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Republic of the Philippines

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Region IV-A , CALABARZON
Division of Laguna
Santa Cruz District
BUBUKAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

ACTION RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Action Research of Sally A. Alcantara,


Master Teacher I

Edylin A. Delos Reyes.


Teacher II

Gina F. Doncansel ,
Teacher I

Eloisa . R. Napiza
Teacher II

For School Year 2016-2017

Title: INTERVENTION SCHEME ON READING AND VOCABULARY


WORDS AND THE PERFORMANCE OF GRADE FIVE
PUPILS AT BUBUKAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
SCHOOL YEAR 2016-2017

Recommending Approval;

NAZARETH V. ADVENTO, Ed, D.


Principal I

EVELYN S. JOCSON, Ed, D


District Supervisor

Approved::

REDELLA P. VISTA
Research and Development Team Leader
INTRODUCTION

Reading is an activity with a purpose. A person may read in order

to gain information or verify existing knowledge, or in order to critique a writer's

ideas or writing style., or to enhance knowledge. The main purpose for

reading is to comprehend the ideas in the material. Without comprehension,

reading would be empty and meaningless, On the part of the researchers’

everyday interaction , especially in the teaching process ,they witnessed cases

where pupils are capable of reading the words, but face much difficulty in

expressing their comprehension of the main ideas. The researchers also

encounter that the pupils had a solid grasp of phonemic awareness and social

discourse. Department of Education officials and educators are join forces to

remedy the situation that’s why they launched ECARP, No Read , No Move Policy

and PHIL-IRI and other reading program

But it is saddening to note that the results of the pre- test in PHIL IRI in

silent – English dated 2016 that out of 415 male.,20 or 4.82% are independently

comprehend and 28 or 7.27 % are female out of 385 .,The other percentage were

distributed in other level such as frustration and instructional. In the latest survey

conducted by the researchers to the pupils who disclosed that the pupils didn’t

listen to their teacher just because they are engage in destructive activities, . One

of the pupils mentioned that they did not understand because of the unfamiliar

words in the story , The researchers had a casual interview with the teachers and

they disclosed that pupils interest affect their poor reading .

It is indicating the deterioration of the quality of education in our country . It is

also indicators that there are factors that contribute the pupils to diverse their
interest., Absenteeism ,lack of financial support ,pupils’ interest or reading habits

may cause their poor reading comprehension.

The researchers come up some ways to help the pupils to take an action on

which the school institution and community can be a catalyst of change to

produce a 21st century learners in the aspect of language literacy. The

researchers think an intervention program on which pupils are grouped according

to their proficiency which can enhance their language . Different strategies which

pedagogy approach can be applied depend on the pupils’ need. Possible solutions

such as phonological awareness should be stress especially on the low

performers, phrases structure can be applied both low and average pupils,

vocabulary should be enhanced for them and paragraph understanding for the

high performer to develop their comprehension skills.

The researchers used PHIL IRI, survey, casual interview as basis of their

action research.

Table 1. Philippine Informal Reading Inventory Silent –English

The graph shows that out of 415 male enrollees from grade II-VI, 20

or 4.82% comprehend independently and out of 385 female enrollees , 28 or

7.27%, then other percentage were distributed to other level such as frustration

298 or 71. 57% , instructional 98 or 23.61% for the male category. On the other

hand for the female group 259 or 67.27% belongs to frustration , 98 or 25.45% for

instructional.

Based from that result , the researchers arise an action to minimize or

lessen the issue so that pupils can develop their language skills in their everyday

interaction .
Table 1. Philippine Informal Reading Inventory Silent –English

300
290
280
270
260
250
240
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160 GR.II
150
GR.III
140
130 GR.IV
120 GR.V
110
GR.VI
100
90 TOTAL
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
M F M F M F M F M F M F
PRE POST PRE POST PRE POST
FRUSTRATION INSTRUCTIONAL INDEPENDENT
COMPREHENSION LEVEL
PROBLEM

The researchers come up questions sought to answer the following

questions , specifically

1 What is the current status of reading and vocabulary words of grade five pupils.?

2 What is the mean level of their performance in terms of :

2;1 phonological awareness,

2,2 vocabulary enhancement ,

2.3 phrase structure and

2.4 paragraph understanding.?

3. Is there a significant relationship between intervention program on reading and

vocabulary enhancement to the performance of grade five pupils at Bubukal

Elementary School?
II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

According to Combs(2012) cited that oral language is essential for success

in conventional reading , Bill Jonkies (2011) mentioned that oral reading by a

student with guidance and feedback from teachers allow them to apply and build

them phonics skill to sound out words and help them to create the alphabetic word

Further Parklein (2011) discussed that there is a connections between

reading fluency and comprehension is strong important because it facilitates the

efficient use of language .

Moreover Spillet (2011) gives emphasis that the children become fluent
readers . they begin to think less about the words and meaning of the sentences
they’re reading. According to Rasinski (2011) that there are three elements such
as reading fluency which are accuracy in word decoding , automatically in reading
words an appropriate use of prosody or meaningful expression while reading. He
discussed that the three elements are gateway to comprehension, Readers must
be able to decode word correctly and efficiently put together into meaningful
phrases with the appropriate expression to make sentence .

