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Diagnostics  of  valves  on  gas  pipelines  


 
Malakhatka  Elena  
 
 
 

 
                                                                                                                         
 
 
 Master  of  Science  Thesis  
KTH  School  of  Industrial  Engineering  and  Management  
Energy  Technology  EGI-­‐2010-­‐2012  
Division  of  EKV  
SE-­‐100  44    STOCKHOLM  
 
 
 
    Master  of  Science  Thesis  EGI  2012:  EKV  
 
Diagnostic  of  valving  on  gas  pipelines  
 

 
     
    Malakhatka  Elena  
Approved   Examiner   Supervisor  
  Vladimir  Kutcherov     Alexey  Lopatin    
  Commissioner   Contact  person  
   
 
 

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ABSTRACT  
The  work  of  the  gas  transmission  pipeline  system  is  regulated  by  the  thousands  of  valveses  
and  other  elements  of  the  shut-­‐off  valves,  located  in  different  places.  Information  about  the  
current  status  of  each  valve,  and  confidence  in  its  technical  serviceability  is  an  important  
element  in  the  control  of  pipeline  system.  There  are  a  number  of  problems  that  adversely  
affect  the    valving  operation.  Principal  among  them  -­‐  is  the  lack  of  siystematical  approach  in  
valving  diagnostics.  
To  solve  this  problem,  developed  a  new  approach  to  the  valving  diagnostics  –  multi-­‐level  
diagnostics.  Depending  on  the  level  of  diagnosis,  we  get  a  different  amount  of  information  
about  the  object.
 
The  focus  is  on  the  3rd  level  of  diagnosis,  which  allows  to  determine  the  leackages  of  valves,  
and  identify  type  of  defects  quantitatively.  This  level  of  diagnosis  is  regarded  as  an  example  of  
Method  «Micropuls».  
The  method  «Micropuls»  based  on  the  theory  of  mechanical  vibrations  and  forced  with  high  
accuracy  to  set  the  time,  frequency  and  spectral  characteristics  of  noise  in  the  details  of  the  
valve,  and  their  spatial  location  and  intensity  of  that  in  the  presence  of  a  system  of  analysis  
allows  to  determine  the  state  of  the  object,  its  faults  and  defects.  
Micropulse  technology  is  based  on  the  impact  on  the  measured  object  micropower  impulses,  
records  the  response  and  subsequent  filtering,  decoding  and  analyzing  the  data.                                        
Specially  designed  calibrated  pulses  can  effectively  influence  the  measured  objects  (valve)  
over  a  wide  range  of  structural  dimensions  and  mounting  schemes,  regardless  of  physical  
location  of  the  valve.  
 
In  an  experimental  part  was  to  review  the  10  valves  working  on  the  pipeline  "Urengoy-­‐
Uzhgorod".  After  the  diagnostics  was  made  an  analysis  of  defects  and  faults  of  each  valve.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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NOMENCLATURE  

Main  terms  

Valving   include   pipeline   elements   installed   on   pipelines,   units   of   equipment,   vessels   and   used   to  
shut  off  and  manage  fluid  flow  by  altering  pipeline  passageway  section;  

Ball  valve  is  a  type  of  valving  which  uses  a  round  shaped  valve  member  rotating  on  its  axis;  

Valve   type   is   a   unit   of   classification   which   is   characterized   by   interaction   of   a   moving   element   of   a  


valve   member   (closing   element)   with   fluid   flow   and   which   defines   main   design   qualities   of   pipeline  
valving.  

Valve   kind   is   a   unit   of   classification   that   characterizes   the   purpose   of   pipeline   valving.   For   example,  
shut-­‐off,  control,  check  valves,  etc;  

Valve  version  is  design  of  a  pipeline  valving  type,  determined,  except  for  a  nominal  passageway  and  
nominal  pressure,  by  variable  data:  material  main  details  are  made  of,  connection  to  pipeline,  control  
specifics   and   so   on.   All   this   information   is   contained   in   a   group   or   basic   design   document.   Version  
corresponds  to  a  specific  OKP  code  (Russian  Classification  of  Production);  

Technical  diagnostics  is  a  determination  of  technical  condition  of  valving;  

Technical  condition  control  is  a  performance  test  to  check  if  valving  parameters  values  correspond  to  
design   datasheet   requirements   and   a   determination   of   valving   technical   condition   at   a   specific  
moment  of  time  (good,  working,  non-­‐working  condition  and  so  on);  

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Working  condition  is  a  condition  of  a  valve  when  all  the  parameter  values  characteristic  of  ability  of  a  
valve  to  fulfill  set  functions  correspond  to  normative  (or)  design  framework;  

Non-­‐working  condition   is  a  condition  of  a  valve  when  one  or  more  parameter  values  characteristic  of  
ability  of  a  valve  to  fulfill  set  functions  do  not  correspond  to  normative  (or)  design  framework;  

Limit  condition   is  a  condition  of  a  valve  when  its  further  operation  is  unacceptable  or  unreasonable  OR  
restoration  of  working  condition  is  unacceptable  or  unreasonable;  

Limit   condition   criterion   is   an   indication   or   a   set   of   indications   of   limit   condition   of   a   valve,  


stipulated  by  normative  and  (or)  design  framework;  

Life   is  a  total  time  of  a  valve’s  operation  from  start-­‐up  or  from  the  resumed  use  after  workover  till  it  
reaches  limit  condition;

Residual   life   is   a   total   time   of   a   valve’s   operation   that   remains   from   the   check   of   its   technical  
condition  till  it  reaches  limit  condition;  

Design   life   (of   an   element)   is   a   time   period   of   a   valve’s   (an   element’s)   operation,   during   which   its  
manufacturer   guarantees   its   reliability   if   operation   mode   requirements   stipulated   in   a   manufacturer’s  
manual  are  complied  with;  

Design  service  life   is  equipment  service  life  in  calendar  years,  at  the  expiration  of  which  it  is  necessary  to  
carry   out   an   expert   examination   of   condition   of   main   valving   details   working   under   pressure   to  
determine   if   further   operation   of   valving   is   acceptable,   under   which   parameters   and   conditions   or   if  
removal  is  required;  service  life  must  be  counted  from  the  day  of  equipment’s  start-­‐up;  

Nominal  pressure  PN  is  the  highest  working  pressure  in  kgf/cm2   (MPa)  at  a  design  temperature  of  fluid  
flow   which   ensures   design   life   of   a   valve’s   body   details   having   specific   dimensions   derived   from   strength  
calculation  for  materials  selected  and  their  strength  characteristics   a t   d esign   t emperature;  

Nominal  diameter  DN  is  a  parameter  used  for  pipeline  systems  as  a  characteristic  of  valving  connected  
parts.  Nominal  diameter  (bore)  is  approximately  similar  to  an  internal  diameter  of  a  connected  pipeline  
expressed  in  mm;  

Valve   tightness   is   a   capacity   of   a   valve   or   its   separate   elements   to   block   gas   exchange   between  
separated  environments;  

Valve  member  is  a  moving  element  of  a  device  and  consists  of  a  detail  or  a  group  of  details  united  by  a  
single  design  intended  for  blocking  a  valve  seat  bore  and  moving  or  turning  relatively  to  a  seat.  A  valve  
member  has  a  ring  gasket  applied  onto  a  seat  that  seals  a  device.  

