
of Several
Functions Variables
of Several Variables In Exercises 65–70, evaluate fx , fy , and fz at the given point. 97. z 5
916 Chapter 13 Functions of Several Variables
Functions of Several Variables 3 2
916 Chapter 13 Functions of Several Variables 65. f x, y, z x yz , 1, 1, 1
Chapter 13 Functions
916 of Several
916 ChapterVariables
Chapter 13
13 Functions
Functions of
of Several
Several Variables
Variables Distribución de 99. z e
Para discusión
123. 66.
123. f x,123.
Temperature
123. y,Temperature
z Temperature x2temperatura
3
yDistribution 2xyz
Distribution
Distribution
La temperatura
3yz,The 2,
temperature
The The 1,
temperature
en cualquier
2temperature at any at point
any
at anypoint
point
C A PCSATPOSNTEO N EN E
C A P S T O NCEA P S T O123. 123. punto Temperature sx, yd de una placa de acero
Distribution The T 5 500 22 0.6x
es temperature at 2 any 2 2 1.5y 2,
221.5y
point 2 where
Temperature Distribution The temperature at donde anyx,point y x, in yx, a in steel
ymedidos plate
ainsteel
xplate a steel is plate
plate T is 500 Tis T 500 0.6x
500 0.6x0.6x 1.5y , where1.5y , 2,xwhere x xWave Equa
116. 116. Encontrar Find
116. 116. the
Find
las four
cuatro
Find the second
four
the segundas
four second partial partial
derivadas
second derivatives
partial derivatives
parciales derivatives of de the of
la function
the
fun-
of thefunction
123. function
Temperature 67. x, y f x,x
in y
y, a y
z
Distribution son
steel , 1,
The is en T 1, metros.
temperature500
1 En el
0.6x at
2
puntoany (2,
1.5ypoint
2 where
3),, hallar el
x
C A P S T116. O N EFind the four second x,partial y in derivativesa steel 123. plate ofisthe
Temperature T function 500Distribution 0.6x 123.2
1.5y
The
2
,
Temperature and yand
where
temperature are
x ymeasured
and are y
yzat
Distribution measured
are any inpoint
measured meters. in
The in At
meters.meters.theAtpoint
temperature the
At the 2,
pointat 3any
point ,2,find32, ,the
3
pointfind , rates
findthe the
ratesratessatisfies th
nd T Opartial
N E derivatives ofCCAthe APPción SSfunction
TTOOgiven NNEEbygiven
dada por bygiven f by x, yby f x,f ysen x, y xsensen 2yx .xShow 2y 2y
Mostrar . Show .that quethat
Show thelasthat second
the the
se- second x,123.
second y inTemperature
ritmo
anda the y de
steel arecambio measured
plate Distribution
is de Tthe la
in temperatura
meters.
500 TheAt the
0.6x 2respecto
temperature
point1.5y a, la
22, 3 at
where,distancia
findany xthe reco-
point
rates
116. that Findthe the given
four second f x, partial y and
sen xy are2ymeasured
derivatives . of Show the in
that
x, ymeters.
function thea second
in At
steel theplate pointis2, T3 , find 500
x, ofin0.6x
yychange change
aaofsteel
rates change
2 of of
change
1.5y
plate 2ofwhere
, is temperature
the
of TT the temperature
x500temperaturewith 0.6x respect
with
22 with respect
1.5y to 22 the
respect
,, where to distances
the
to xxthe distances
distances
Findsen the x four Show
2y . second partial
116. gundas
second
derivatives
Find mixed
the mixed
derivadas
four partial
of mixed the
second derivatives
partial
parciales
partial
function derivatives
partial mixtas f
derivatives and
derivativesf f f
y and
f f are andf
son
of equal.
are
f
the iguales.equal.
are equal. and y are rrida
x,of measured en
in la placa
steel
of
in the en
plate
meters. las
xy At direcciones
is
temperature the 500
point with del
2, 3eje
0.6x
respect
, x
find y y.