According to Gunning (1996) that educators should understand the theories


behind reading comprehension, as well as a working knowledge of some important
strategies that can be used in the classroom to increase reading comprehension.
He also stated to focus on three important theories on reading comprehension: the
Schema Theory; Mental Models, and the Propositional Theory, and four categories
of strategies to improve reading comprehension based on these theories:
Preparational, Organizational, Elaboration, and Monitoring.

.But according to Kitao (1990) said that the schema theory involves an interaction
between the reader’s own knowledge and the text, which results in comprehension.
This schema, as Gunning defined, can be very broad, such a schema for natural
disasters, or more narrow, such as a schema for a hurricane. Each schema is
"filed" in an individual compartment and stored there. In attempting to comprehend
reading materials, students can relate this new information to the existing
information they have compartmentalized in their minds, adding it to these "files"
for future use. Based on the Schema Theory, depending on how extensive their
"files" become, their degree of reading comprehension may vary.

Another major theory cited by Gunning (1996) is the Mental Model. This model can
be thought of as a mind movie created in one's head, based on the reading
content. Gunning gives a detailed description of this process, stating that a mental
model is constructed most often when a student is reading fiction. The reader
focuses in on the main character and creates a mental model of the circumstances
in which the character finds him or herself. The mental model is re-constructed or
updated to reflect the new circumstances as the situation changes, but the items
important to the main character are kept in the foreground

But it was not supported by Perkins (1991) because he believed that


sometimes misconceptions about important concepts reflect misleading mental
models of the topic itself or the subject matter within which it sits. There are,
however, interventions the teacher can do to help the reader to stay on track and
create a more accurate picture. One suggestion is for the teachers to ask the
students to disclose their mental models of the topics in question, through analogy,
discussion, picturing, and other ways. This information gives the teacher insight on
the student's knowledge gaps and misconceptions, therefore allowing them to help
students reconstruct a more accurate picture.

However Katims (1997) stated that learning strategies are techniques, or


routines that enable students to learn to solve problems and complete tasks
independently. A strategy is an individual’s approach to a task. Gunning (1996)
identifies four main types of comprehension strategies, which include
Preparational, Organizational, Elaboration and Monitoring

The authors citations help the researchers on applying some strategies on


reading comprehension;
III. METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH DESIGN

PLAN OF ACTION

Objectives.

The learners should be able to enhance their language skills so that they

comprehend independently

1. Planning

1.1. Identify the least learned competencies of Grade V pupils in reading

proficiency in English

1.2. Identify the intervention program to be used to increase reading proficiency in

English

Target Clientele

This study is limited only to grade five pupils in terms of the

phonological awareness , phrase structure, vocabulary enhancement and

paragraph understanding It hopes to determine the relationship of intervention

specifically in the areas of phonology, vocabulary words , phrase structure and

paragraph understanding

The respondents of the study are consist one hundred forty five(145)

grade five pupils from four sections , It was grouped according to their capacity

There are four groups namely; Phono, consist of 36 pupils slow performers ,

Phrase structure consist of 36 pupils, vocabs group consist 38 pupils and 37

pupils for paragraph understanding group.


Target Date Persons Involved Activities Expected Results

I.PLANNING
School Head.
July – The grade five teachers Granted permission to
August 2016 Gr. V pupils, conduct a meeting on how to conduct the research
Teachers improve reading proficiency in
English.

The 1st group consist of 37


The pupils are group slow performers , 2nd
according to their proficiency has
July – 38 average
Grade V pupils , level based from the Phil -IRI
August 2016 performers,36 vocabs and
result, survey ,best practices(
38 high performers.
spelling, word for the day)
Total 145

August- . The pupils answer the


September The pupils answer the pre test activity sheet given by the
as their diagnostic test
2016 teacher- in -charge

LANGUAGE
August- ENHANCEMENT PROJECT
October Group as to 1.PHONO for low
learners, 2 PHRASES-for slow
2016 and average 3 VOCABS 4
PARAGRAPH
100% of the pupils
1.1 PHONOLOGICAL pronounced the words
Grade V pupils , AWARENESS correctly

Parents . teachers Reading Phonology for low


performer
100% of the pupils read
1.2 PHRASE STRUCTURE and construct phrases
Reading Phrases Every
Friday for Average performer

1.3 VOCABULARY 100% of the pupils


ENHANCEMENT enhance their vocabulary
Vocabulary Enrichment to be skills
given to those pupils with low
and average perform

1.4 PARAGRAPH 100% of the pupils


UNDERSTANDING construct a paragraph
A high performers group
Target Date Persons Involved Activities Expected Results

(Reading a paragraph a week

III.Monitoring

3.1 Teachers shall prepare a Graphs shows the results


progress report on the reading
program implemented Of the implemented
program
II Actual Implementation
August-
2.1 peer teaching
October Teachers group the pupils
Grade V teachers will handle
different type of groups into slow ,average , and
2016 high performer
2.2 BBS (Big brother/sister)
The best reader shall assist The slow reader can now
the slow reader in reading pronounced the words
paragraph, phrases and words correctly and construct
with problematic sounds phrases, paragraph legibly
and comprehensively
2.3 PTP
(Parents Thru follow up )
August- )Parents will have checklist of
October words, phrases, vocabs and Parents had closed
paragraph learned by their supervision with their child
2016 offspring once a week.