Standard  terminology  and  abbreviations:  

TC  –  technical  conditions;  

RF  –  regulatory  framework;    

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DN  –  nominal  diameter,  mm;  

PN  –  nominal  pressure,  MPa;  

OM  –  operation  manual;    

GCU  –  gas  compressor  unit;  

LP  of  TGP  –  linear  part  of  trunk  gas  pipeline;  

CS  –  compressor  station;  

BCS  –  booster  compressor  station;    

UGSS  –  underground  gas  storage  station;  

GMU  –  gas  measuring  unit;  

GDS  –  gas  distribution  station;    

TFA  –  technical  framework  analysis;    

VMT  –  visual  and  measuring  testing;  

ACS  and  TM  –  Automatic  Control  Systems  and  Telemechanics;  

NSV  –  northen  safe  valve;  

SSV  –  southen  safe  valve;  

SV  –  shut-­‐off  valve.  

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INTRODUCTION  

Gas   sector   constitutes   a   key   part   of   fuel   and   power   industry,   and   Russia   is   ranked   first   on   the   global  
market  by  gas  production  and  transportation.  Consequently,  the  most  important  and  pressing  challenges  
faced   by   Russia’s   gas   industry   include   controlling   technical   condition   of   process   equipment   of   gas  
transportation   system,   developing   and   improving   measures   aimed   at   increasing   efficiency   of   natural   gas  
transportation  process  and  reducing  associated  gas  losses  at  gas  pumping  facilities.  

Analysis   of   natural   gas   pipeline   transportation   has   shown   that   there   is   a   whole   range   of   objective  
reasons  (such  as  wear  and  obsolescence  of  equipment)  why  technical  and  economical  parameters  of  gas  
transportation  show  an  increase  in  nominal  energy  consumption.  

Modern  pipelines  are  intricate  complex  of  engineering  facilities,  and  their  essential  part  is  valving  which  
includes  devices  that  regulates  and  redistributes  gas  flows  and  shuts  off  pipeline  sections  during  repair  
works  or  in  case  of  failures.  Thus,  a  major  function  of  shut-­‐off  valving  is  to  ensure  efficient  and  reliable,  
tightly  sealed  blocking  of  gas  flow  independent  of  gas  pressure,  thermal  or  dynamic  condition.  Cost  of  
valving,   as   a   rule,   amounts   to   10-­‐12%   of   capital   investment   and   maintenance   expenses.   Applied   in  
different   systems,   valving   is   subject   to   a   range   of   different   impacts:   high   and   low   temperatures,  
significant   pressures,   vibration,   and   aggressive   liquid   impact.   All   these   account   for   an   extreme   variety   of  
requirements  for  valving  to  meet.  The  main  ones  such  as  strength,  increased  service  life,  reliability  and  
durability,   low   cost   and   produceability,   explosion   safety,   corrosion   resistance   contradict   one   another  
and   cannot   be   provided   at   the   same   time.   At   present,   the   industry   has   developed   a   wide   variety   of  
different  designs,  every  one  being  a  sort  of  compromise  between  these  contradicting  requirements.    

Figure  1.1  Valving  manufacturers  of  OAO  Gazprom  

Gazprom   operates   over   500  000   valving   units   at   production,   transportation,   underground   storage   and  
processing  facilities.  Over  195  000  valves  with  a  range  of  diameters  from  50  to  1400  mm  are  installed  on  
the  linear  part  of  trunk  gas  pipelines.  

About  69%  of  valves  mentioned  above  are  produced  domestically  and  31%  are  of  foreign  production.  

The   main   domestic   supplier   of   valving   for   Gazprom   is   OAO   Tyazhpromarmatura   (town   of   Aleksin),   the  
main  foreign  one  is  Grove  (Italy).    

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CHAPTER  ONE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

1.1. Ball  valve  design  and  principle  of  operation  

 There   are   many   different   manufacturers   to   produce   ball   valves   for   TGP,   both   Russian   and   foreign.  
Although  their  variety  is  wide,  all  ball  valves  have  the  same  principle  of  operation  and  consist  of  similar  
main   design   elements.   An   example   of   a   ball   valve   design   can   be   provided   by   a   ball   valve   produced   by  
OAO   Tyazhpromarmatura   (town   of   Aleksin,   Russia).   Valves   of   this   manufacturer   are   widely   used   at  
Gazprom’s  facilities  and  are  a  good  example  of  valving  which  is  the  focus  of  this  report.  

A  valve  consists  of  a  cock  body  1,  actuator  3  (manual,  pneumatic,  hydraulic,  pneumohydraulic  or  electric  
actuators),  stem  2  and  extension  4  (for  underground  version),  connection  piping.  

Figure  1.2.  Ball  valve  produced  by  OAO  Tyazhpromarmatura  (town  of  Aleksin,  Russia).  

A  valve  station  consists  of  a  body,  a  ball  plug,  gasket  of  a  valve  member,  a  stem,  gasket  of  a  stem.  

A  valve  body  can  be  dismountable  and  non-­‐dismountable  (welded).  Bodies  of  dismountable  valves  have  
different   designs.   The   joint   can   be   located   on   one   side,   on   two   sides,   on   the   vertical   surface  
perpendicular  to  connected  pipelines,  on  the  inclined  surface,  at  an  angle  to  pipeline  axis.  There  are  also  
valves  with  a  one-­‐piece  body  but  with  a  removable  bonnet.  Packing  ensures  tight  seal  of  the  joint  in  such  
valves.  

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Connection  between  a  body  and  a  bonnet  can  be  both  flanged  and  non-­‐flanged.  

Non-­‐dismountable  valves  also  have  different  designs  of  a  body.  A  valve  body  can  consist  of  two  welded  
hemispheres,  connected  vertically  or  at  a  45-­‐degree  angle.  

Sealing   of   a   valve   member   ensures   a   tight   interruption   of   transported   fluid   flow.   Gasket   rings   in   ball  
valves  are  installed  in  a  ball  or  a  valve  body.  

The   most   spread   valves   are   those   with   gasket   rings   installed   in   a   body.   In   such   design   tight   seal   is  
provided  by  a  seat  pressed  against  a  ball  under  the  pressure  of  fluid,  or  a  combined  method  is  applied,  
i.e.  both  fluid  pressure  and  a  spring.  

Ball  plug  is  used  to  interrupt  the  flow  of  fluid.  

Ball   plug   can   be   a   one-­‐piece   detail,   with   grooves   on   its   walls   (to   reduce   weight   of   large   valves   and   to  
decrease  consumption  of  metal  required),  of  a  specific  shape.  

A  plug  is  installed  inside  a  valve  body  coaxially  to  a  trunk  passageway  of  a  body  between  support  plates,  
which  are  attached  by  centering  pins.  Friction  bearing  is  installed  in  support  plates.  

Actuator  is  a  mechanism  of  operation  that  makes  a  valve  member  rotate  90°.  

According  to  OTS-­‐ZRA-­‐98,  a  valve  can  be  actuated  manually,  electrically  and  pneumatically.  

Manual  actuator  

Manual  mechanical  actuator  with  a  worm  gear    

Turning  a  wheel  clockwise  opens  a  valve.  

A  two-­‐stage  worm  reduction  gear  to  a  stem  of  a  ball  valve  transmits  force  from  a  wheel.  

An   actuator   consists   of   a   primary   reduction   gear   5,   secondary   reduction   gear   13,   a   wheel,   body  1,  
bonnet   2,   attached   to   a   body   by   pins,   worm   sector   3   installed   in   a   body   bearing,   screw   9,   installed   in  
bearing   10,   a   bonnet   7,   adjustment   elements   6   with   stoppers,   joint   11   connecting   a   primary   and   a  
secondary  reduction  gears,  oilers  8,  key  12.  