1.5y
to
the the
rates where
distances
yyxarefunction
116. by Find theypartial foursen second partial xy
derivatives xy
xy the yxxyyx yx
ofsecond the function 68.the f are x, y, zalong ,in At 3,in 1, the1the
given mixed f x, derivatives
x 2y of .change
xy and
fShow fof
yx are
that the temperature
equal.
and measured with respect in meters. to the Atand
and yymoved
distancespoint
are
moved 2,
measured
measuredmoved , the
3 xalong findin
in
plate
along the the
the
ymeters.
meters.
plate
zrates
the
plate directions
theinpoint
the directions of3 the
directions
2,the ofx-the
,, findandthe
ofand the y-and
x-rates x-axes.and y-axes. 101. z s
y-axes.
tives fby
given xy andf x,fyxy are equal.
sen x 2y given. Show
given by
by fthat
f x,
x, yythe second sen
sen moved xx 2y 2y
along .. Show
Show the that
platethat
of in
changethe
the the second
second
directions
of the of of
the
temperature 124.change
x- and
moved
with y-ofaxes.
Temperatura thealong
respect
the
temperature
toaparente plate
the
in
with
distances UnaAt
the directions
respect
medida pointto of the2,
de 3 x- find
ladistances
percepción the rates
y-axes. del
mixed partial derivatives fxy and fyx are equal. of
124.change change
Apparent
124. 124. of
Apparent the
Temperature
ofApparent temperature
Temperature
Temperature with
Awith measure respect
A respect
measure of how
Ax-measure to the
ofthe hot
how
of how distances
weather
hothot weather feels feels
weather feels103. z l
mixed partial derivatives fxy and mixedfyx arepartial
mixed equal.derivatives
partial derivatives ffxy and fyx are equal. moved124. of along
Apparent
calor the
ambientalplate the
Temperature inpor temperature
the directions
unas A measure
personas of thepromedio of and to
how y-es
hot axes. eldistances
weather Índice feels de
124. Apparent xy and fTemperature yx are equal. moved Aalong measure the plate of how in thehot directions
moved
69. to
weather
moved f x,along
an
feelsof
y,
along zthe
toaverage
anthe
tothe x-
average
an and
zplate
sen
plate person
average xinaxes.
y-
in the
person
the directions
isyperson
,theisApparent
directions0,the
is of
,Apparent
the of the
4Apparent
the x-
Temperature
x- and
Temperature
and y- axes.
Temperature
y- axes.Index.Index. AIndex.A A
117. 117.
Ingreso Marginal
117. 117. Marginal
marginal Revenue
Marginal Revenue
UnaRevenue A pharmaceutical
corporación A pharmaceutical farmacéutica
A pharmaceutical corporation corporation
tiene
corporationhas
dos124. two
hashas twotwo temperatura
Apparent toTemperature
an average aparente.person Aindex Un
measure is the modelo Apparent
of para 2hoteste Temperatureíndicefeels es Index. A
117. Marginal Revenue Atopharmaceutical an average124. person corporation is the Apparent has two Temperature model
Index. Afor
model model thisfor this
for isfeels
index
this is how weather Heat Equa
A pharmaceutical corporation plantas plants
has quetwo that
plants producen
plants produce
thatthat produce the
laproduce
misma same
the the over-the-counter
same
medicina. same Apparent
Si x1 y medicine.
over-the-counter
over-the-counter x2Temperature
sonmedicine.
los If x1 to
medicine. A
If124.
124.
xanIf1 measure
Apparent
Apparent
model
xaverage
70. f
offor
x,
how
person
y, zthishot
Temperature
Temperature isindexweather
the3x is A
2Apparent A2index
y
measure
measure 2z
is of
Temperature
2
, of1,howhow2,hot hot
Index.