3.2.Enrichment activity shall Pupils applied information


be provided with the use of technology in searching
activity sheet and applied unfamiliar words, phrases
multi- media / learning episode and paragraph
to further learning reading
words, phrases vocabs and
paragraph

3.3 Post test will be given to


targeted clientele to determine
the success of the programs
and projects implemented

3.4 Incentives will be given to


pupils who reach the mastery
learning.
Additional activity will be
provided to pupils whom are
in need of assistance

3.5 Home-based Provide


Target Date Persons Involved Activities Expected Results

pupils daily home reading


assignment to further
enhancement of reading skills Activity sheet
with vocabs enhancement

3.6 Culminating activity for all


Groups..

A program conducted to
show what they have
learned

Research Design

The study will investigate the relationships between intervention scheme

and the performance of grade five pupils

The descriptive method of research should be used in this study. Based on

the discussion posted in the website of Association for Educational

Communications and Technology (aect.org), descriptive research was said to be

either quantitative or qualitative in nature. It can involve collections of quantitative

information that can be tabulated along a continuum in numerical form, such as

scores on a test or the number of times a person chooses to use a certain feature

of a multimedia program, or it can describe categories of information such as

gender or patterns of interaction when using technology in a group situation. It also

involves gathering data that describe events and then organizes, tabulates,

depicts, and describes the data collection. It often uses visual aids such as graphs

and charts to aid the reader in understanding the data distribution. Because the

human mind cannot extract the full import of a large mass of raw data, descriptive

statistics are very important in reducing the data to manageable form. When in-
depth, narrative descriptions of small numbers of cases are involved, the research

uses description as a tool to organize data into patterns that emerge during

analysis. Those patterns aid the mind in comprehending a qualitative study and its

implications.

Sampling Technique

Purposive sampling is a technique that signifies the sample as a series of

strategic choices about with whom, where and how to do the research. This

implicates that the sample has to be tied up with the objectives. Purposive

sampling is virtually synonymous with qualitative research. It is the one in which

the person make the sample representative, depending on his opinion or purpose,

thus being the representation subjective. In this case, a purposive way of choosing

the sample was employed.


CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The major concept of this study Is to determine the relationship of the

intervention scheme on reading and vocabulary words Figure 1 is a

paradigm showing the interplay of the independent and dependent variables. The

data in the triangle are the independent variables which are the current status of

the reading and vocabulary words, peers ,parents and teachers are in the side of

the triangle showing that they are forces or aid to implement strategies m

intervention which are phonological awareness, phrase and paragraph

understanding . The last figure which is the independent variables showing the

pupil’s performance and communication literacy

Paragraph
Peers understanding
Teachers

Vocabulary Enhancement
PEERS

INTERVENTION
SCHEME Phrase Structure

Parents Phonological Awareness

Figure 1 Research Paradigm


Statistical Treatment

The data to be gathered from the questionnaire will be classified, tabulated,

tallied, statistically treated, analyzed and interpreted.

To determine the answers to the problems, the following statistical tools will

be used. are the following

1. The pre test will be presented using percentage. Mean , and standard

deviation To determine the percentage, the formula below was used:

P= n x 100
N

where:

P= percent
n= number of responses, and
N= total number of respondents

2. Weighted mean and standard deviation will be employed to obtain the

mean level of current status of intervention scheme on reading on reading

and vocabulary enhancement ,and the performance of the pupils . To

determine the mean and standard deviation, the following formula should

be used:

WX= fx / N

where:

WX= weighted mean,

f= frequency of response

x= weight of each scale, and

N= total number of cases


Standard Deviation:

√Ʃ𝒇𝒅𝟐
SD =
𝒏

where:

SD = standard deviation
f = frequency of response
d = deviation
n = number of cases

3. And to measure the relationship intervention scheme and pupils’

performance, Pearson Product Moment Correlation should be employed.

The data to be computed using the formula below:

𝐍Ʃ𝐱𝐲 − (Ʃ𝐱Ʃ𝐲)
𝐫𝐱𝐲 =
√[𝑵Ʃ𝒙𝟐 − (Ʃ𝒙)𝟐][𝑵Ʃ𝒚𝟐 − (Ʃ𝒚)𝟐]

where:

rxy = correlation between x and y


Ʃx = sum of test x
Ʃy = sum of test y
Ʃxy = sum of product of x and y
N = number of cases
Ʃx2 = sum of squared of x scores
Ʃy2 = sum of squared of y scores