Electric  actuator  

Electric  actuators  require  power  supply.  Depending  on  parameters  of  current,  electric  actuators  can  be  
equipped   with   A.C.   or   D.C.   motors.   Actuators   are   also   divided   into   categories   by   the   principle   of  
reduction  applied:  worm,  planetary,  cylinder,  shift  screw  actuators.  

When   a   valve   is   a   closed   and   sealing   gasket   on   a   valve   member   and   a   body   come   together,   abrupt  
braking   occurs.   At   the   same   time   output   torque   is   increased   by   kinetic   energy   of   an   actuator   rotor.   In  
order  to  ensure  appropriate  functioning  of  valving,  it  must  be  closed  with  such  torque,  which  is  sufficient  

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to  ensure  tight  seal  of  a  valve  member.  An  excessive  increase  of  torque  when  closing  a  valve  makes  it  
difficult  to  open  a  valve  later  and  may  cause  fracture  of  some  details.  

Pneumatic  actuator  

The  following  types  of  pneumatic  actuators  are  distinguished  based  on  design  of  a  rotating  mechanism:  

• with  an  oscillating  cylinder  (1  to  4  cylinders);  


• with  a  shift  mechanism;  
• with  a  rack  and  pinion  gear;  
• with  a  screw  converter.  

Shift  piston  actuators  are  the  most  widely  spread  and  used  in  valves  of  both  Russian  and  foreign  
manufacture  (for  example,  by  such  manufacturers  as  Borsig;  Grove  –  uses  actuators  manufactured  by  
Biffi;  Kobe  Steel;  Kobe  Kitamura;  Wagi).  

1.2.  Key  reasons  of  valving  malfunction  

Reasons  that  may  lead  to  malfunction  and  failure  of  valves  are  the  following:  in  20-­‐25%  of  cases  the  
reason  is  failure  of  valves;  in  75-­‐80%  of  cases  the  reason  is  failure  of  valve  actuators  (shift  mechanism,  
hydraulic  system,  manual  safety  hydraulic  pump,  control  unit,  automatic  safety  system  of  a  valve  shut-­‐
off).  Such  percentage  ratio  of  failures  is  typical  of  both  Russian  and  foreign  manufactured  valves.  

There  is  a  whole  range  of  reasons,  which  make  valving  fail.  Basically,  these  reasons  fall  into  three  
categories:  

◦ Production  reasons;  
◦ Design  reasons;  
◦ Operation  reasons.  

Production  reasons  of  valving  failures  and  flaws  are  caused  by  insufficient  quality  of  production  process  
at  plants  and  factories  that  run  production  of  separate  details  and  valving  assembly.  It  is  possible  to  
reduce  manufacturing  defects  by  implementing  technical  control  and  comprehensive  process  discipline  
on  every  stage  of  production.  

Design  reasons  of  valving  failures  and  flaws  have  to  do  with  design  of  a  valve.  An  appropriate  design  of  a  
valve  that  allows  easy  maintenance  and  intervention  has  a  direct  impact  on  promptness  and  efficiency  of  
repair  works.  

Operational  reasons  of  valving  failures  and  defects  regard  ability  of  a  valve  to  maintain  its  operational  
parameters  within  limits  specified  in  a  valve’s  technical  schedule.  Operational  parameters  include:  

◦ torque  of  a  wheel  or  force  applied  to  a  control  handle;  


◦ tight  seal  of  gaskets,  glands,  valve  members;  
◦ pass-­‐through  capacity  of  a  safety  valve;  
◦ other  characteristics;  

If  a  parameter  fails  to  meet  the  norm  set  for  it,  a  parametric  failure  occurs.  
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Key  reasons  of  valving  failures  and  malfunction  include:  

• interruption  of  seal  of  a  valve  member:  use  of  material  which  does  not  satisfy  operational  mode  
requirements  stipulated  for  a  given  valve  type/kind;  clamping  of  seal  by  a  valve  member  when  it  is  
closed  (fracture,  displacement,  etc);  solid  deposits  in  a  gap  between  a  valve  body  and  a  seat  resulting  in  
a  reduced  motion  range  or  inappropriate  positioning  of  a  seat;  mechanical  and  corrosive  damage  of  a  
valve  member  surface,  etc;  
• defects  of  non-­‐dismountable  joints:  a  weld  of  a  low  quality  (wormholes,  cracks  and  so  on),  
corrosive  wear  of  a  welded  joint,  disconnection  of  tubes  along  a  weld  or  fracture  of  tubes,  which  are  not  
protected  by  a  steel  sheet  caused  by  temperature-­‐conditioned  shifts  of  a  pipeline  with  valving;  
• defects  of  detachable  connections  between  a  gland  nut  and  a  sleeve  –  extension:  a  violation  of  
technology  and  quality  control  of  valving  assembly;  
• defects  of  seal  between  a  stem  and  a  piston:  use  of  damping  liquid  which  does  not  meet  
technical  requirements;  lack  of  quality  control  for  supplied  expendables;  
• defects  of  a  manual  hydraulic  pump:  requirements  stated  in  design  framework  of  a  hydraulic  
pump  are  too  low;  poor  quality  of  production  and  assembly  of  a  pump  details  and  parts;  lack  of  pump  
testing  with  follow-­‐up  of  results;  
• defects  of  a  control  unit  of  an  actuator:  requirements  stated  in  design  framework  are  too  low;  
poor  quality  of  production  and  control;  lack  of  competitors  at  the  market  of  control  unit  producers,  etc.  

CHAPTER  TWO    
2.1.  Valving  Diagnostics  

As  has  been  pointed  out  above,  valving  is  one  of  major  elements  of  pipelines,  and  a  safe  operation  of  gas  
transportation  systems  depends  significantly  on  reliable  performance  of  valves.  Consequently,  
awareness  of  objective  technical  condition  of  valving  is  important  to  minimize  risks  of  failure.  At  the  
same  time  regulatory  framework  on  design,  production,  operation  and  diagnostics  both  for  valving  of  
Russian  and  foreign  manufacture  do  not  contain  risk  criteria  (or  safety  criteria).  Methods  to  assess  risks,  
which  take  into  account  valving  specifics,  are  not  developed  as  well,  which  makes  efficient  assessment  of  
valving  safety  impossible.  Parameters  defining  failure  risks  (as  a  consequence  of  valving  deterioration)  
must  be  developed  based  on  data  obtained  by  testing  of  industrial  safety.    

Requirements  formulated  for  valving  are  extremely  different  and  sometimes  contradict  one  another.  For  
example,  it  is  not  always  possible  to  ensure  strength  and  extended  service  life,  safety  and  durability,  
explosion  safety  and  corrosion  resistance  at  the  same  time.  Thus,  a  number  of  difficulties  arise  for  the  
development  of  regulatory  framework  on  technical  diagnostics  of  such  process  equipment  as  valves.  

Some  time  ago,  valve  safety  requirements  used  to  be  handled  at  design  and  production  stages  because  –  
it  was  in  line  with  centralized  planned  economy  –  when  a  certain  specified  period  of  valve  operation  
expired,  it  was  substituted  with  a  more  reliable  and  safe  valve.  