1
weather
weather A feels
feels
satisfies th
117. Marginal plants
Revenue that produce A the model
pharmaceutical same over-the-counter
forcorporation
this index to isan
has medicine.two
average If x1 is the Apparent
person 2, 2,to an
1
toA 5
an 0.885t
average 2
Temperature 22.4h
person 1
Index.
is 1.20th
the A 2
Apparent 0.544 Temperature Index. A
e same Revenue
arginal over-the-counter A 117. medicine.
números
pharmaceutical
Marginal andIfde xand are
xRevenue xthe
unidades
x2 are2corporation
and 2 are x2numbersthe
are numbers
producidos
A the
has of
twounits
numbers
pharmaceutical of
enunits produced
la planta
of units produced 1atyplant
produced
corporation enatlaplant 1at and
planta
has plant 1plant
two and
2,1 and 2, plant
plant
2, is model for A average 0.885t
A Ais0.885t person 22.4h
0.885t is 22.4hthe22.4h Apparent
1.20th 1.20th Temperature
0.544
1.20th 0.544 0.544 Index. A
117. Marginal
andproduce Revenue
1
the thenumbers A of pharmaceutical
units produced corporation
atmodelplant 1If andxhas plant two A this0.885t index 22.4his 1.20th 0.544
sntsof units producedthe
that produce atplants
same
that
plant 1over-the-counter
and
plants respectively,
plant
respectivamente, that respectively,
2, respectively,
produce
same
then
entonces
medicine. the
over-the-counter
the
then A
same total
then
If the
el revenue
total
ingreso
the
0.885t
x total
over-the-counter revenue medicine.
for
total
revenue
22.4h the for
del product
the for
producto
for
1.20th
medicine. the 1this
product is
product
If
index
given
está
0.544
xis by
given
is given by by model
model
In
donde
for
Exercisesfor
A where
this
this
esA where
la
index
index
71–80,
temperatura
is find the
aparente four second
en in grados partial
Celsius, derivatives.
t esCelsius,
and plants
are
x2 dado respectively,
the Rpor
that produce
numbers200x
R
then
200xof200x the
units
200x
thetotal samerevenue
produced
200x 4x
over-the-counter
1
2 at plant
4x8x 2forx2the
8x1 and product
x4x
medicine.
2plantis
.210.885t
4x 22,given
When . plant2When
If xby 1
x2,11 x41 A1.20th 4 0.885t where 22.4h is the isapparent
A1.20th Athe is the apparent temperature
apparent
0.544 temperature
temperature degrees in Celsius,
in degrees degrees Celsius,t islathe is the105. z e
t is tthe
dtotal
x2 are revenue for theof
the numbers product
units and
and is
produced
R
given
xx are
are
22200x
by
at
the
the R
plant
numbers
1
numbers
200x 1 and
1 of
1 ofplant
2
4xunits
units 200x
2 22, 1produced
produced
2
8x x1 4x 1 1 2at
at
4x 1 28x
plant
A
plant
.2 1 2x
When1 and
and2 4x Cuando
.
plant
2 x
When
22.4h2, 4
x 1 4 A
AObserve
where 0.544
temperatura 0.885t
0.885t A that
is thedel theapparent
22.4h
22.4h aire second y h1.20thes
1.20th mixed
temperaturela partials
0.544
humedad0.544 in degreesare
relativa equal.
Celsius,
dada en is the
t forma
4x12 8x respectively,
2
= 4and xthen x2and the
41product total
x12, find revenue
12,2
(a)findwhere
the 1for A
(a) the
marginal
the 1 product
isthe the2 apparent
marginal revenue 2is given
revenue for temperature
plantby la 1,1plan- Rin1, degrees
x1,R, Rx1,Celsius, airt istemperature,
air air
the temperature,
temperature, and hand isand htheishrelative
the
is the relative humidity
relative humidity in decimal
humidity in decimal
in decimal
pectively, 1x2 the4x
then total When
2 . revenue xrespectively,for
respectively, y xthe
x21200x 2= 12,
and
then
then 2 encontrar
xthethe 2istotal
12,
given
total a)
find
revenueby
revenue el(a) ingreso formarginal
for the
the marginal
product
product revenue isfor
para given plant
for plant
by x1, 1humidity wherex1A, decimal. air
is the temperature, (Fuente:
apparent and
The
temperature hUMAP is the inThe relativeCelsius,
Journal)
degrees humidity 2 t is the
in decimal
isAis given by
1and 12, find 2 (a) the marginal revenue
2 for hplant 1, R
he200x
marginal revenue R
for 200x
2plantta 1,1 and R (b)
and
x ,22they
and (b)b) 4x
marginal
the
el
(b) 8x
marginal
1 ingreso
the air 122xmarginal
revenue
marginal 4xrevenue
2temperature,
revenue 2 . para
for When
plant
for and
la
for
2 where
2,
plantplanta R
plant x2,1 x2,
2,the
is
R .4the R xrelative
apparent
. x . temperature 71.in
where form.
decimal
z in A form.