Analysis  of  documents  concerning  calculations,  production  and  operation  has  shown  that  industrial  
safety  requirements  place  pipeline  valving  in  the  same  category  as  vessels  and  pipelines  of  high  
pressure.  This  is  accounted  for  by  the  observation  that  valving  condition  was  often  the  reason  of  failures  
and  emergencies.  It  is  important  to  mention  that  the  regulatory  framework  which  is  currently  in  use  

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does  not  reflect  the  fundamental  purposes  of  valving  diagnostics:  safety  (risk)  parameters,  –  and  their  
link  to  diagnostical  data  parameters  is  not  defined  (including  results  of  non-­‐destructive  testing).  

2.2.  Multi-­‐level  Diagnostics  

For  the  most  comprehensive  and  systematic  analysis,  in  our  work  we  used  the  method  of  multi-­‐
level  diagnostics.  Were  identified  three  main  levels,  each  of  them  we  get  different  information  
and  as  deeper  we  investigate  our  valve  as  more  information  we  get.  
 

•Identify  general  technical  


condition  
 
 
 
 
•Identify  design  parameters  of  
valving  and  to  detect  the  
presence  of  leaks  and  
overflows    
 
 
 
•Assess  technical  condition  
of  valving,  all  kinds  of  valving  
flaws  with  the  most  possible  
probability  and  their  reasons  
 

 
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2.3.  Valving  Diagnostics  of  Level  1  

The  purpose  of  diagnostic  examination  of  the  1st  level  is  to  identify  technical  condition  (according  to  
GOST  20911)  of  each  valve  and  to  draw  a  statement  of  technical  condition  giving  a  characteristic  of  a  
valve  as  an  object  of  diagnostics.  At  this  stage  of  diagnostics,  the  following  tasks  are  set:  

• Check  if  valving  and  actuator  applications  correspond  to  their  purposes  such  as  working  
parameters,  fluids,  operation  requirements  and  safety  characteristics;  
• Check  if  valving  parameters  meet  requirements  as  stipulated  by  regulatory  framework  for  
production,  assembly  and  operation  of  valving;  
• Check  if  required  labels  are  in  place  (in  line  with  GOST  4666);  
• Check  if  actual  assembly  meets  requirements  of  design  and  assembly  manuals;  
• Check  if  operation  and  maintenance  manuals  contain  appropriate  information;  
• Check  if  manuals  contain  criteria  of  failures  and  limit  states  of  valves  and  their  elements;  
• Identification  of  leakages  or  overflows.  

Diagnostic  examination  of  level  1  includes  the  following  activities:  

• Examination  of  technical  documents;  


• Visual  control;  
• Test  of  operation  condition  of  appropriate  sealing  of  key  valve  elements.  

2.3.1.  Visual  control  

Visual  control  of  valving  is  performed  in  accordance  with  operation  manuals,  maintenance  regulations  
and  RD  03-­‐606-­‐03  “Instruction  for  visual  and  measurement  control”.  It  does  not  require  disassembly  and  
includes:  

• Check  if  a  valve  body,  main  elements  and  details  are  complete  and  integral;  
• Detection  of  cracks,  dents,  voids,  corrosion  damage,  wear  or  other  interruptions  of  metal  body  
integrity;  
• Detection  of  cold  laps,  voids  and  undercutting  in  welds  and  heat-­‐affected  zones;  
• Detection  of  deformations  and  displacements  in  connections  and  nodes;  
• Test  of  sealing  of  threaded,  welded  and  flanged  connections  of  a  valve  body,  an  extension  sleeve  
and  an  actuator,  tubes  and  fittings  for  lubrication  of  a  seat  and  a  stem  seals,  piping  of  a  water  system,  
pulse  current  tubes,  control  unit,  hydrocylinders  and  tanks  of  an  actuator,  a  manual  pump,  expansion  
tanks,  a  damper,  an  emergency  shut-­‐off  system;  
• Test  of  gland  gasket  sealing;  
• Tightening  test  (tightening  torque  is  45  kgf/m  +  2  kgf/m)  of  threaded  joints  of  a  body,  an  extension  
sleeve  and  an  actuator  (when  not  pressurized  or  after  pressure  release);  
• Detection  of  damage  on  various  threaded  and  fitted  connections;  
• Test  of  ACS  and  TM  equipment:  condition  and  last  checkup  date  of  manometers,  fitting  reliability  
and  cable  input  integrity,  no  grounding  interruptions  of  a  control  unit,  integrity  of  terminal  boxes  and  
explosion-­‐proof  shells,  appropriate  labeling  on  explosion  protection;  
• Check  if  control  system  corresponds  to  a  designer’s  control  scheme  (in  cases  when  additional  
equipment  is  installed,  valving  is  partially  dismounted  or  other  upgrade  measures  have  been  introduced,  
a  test  is  performed  to  make  sure  that  they  meet  requirements);  
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• Test  of  level  and  condition  of  damping  fluid  (content  of  water,  solids  and  debris)  in  a  hydrosystem  
of  a  valve  actuator;  
• Check  of  condition  of  friction  members  (screws  and  levers)  of  a  reduction  gear  and  of  a  shift  
mechanism  of  an  actuator;  
• Check  of  working  condition,  integrity  and  appropriate  positioning  of  handles,  distributive  manual  
pumps,  gas  extraction  vents,  operation  mode  switches  and  hydraulic  fluid  control  chokes;  
• Check  of  technical  condition  of  and  detection  of  gaps  between  support  foundation  (if  any)  and  
valving.  

Visual  control  is  performed  by  a  magnifying  glass,  a  measuring  rod  or  a  tape  measure,  a  pair  of  calipers,  
a  micrometer  gauge,  probes,  templates  and  other  necessary  technical  tools.  

If  any  flaws  are  identified,  their  locations  are  marked  by  a  sign,  which  should  be  difficult  to  remove  (such  
as  paint  or  wax  pencils).  A  panel  of  experts  then  makes  a  note  in  the  report  that  additional  non-­‐
destructive  testing  of  detected  defects  is  to  be  performed,  with  appropriate  equipment.  

2.3.2.  Control  of  working  condition  and  sealing  of  main  details  

Tests  of  working  condition  and  sealing  of  a  valve  are  gas-­‐hazardous  because  atmospheric  gas  leaks  can  
occur.  Changing  a  position  of  a  valve  member  can  lead  to  interruptions  of  operation  of  process  
equipment  and  pipelines,  so  such  works  are  carried  out  only  following  permission  by  the  production  
control  service  of  the  operator.  

When  performing  tests  of  working  condition  and  sealing,  control  system  of  a  valve  must  meet  
requirements  contained  in  a  manufacturer’s  maintenance  manual.  

Such  tests  require  acoustic  leakage  detection  devices,  gas  meters,  vibration  sensors,  angle  meters  and  
other  necessary  tools  and  devices.  

Flaws  detected  by  check  of  working  condition  are  rectified  before  non-­‐destructive  tests  of  a  body  and  
main  welded  joints  are  performed.    

Test  of  actuator  working  condition  

Tests  of  working  condition  of  a  valve  consist  in  a  cycle  of  a  valve  member  shifts  from  “open”  to  “closed”  
position:  

• For  hydropneumatic  and  pneumatic  actuators,  from  transmitted  gas  (or  compressed  air)  by  local  
and  remote  control  (as  per  the  design),  as  well  as  by  a  manual  emergency  backup;  
• For  electric  actuators,  from  the  electric  motor  by  local  and  remote  control  (as  per  the  design)  ,  as  
well  as  by  a  manual  emergency  backup  (handwheel)  
• For  electrohydraulic  actuators,  from  the  hydraulic  battery  (receiver),  which  ensures  completion  of  
at  least  3  cycles  “open-­‐closed”  if  power  is  not  available,  as  well  as  by  a  manual  emergency  backup  (a  
hydraulic  pump).  
• For  manual  actuators,  by  a  handwheel  or  a  handle.  

Actuators  must  provide  such  torque,  which  enables  valves  of  DN  =  50-­‐400  mm  to  open  if  one-­‐direction  

15  
differential  gas  pressure  at  a  valve  member  is  equal  to  PN.  Valves  of  DN  =  500-­‐1400  mm  are  opened  if  a  
pressure  drop  at  a  valve  member  does  not  exceed  0.2  MPa.  

Time  of  valving  position  shifts  must  meet  the  norms  provided  in  Table  1.  

   Table  1             Time  norms  for  valving  position  shifts  

  Time  norms  

DN  (mm)   Remote  control  (seconds)   Manual  backup*(minutes),  not  exceeding  

50-­‐200   1  –  15   50-­‐200  


300-­‐500   5  –  35   300-­‐500  
700   15  –  50   15  
1000   20  –  80   20  
1200   25  –  100   25  
1400   30  –  120   25  

*  -­‐  provided  60  pumps  per  1  minute  

Valves  are  considered  in  working  condition  if  a  cycle  of  position  shifts  does  not  cause  any  failures  or  
malfunction,  i.e.:  

• Difference  between  actual  time  of  shift  and  time  norms  provided  in  Table  1  does  not  exceed  10%;  
• An  actuator  provides  a  smooth  shift  of  a  member  (without  knocks,  bumps  and  vibration)  to  full  
opening  (closure);  
• Emissions  of  damping  liquid  from  an  expansion  tank,  hydrotanks  and  valving  control  units  do  not  
occur;  
• A  valve  member  does  not  get  jammed  in  intermediate  position;  
• A  spontaneous  shift  of  a  member  does  not  occur;  
• Proper  tightness  of  valve  details  and  welds  is  ensured;  
• Tight  seal  of  gaskets  and  flanged  joints  is  ensured;  
• Force  applied  to  a  handle  (a  wheel)  of  a  manual  backup  does  not  exceed  15  kgf  during  the  entire  
cycle  of  shifts  and  45  kgf  for  the  initial  opening  effort.  

If  these  requirements  are  not  satisfied  during  the  cycle  of  valving  member  shifts,  adjusting  measures  are  
needed  as  below:  

• Examination  of  bleed  system  and  pulse  current  feed  to  control  units  (while  pulse  tubes  are  
disconnected)  followed  by  tests  of  drying  quality  after  drying  filter  based  on  content  and  condition  of  
adsorbent;  
• Examination  of  working  condition  and  seal  of  control  units  of  an  actuator  (if  a  hydrate  plug  is  
detected  in  bypass  ports  of  electropneumatic  valves,  steam  heating  followed  by  blowing  is  performed);  
• Check  if  connected  details  are  properly  positioned,  if  there  are  any  gaps  or  displacements  in  
moving  connections  such  as  “actuator-­‐stem-­‐valve  member”  and  if  there  are  any  strains  in  stationary  
connections  (the  angle  of  a  valve  member  shift  must  be  90  degrees  with  an  accuracy  limit  of  30"  relative  
to  the  position  indicating  mark);  
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• Check  of  connection  strength,  reciprocal  positioning  and  tightening  of  threaded  fittings  in  pinion  
and  worm  reduction  gears,  rotating  crankshaft,  rack  and  shift  actuator  mechanisms  (if  any  flaws  of  
connection  are  detected,  faulty  details  or  connections  should  be  either  fixed  or  replaced);  
• Check  of  condition  of  a  pressure  valve  of  a  manual  backup  pump  (if  a  manual  backup  has  a  low  
performance,  it  must  be  either  upgraded  or  substituted);  
• Operation  check  and  adjustment  of  chokes  controlling  damping  liquid  consumption  by  a  valve  
member  shift;  
• Check  of  operation  of  reverse,  bypass  and  clack  valves  of  actuator  control  system;  
• Check  of  damping  liquid  quality  by  content  of  water,  solids  and  debris  (if  damping  liquid  is  used  for  
a  period  exceeding  design  service  life,  it  must  be  totally  replaced);  
• Control  of  damping  liquid  level  at  actuators  with  “gas-­‐oil”  tanks  is  conditioned  by  risks  of  level  
meters  in  hydrotanks.  When  valving  is  closed,  the  level  in  the  “closed”  tank  corresponds  to  the  lowest  
mark  of  a  probe  (MIN),  and  in  the  “open”  tank  it  corresponds  to  the  highest  mark  (MAX).  For  actuators  
with  “gas-­‐piston-­‐oil”  expansion  tank,  the  level  is  set  by  marks  on  a  probe  situated  in  an  expansion  tank  
between  MIN  and  MAX  (when  filling  up,  it  is  prohibited  to  blend  different  liquid  brands);  
• Check  if  there  is  air  and  if  it  is  driven  from  a  hydrosystem  of  an  actuator  (damping  liquid  
distributor  is  put  in  “open”  position,  pressure  is  created  by  a  manual  pump,  air  is  removed  through  a  
drain  plug  of  a  hydrocylinder  while  a  piston  is  moving  to  “open”  position  until  there  are  no  air  bubbles  in  
a  jet  of  liquid;  the  distributor  is  switched  to  “closed”,  and  air  is  driven  from  the  opposite  cylinder  while  
the  piston  is  moving  to  “closed”  position);    
• Check  of  gasket  seal  at  hydrocylinder  pistons  (For  “gas-­‐oil”  actuators,  it  is  performed  after  air  is  
driven  away  and  drain  mechanisms  are  closed  by  creating  manometric  pressure  in  cavities  of  
hydrocylinders  by  a  manual  pump.  If  a  valve  member  is  shifted  to  the  extreme  position  and  a  manual  
pump  continues  to  work,  it  is  necessary  to  remove  probes  from  hydrotanks  and  check  a  level  of  liquid  in  
each  tank.  If  there  is  excess  of  liquid  in  one  tank  and  deficit  of  liquid  in  the  other,  it  means  that  piston  
seal  is  not  tight.  For  “gas-­‐piston-­‐oil”  actuators,  it  is  performed  after  air  is  driven  away  and  drain  
mechanisms  are  closed  by  creating  manometric  pressure  in  cavities  of  hydrocylinders  by  a  manual  
pump.  If  a  valve  member  is  shifted  to  the  extreme  position  and  the  manual  pump  continues  to  work,  it  is  
necessary  to  open  a  drain  hole  at  the  bottom  of  the  pneumatic  cavity  of  a  hydrocylinder.  If  damping  
liquid  is  released,  it  indicates  that  piston  seal  is  not  tight).  (If  valving  has  been  operated  for  over  30  
years,  total  replacement  of  gaskets  for  hydrocylinder  pistons  is  required).  

Test  of  sealing  of  an  upper  trunnion  (gasket  of  valving  stem)  is  performed  when  gas  flows  from  a  valve  
body  to  an  extension  sleeve  or  to  an  actuator  body.  If  leakage  is  detected,  sealant  is  supplied  to  the  
stem’s  gasket.  If  seal  remains  loose,  it  is  required  to  substitute  the  stem  gasket.  