3xy
degrees
is the (Source:
2form. (Source:
Celsius,
apparent The
(Source: t UMAP
isThe
temperature the UMAP Journal)
UMAP
72.
in Journal)
z
degrees Journal)
x Celsius,3y 2
t is the In Exercis
200x2 4x1 RR 8x1x2200x 4x1112 .marginal
200x When 4xx11 48x 11x 4x 222..R When xR2. x2 Journal) xx1 2 424 air temperature, where
form. A is the apparent
(Source:
and h yisThe theUMAP temperature
relative Journal) in degrees
humidity in Celsius, t is the
decimal
1
and xx2 . and 12,200x (b)
findthe (a) the 200x 22 revenue
marginal 4x 1revenue
form. 8x(Source:
for xplant
22
for plant 4x
2,The
air1,UMAPWhen
temperature, 1, 1 and h is the a)
air Hallar
relative
temperature,
(a) 2­Ay­t
humidity
Find
(a) Find A and t­Ay­h
in
and
A h decimal
t2is A
and sitthe t h5 A 308
relative
when h ythhzwhen
when 530
humidity
t 0.80.
4tand30 in
h 2 decimal
and 20.80.
h 40.80. function f
devenue
x2 12, forfind
plant (a)2,theRmarginal and
2118.
and revenue
x Marginal
118.22 118.
xmarginal 12, for
Marginal
12,Costs find
Marginal
find plant
Costs (a)
(a)A 1,
the
Costs
the A R
marginal
Costs x
company
marginal A1 A, revenue
company company
revenue manufactures for plant
manufactures
for manufactures
plant 1,
1,two R
R two x
types ,
x11two oftypes
, types form. 73.
air
of of (Source: z
temperature,
(a) Find The x (a)
A UMAP 2xy Find
and
t and Journal) 3yh A is theand
A h when t 30 and h 0.80.
A 74.
relative humidity x 3x30
in y and
decimal hy 0.80.
and118.(b)Costo
118. the
Marginal marginal revenue Una forcompany
empresa
(a) plant Find 2,
fabrica A R txdos
manufactures 2. form.
and tiposA two
de
h types
(Source:
estufas
when t deof
The 30 UMAP
and h Journal)
form.
b)0.80. ¿Qué (Source:
influye The más UMAP sobre Journal)
A, la temperatura del aire o la reasoning.
dcompany
(b) the marginal revenue
manufactures for
and
two plant
(b) 2,
the
wood-burning
types R
marginal
wood-burning
of x . revenue
stoves: stoves: a for plant
freestanding
a freestanding 2, Rmodel x .
model and a and fireplace-
a fireplace- form. (b) (Source:
Which
(b) 2 Which The
has 2 aUMAP
has greater a Journal)
greater effect effecton A, on air A, temperature
air temperature or or
118. Marginal
and (b) the marginal
wood-burning
combustiónCosts A
de
wood-burning 2
stoves:
company
madera:
revenue stoves:
a manufactures
el
for plant
freestanding
modelo
a freestanding
autoestable
2,model
two
R and x22. model
types
y el a offireplace-
modelo
and a fireplace-
para (a) Find75. zWhich
(b)Ahumedad? t andx(b) Which
AExplicar.
has yah when has a30greater
greatert effect and on hzA, air
76. effect 0.80. on A,
ln xtemperature y air temperature or
or
insertinsert model. model. The cost
The
(b)The function
cost
Which function for producing
has afor (a) Find
producing
greater A
freestanding
xeffect and
xt freestanding
on A,A airh when (a)
temperature t Find 30humidity?