Test  of  a  valve  member  seal  

The  maximum  permissible  values  of  gas  leaks  through  a  valve  member  are  provided  below:  

• For  DN  50-­‐200  mm  at  ΔР=0.1  MPa,  in  operation  within  guarantee  period  –  no  leakage  for  A  class  
(GOST  9544-­‐93);  
• For  DN  300-­‐1400  mm  at  ΔР=0.1  MPa,  in  operation  within  guarantee  period  –  not  exceeding  (  0.018  
3
cm /min  х  DN,  mm)  for  B  class  (GOST  9544-­‐93);  
• For  DN  50-­‐200  mm,  in  operation  for  a  period  exceeding  time  between  failures  specified  by  a  
manufacturer  (or  not  less  than  1  year)  –  not  exceeding  (18  cm3/min  х  DN,  mm)  at  ΔР=6.0  MPa;  

17  
• For  DN  300-­‐1400  mm,  in  operation  for  a  period  exceeding  time  between  failure  specified  by  a  
manufacturer  (or  not  less  than  1  year)  –  not  exceeding  (180  cm3/min  х  DN,  mm)  at  ΔР=  6.0  MPa.  

The  need  of  measures  to  fix  leaks  and  to  ensure  further  operation  of  valving  depends  on  dimensions  of  
leak  and  is  determined  in  accordance  with  Table  2.  

Table  2       Gas  leak  dimensions  for  a  valve  member  at  ΔР=  6.0  MPa  

DN,  (mm)   50-­‐200   300-­‐1400  

Leak  dimensions,  
>18  х  DN  (mm)   <180  х  DN  (mm)   <1800  х  DN  (mm)   >1800  х  DN  (mm)  
(cm3/min)  

Necessity  to  perform  


Not  performed   Performed   Performed   Not  performed  
measures  to  fix  leakage  

Possibility  of  further   Depending  of  


No   Yes   No  
operation  of  valving   repair  results  

Measures  of  fixing  leakage:  

• Adjustment  of  final  positions  of  a  valve  member  (effort  applied  to  a  handle  of  a  manual  backup  
device  increases  sharply  at  the  end  of  “open”  or  “closed”  shift;  the  measure  consists  in  adjusting  a  
“closed”  mechanical  stop:  in  accordance  with  “increase”  –  “decrease”  of  acoustic  signal  recorded  by  a  
leak  detection  sensor  on  a  valve  body,  or  in  accordance  with  “increase”  –  “decrease”  of  gas  release  from  
drainage);  
• Restoration  of  working  condition  and  removing  dense  deposits  from  a  valve  member  sealing  
system  (including  fittings,  valves  and  tubes),  which  is  performed  by  injection  of  cleansing  substances  by  
automatic  packing  unit  (to  ensure  more  effective  washing  of  a  system,  partial  maneuvering  of  a  valve  
member  must  be  performed);  
• Discharge  of  moist  and  condensate  through  a  drain  line  from  the  internal  cavity  of  a  valve  body,  
from  beyond  the  ball  (recommended  time  of  gas  pressure  release  ranges  from  5  to  60  minutes  
depending  on  a  valve  diameter);  
• Restoration  of  tight  seal  of  a  valve  member  requires  injection  of  sealants  by  automatic  packing  
devices  into  seat  gasketing,  in  accordance  with  sealant  consumption  norms  (if  during  packing  a  norm  is  
exceeded  by  2-­‐3  times  or  acoustic  leak  detection  sensors  do  not  record  any  decrease  of  a  leak  signal,  
works  must  be  interrupted).  

Test  of  a  valve  member’s  sealing  in  “closed”  position  is  carried  out  with  a  pressure  drop  at  the  member  
of  at  least  0.1  MPa.  Testing  can  include  various  methods  (Appendix  B)  depending  on  location  and  design  
features  of  a  valve:  

18  
• Based  on  gas  release  from  drainage  of  a  valve  or  a  “candle”;  
• Based  on  pressure  growth  in  pipeline  after  the  valve  (manometric  method);  

19  
2.4.  Valving  Diagnostics  of  Level  2  

The  purpose  of  diagnostical  examination  of  the  2nd  level  is  to  identify  design  parameters  of  valving  and  
to  detect  presence  of  gas  leaks  and  overflows.  

At  this  stage  of  diagnostics  the  following  tasks  are  handled:  

• Determination  of  acoustic  parameters  of  valving;  


• Determination  of  vibration  parameters  (by  technical  means);  
• Tests  of  sealing  of  a  valve  member  and  a  valve  in  general  (by  technical  means);  
• Examination  of  technical  condition  of  welds  for  welded  valves  (welded  joints  of  a  valve  body)  and  
flanged  joints  (visual  and  instrumental  control);  

Diagnostics  of  the  2nd  level  includes  the  following  activities:  

• Flaw  detection  by  ferroprobe  method  


• Flaw  detection  by  capillary  method  
• Flaw  detection  by  magnetic  powder  method  
• Ultrasound  flaw  detection  
• Ultrasound  thickness  gauges  
• Hardness  gauges  
 
2.4.1.  Control  of  condition  of  metal  parts  and  welded  joints  of  a  valve  body  (non-­‐destructive  testing)  
General  recommendations  

After  diagnostics  of  the  1st  level,  instrumental  non-­‐destructive  control  must  be  performed  by  a  set  of  
methods,  which  allow  detecting  possible  parametric  deviations  of  technical  condition  of  a  valve  body  
from  inspection  norms  (Appendix  D).  Testing  norms  include  application  of  at  least  2  non-­‐destructive  
methods,  one  of  which  is  used  for  detection  of  surface  defects  and  the  other  –  of  internal  defects  with  
an  obligatory  definition  of  physical  and  mechanical  characteristics  and  thickness.  

The  applied  methods  are  selected  based  on  the  necessity  to  detect  and  identify  the  following  types  of  
valving  defects  and  characteristics:  

• To  detect  surface  defects  of  a  valve  body  and  welds  –  capillary,  magnetic  powder,  ultrasound  and  
eddy  current  methods;  
• To  detect  internal  defects  of  a  valve  body  and  welds  –  ultrasound  and  ferroprobe  methods;  
• To  detect  actual  thickness  of  pipes  and  deterioration  of  those  parts  of  a  valve  body  where  
maximum  corrosive  and  erosive  effects  take  place  –  ultrasonic  gauges;  
• To  define  physical  and  mechanical  characteristics  of  metal  of  a  valve  body  and  pipes  –  hardness  
gauges.  

2.4.2.  Ferroprobe  method  

The  ferroprobe  method  of  flaw  detection  is  applied  in  accordance  with  requirements  of  GOST  21104,  RD  
24.027.22-­‐88  “Power  plant  engineering.  Non-­‐destructive  testing.  Method  of  ferroprobe  testing”.  

20  
Ferroprobe  inspection  detects  surface  cracks  over  0.002  mm  wide,  at  least  0.1  mm  deep  and  2mm  long  
and  subsurface  defects  at  least  0.1  wide  and  0.5  mm  deep  at  the  maximum  depth  within  16  mm.  
Thickness  of  protective  paint,  moist  proof  or  bitumen  coat  should  not  exceed  6  mm.  On  this  condition,  it  
is  possible  to  perform  primary  testing  of  a  valve  body  without  removing  isolating  coat.  If  indication  of  a  
flaw  is  discovered,  more  methods  are  employed  including  appropriate  treatment  of  a  bare  surface  of  a  
valve.  As  a  rule,  ferroprobe  is  used  at  the  first  stage  of  flaw  inspection,  because  it  does  not  require  high  
quality  of  a  valve  surface  to  be  tested.  Surface  areas  of  a  valve  body  (including  welded  connection  to  a  
pipeline)  showing  a  gradient  of  magnetic  field  strength  G>16.000     A/m2  must  be  subject  to  magnetic  
powder  and  ultrasound  flaw  testing.  

2.4.3.  Capillary  method  

The  capillary  method  of  flaw  detection  is  applied  in  accordance  with  requirements  of  GOST  18442-­‐80*  
“Non-­‐destructive  testing.  Capillary  methods.  General  requirements”.  

The  capillary  method  employs  materials  in  the  form  of  aerosols  consisting  of  a  cleanser,  indicator  fluid,  
quencher  and  developer.  Flaw  detection  materials  must  be  of  at  least  II  class  of  sensibility  in  accordance  
with  GOST  18442.  If  a  set  or  a  combination  of  flaw  detecting  materials  is  used,  their  compatibility  is  
compulsory,  besides  they  must  not  have  any  harmful  effect  on  operation  qualities  of  tested  details.  

To  perform  capillary  testing,  an  expert  must  be  equipped  with:  

• A  metal  measuring  rod  of  0-­‐150  mm  with  a  maximum  division  of  1  mm  to  measure  indication  
lengths;  
• A  metallic  brush  or  a  file  to  remove  paint  from  surfaces;  
• Cloth  to  clean  surfaces;  
• A  pen  or  a  pencil,  paper  to  write  testing  conclusions  on;  
• Means  to  study  indication  patterns  (a  10X  magnifying  glass  and  a  lamp  if  local  illumination  is  not  
sufficient  for  an  accurate  record  of  indications).  

This  method  consists  in  the  following  steps:  to  degrease  the  surface,  to  fill  flaw  cavities  with  indication  
fluid,  to  remove  fluid  excess,  to  apply  developer.  All  procedures  are  performed  in  compliance  with  
instructions  supplied  with  a  set  of  flaw  detection  materials.  After  completion  of  all  procedures,  surface  
tested  is  examined  visually  with  a  naked  eye  or  with  10x  magnifiers.  

If  traces  of  indicator  are  visible  on  the  developer  coat,  their  lengths  are  measured.  Obtained  indications  
are  transferred  to  a  sketch  of  a  valve  body  detail  surface  maintaining  their  direction  relative  to  elements  
of  a  body  design  or  limits  of  the  surface  of  these  details.  The  sketch  should  contain  dimensions  of  
indicator  traces  and  distances  between  them  if  they  are  more  than  one.  

2.4.4.  Magnetic  powder  method  

Magnetic  powder  method  of  flaw  detection  is  applied  in  accordance  with  requirements  of  GOST  21105-­‐
87  “Non-­‐destructive  testing.  Magnetic  powder  method”.  

Magnetic  powder  method  consists  in  magnetization  of  areas  to  be  tested  with  permanent  magnets  
along  with  appropriate  sets  of  flaw  detection  materials  if  they  ensure  nominal  sensitivity  of  B  testing  in  

21  
accordance  GOST  21105.  

Applying  magnetic  materials  to  surfaces,  it  is  necessary  to  consider  that  magnetic  powder  settles  
sometimes  where  in  fact  there  is  no  flaw.  Misleading  flaw  indication  can  be  a  result  of  deep  scratches  or  
metal  peening.  Consequently,  in  cases  when  doubts  arise,  the  surface  must  be  polished  with  a  file  or  a  
fine  abrasion  wheel,  and  tests  must  be  repeated.  

When  tests  detect  flaws,  they  must  be  marked  in  a  sketch  of  a  valve  in  question  maintaining  their  
direction  relative  to  elements  of  a  valve  body,  indicating  their  length  and  distances  between  them  if  they  
are  more  than  one.  

After  completion  of  testing,  the  areas  tested  can  be  demagnetized  with  the  same  magnetic  flaw  
detectors  in  automatic  and  manual  mode.  

2.4.5.  Ultrasound  method  

Ultrasound  method  of  flaw  detection  is  applied  in  accordance  with  requirements  of  GOST  14782-­‐86  
«Non-­‐destructive  testing.  Welded  joints.  Ultrasound  methods».  

Ultrasound  flaw  detection  uses  ultrasound  pulse  probes  certified  metrologically  by  the  established  
procedure,  in  compliance  with  requirements  of  GOST  23049-­‐78.  Probes  must  be  equipped  with  straight  
and  inclined  converters.  Device  sensitivity  must  be  adjusted  based  on  reference  samples  of  the  same  
steel  grade  the  valving  elements  are  made  of.  

Detected  flaws  must  be  attributed  to  one  of  the  following  types:   3-­‐dimensional  non-­‐extensive,  3-­‐
dimensional  extensive  or  2-­‐dimensional  following  Appendix  8  of  GOST  14782.  Location  and  nominal  
dimensions  of  detected  flaws  must  be  transmitted  to  the  control  map  and  to  a  sketch  of  weld  (in  a  cross  
section  of  a  weld  and  in  a  plan).  Qualitative  assessment  of  welds  must  be  carried  out  in  conformity  with  
requirements  of  GOST  14782-­‐86,  VSN  012-­‐88  Part  I,  STO  Gazprom  2-­‐2.4-­‐083-­‐2006».  

2.4.6.  Ultrasound  thickness  gauges  

Ultrasound  thickness  gauges  are  applied  in  accordance  with  requirements  of  GOST  20702-­‐90  “Non-­‐
destructive  testing.  Ultrasound  thickness  gauges.  General  technical  requirements”.  

The  purpose  of  ultrasound  thickness  gauging  is  to  define  actual  thickness  of  a  body  and  ports  of  a  valve,  
nature  of  internal  metallurgic  flaws  if  any  (stratification,  structural  inhomogeneity  of  material  like  
“liquation”)  in  the  main  material  and  heat  affected  zones,  erosional  or  corrosional  damage  to  the  body  
and  ports,  as  well  as  specification  of  main  parameters  of  ultrasound  diagnostics  of  valving  welded  joints.  
To  identify  erosive  wear,  it  is  compulsory  to  perform  measurements  of  thickness  of  walls  of  all  valve  
body  details,  connecting  pipes  and  valve  ports  in  areas  of  the  most  dynamical  impact  of  gas  flow  on  
walls.  If  necessary  (if  areas  of  high  corrosive  wear  or  other  flaws  are  discovered),  more  measurements  at  
different  locations  must  be  taken  to  establish  boundaries  of  wear  areas.  

The  method  requires  ultrasound  thickness  gauges  certified  metrologically  by  the  established  procedure,  
in  compliance  with  requirements  of  GOST  28702-­‐90.  

 
22  
 

2.4.7.  Hardness  gauges  

Hardness  gauging  is  performed  in  accordance  with  requirements  of  GOST  9012-­‐59*  “Metals.  Brinell  
hardness  tests”.  Hardness  tests  are  carried  out  with  portable  hardness  gauges  in  accordance  with  GOST  
18661-­‐73,  GOST  22761-­‐77  and  GOST  22762-­‐77.  

Measuring  hardness  of  curved  surfaces,  the  radius  of  curvature  at  the  location  of  impression  must  be  at  
least  5  mm  or  determined  by  parameters  of  the  hardness  probe  in  use.  Measuring  hardness  of  materials  
with  elastic  modulus  differing  from  hardness  standards,  a  special  adjustment  of  the  device  is  required.  

At  least  5  measurements  must  be  taken  for  each  area.  Their  arithmetical  mean  is  taken  for  the  final  
result  on  condition  if  systematic  error  of  measurements  does  not  exceed  ±10%  of  the  top  permissible  
hardness  value  (Table  3).  