A andhumidity?
tt hand 0.80.
AA Explain.
Explain. hh when tt 30 and hh y 0.80.
a freestanding
arginal Costs A modelcompany and Marginal
118.
118.
wood-burning
a manufactures
fireplace-
Marginal
insert model.
inserción stoves:
en
Costs
Costsinsert
una The two model.
AAcost
a ychimenea.
freestanding
types
company
company
function La
of cost
model
function
manufactures
manufactures
funciónfor producingand deiscosto
for
a fireplace-
two
two producing
xpara types
types
freestanding
producir
ofx freestanding
of (b) Which
(a)
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85.
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marginal
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marginal
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marginal ofx
utility and
product
utility of y. Suppose
product
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product x. the
x. proc
test)and was
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divided
developed.
the
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this Test (more
(more commonly commonly age Cknown known
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function theisconsumption
Determine 2U x the
la 5x utilidad
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ymarginal xymarginal products
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22 utility
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ual’s
t) was chronological
developed. Inage thisC test, the
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individual’s
was isMmultiplied
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es bytest,
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dividida
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100.
by
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Determine
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individual’s
mental
is cronológica
the
result
the utility
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marginal age
mental function
individual’s
the is
individual IQ. MIQ.
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age isof
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is UIQ.
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utility 3y
function .
Determine
(b) (b) is
is
Determine UUthe marginal
Determine 5x
the5xthe marginal xy
xy
utility
marginal 3y
3yof
utility
22
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utility of product y. y. y.
of product 112. Ske
dividedIQ. test)
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is multiplied developed. by 100. InThe thisresult test, an isage individual’s
theCindividual’s the mental IQ.age M is b)
(b)Determinar la3 utilidad utilitymarginal del producto y. y.
elthe individual’s chronological Eland quotient (a) Determine the
y marginal ofyutility
fDetermine
x,product 3x the marginal
12xy 3product of x. product
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by the is individual’s
the individual’s ydivided
chronological
divided cociente by agethe es multiplicado
and
Cindividual’sMtheM quotient
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age C
(a) and es
Determinethe elutility
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utility
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Determine x. marginal
the utility of product x. x an
is multiplied byM, by100. the individual’s
The (b) Determine
chronological the
age marginal
C and the quotient of product y. (a) Determine
(c) When
(c) When
(c) the
x When marginal
2x and x 2 y andutility
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should
y 3,product
should
3, ashould x.
person a person
a consume
person consume one
consume one one
multiplied by 100. The resultis vidual.
is the IQ
multiplied IQCby
individual’s M,
IQ MM, Cresult
100. IQ.CThe 100 is the
result 100 individual’s
100
is the individual’s
IQ.
IQ. (b) c)
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(c)
87. Sif Whenx, xthe
y 5 marginal
2 eyx 2y2 5
x xy
and 3, y 2y¿se of
utility debe
3, consumir
product
should y.
a person una unidad consume másone de
IQ M, C
is multiplied byC100. The(c) C 100 C C
result is the x individual’s (b) yDetermine IQ.3, should the marginal
a person utility (b) of product
Determine more y.
the marginal utility x orof product y. f
M When 2 and
(c)
consume
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x
Determine
more
one more
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and xunit the
oof
y
moreuna of
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marginal
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3,
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ora one of
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producto
more
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consume unit y.unit
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product y?
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M IQ M, C Find Find the100 M partial
Find
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partial partial derivatives
more ofunit
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When xto
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your
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reasoning.
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3, aa person consume one 113. Ske
M, C 100 IQ Find M, C
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reasoning. should person consume y? one
atives of IQ C with respect to IQ M and M, respectCwith respect C
to
respect
C C.to 100 Evaluate
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to Evaluate the partial
Explain
Evaluate theyour thepartialderivatives
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more at the
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at the
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x
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or one
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Use of of
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CAS CAS
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ate the partial Find the
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Utilizar
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ax computer one pormore computadora
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Interpret the the marginal utilities
marginal utilities oflasproducts
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