Table  3       Permissible  limits  of  valving  metal  hardness  

Steel  grade   Permissible  hardness*  limits  of  main   Permissible  metal  hardness*  of  weld  
metal,  НВ   and  heat  affected  zone,  НВ,  not  
exceeding  

St.3,  20,  16K***   100-­‐180   180  


18K***   100-­‐180   190  
St.  20,  20L,  22K***,     200  
А216WCB**,  A350LF2**  
 

09G2S,  16GS,  17GS***,     225  


120-­‐200  
A352LCC**  
110-­‐200  
10G2***   110-­‐210  
10G2S1***   120-­‐210  
L2XM   140-­‐170   240  
12МХ   140-­‐180  
*  -­‐  Summarized  data  according  to  ITNE-­‐93  and  OST  24.201.03  
**  -­‐  Steel  grades  according  to  ASTM  (foreign  manufacture)  
***  -­‐  Steel  grades  according  to  GOST  380-­‐94  (Russian  manufacture)  

If  metal  hardness  does  not  meet  these  requirements,  at  least  two  more  additional  measurements  are  
taken  at  a  distance  of  20-­‐50  cm  from  locations  that  showed  insufficient  results.  If  the  previous  result  is  
confirmed,  limits  of  an  area  with  impermissible  hardness  values  are  identified.  Experts  performing  the  
tests  determine  how  many  additional  hardness  measurements  are  required  and  frequency  they  should  
be  carried  out  with.  

23  
2.5.  Valving  diagnostics  of  Level  3  

Diagnostics  of  the  3rd  level  is  the  most  informative  kind  of  testing.  This  procedure  is  based  on  
calculations  and  uses  devices  with  parametric  computing  models.    

The  purpose  of  the  diagnostic  examination  of  the  3rd  level  is  to  assess  technical  condition  of  valving  and  
all  kinds  of  valving  flaws  with  the  most  possible  probability,  and  to  decide  if  period  of  safe  operation  of  
equipment  can  be  extended.  

This  stage  of  diagnostics  deals  with  the  following  tasks:  

• Calculation  of  design  parameters  and  the  residual  service  life  (based  on  results  of  diagnostics  of  
nd
the  2  level);  
• Estimation  if  service  life  of  the  valve  can  be  extended;  
• Testing  of  seal  tightness  of  a  valve  member  and  a  valve  in  general  (by  calculations);  

2.5.1.  Calculations  of  hardness  and  least  permissible  body  thickness  (ports)  

Calculations  are  executed  based  on  actual  parametric  values  obtained  by  diagnostics,  including:  

-­‐  wall  thickness  (the  minimal  value)  including  defects;  

-­‐  hardness  limit  calculated  based  on  material  strength  parameters.  

Calculation  of  least  permissible  wall  thickness  

For  a  cylinder-­‐shape  body  and  ports:  

K1  ·∙  K2  ·∙  Pnom  ·∙  Dint  


δmin  =   (1)  
2  ·∙  σperm  
For  a  sphere-­‐shape  body:  

K1  ·∙  K2  ·∙  Pnom  ·∙  Rint  


δmin  =   (2)  
2  ·∙  σperm  

Where:  

δmin  –  minimal  permissible  wall  thickness,  mm;  

σperm  –  permissible  strain  as  per  Table  4,  MPa;  

Pnom  –  nominal  working  pressure  according  manufacturer  datasheet;  

Dint  –  internal  diameter  of  a  valve  body,  mm;  

Rint  –  external  radius  of  a  valve  body,  mm;  

24  
K1  =  1.1  is  a  factor  expressing  impact  of  external  forces  created  by  supports,  foundation  or  other  
equipment;  

K2  =  1.25  –  factor  applied  to  valving  if  made  by  casting.  

Table  4  –  Permissible  strain  for  valving  metal  

Calculated  temperature  of   Permissible  strain  σ ,  MPa  (kgf/cm2)  for  steel  grades:
perm  
a  valve  wall,  °С  
VSt3   20,  20L,  20K,   09G2S,  16GS,  17GS,   10G2  
А216WCB,   16G1S,  10G2S1,  
A350LF2   A352LCC  

20   140  (1400)   147  (1470)   183  (1830)   180  (1800)  

100   134  (1340)   142  (1420)   160  (1600)   160  (1600)  

If  the  condition  of  δф  >  δmin  is  not  satisfied,  the  valve  must  be  removed  from  operation.  

Calculation  of  residual  service  life  

Residual  service  life  of  a  valve  body  and  ports  operated  in  conditions  of  static  loads,  in  which  major  
damage  is  inflicted  by  general  corrosion  and  erosion  occurring  at  a  constant  speed,  is  calculated  
according  to  the  following  formula:  

δф  –  δmin  
T  =   (3)  
Ν  

Where:  

T  –  residual  service  life,  years;  

δф  –  actual  wall  thickness  of  a  valve  element  (mm)  when  calculation  is  performed;  

δmin  –  minimal  permissible  wall  thickness  of  a  valve  element  (mm);  

ν  –  corrosion  (erosion)  speed,  mm/year.  

Average  speed  of  corrosion  ν  for  a  valve’s  body  and  ports  during  the  entire  operation  time  is  calculated  
according  to  a  formula:  

δu  –  δф  
ν  =   (4)  
T  

Where:  

δu  –  operation  wall  thickness  of  a  valve  element,  mm;  

δф  –  actual  wall  thickness  of  a  valve  element,  mm;  


25  
t  –  time  passed  since  startup  to  diagnostics,  years.  

If  operation  wall  thickness  of  a  body  is  not  available,  corrosion  speed  is  calculated  according  to  the  
following  formula:  

δф1  –  δф  
ν  =   (5)  
T  

Where:  

δф1  –  actual  wall  thickness  obtained  by  the  previous  test,  mm;  

δф  –  actual  wall  thickness  when  examination  is  performed,  mm;  

t  –  time  between  examinations,  years.  

Residual  service  life  of  a  valve  body  operated  in  conditions  of  cyclic  loads  is  calculated  according  to  the  
following  formula:  

N  
T  =   (6)  
i  

Where:  

N  –  number  of  cycles  before  crack  is  formed;  

i  –  forecasted  annual  recurrence.  

Value  of  ε0  is  obtained  based  on  the  following  formula:  

ε0  =   Кε  ·∙  εр   (7)  

Where:  

εр  –  elastic  nominal  deformations  in  equipment  wall;  

Кε  –  factor  of  deformation  concentration.  

For  a  valve  body  of  a  cylinder  shape  and  for  ports,  the  actual  strain  is  determined  according  to  the  
following  formula:  

K1  ·∙  K2  ·∙  Pwork  ·∙  Dint  


σф  =   (8)  
2  ·∙  δф  

For  a  valve  body  of  a  sphere  shape,  the  actual  strain  is  determined  according  to  the  following  formula:  

K1  ·∙  K2  ·∙  Pwork  ·∙  Rint  


σф  =   (9)  
2  ·∙  δф  
26  
Where:  

K1  =  1.1  is  a  factor  expressing  impact  of  external  forces  created  by  supports,  foundation  or  other  
equipment;  

K2  =  1.25  –  factor  applied  to  valving  if  made  by  casting;  

Pwork  –  maximal  working  pressure,  MPa;  

Dint  –  internal  diameter  of  the  valve  body,  mm;  

δф  –  actual  minimal  wall  thickness  of  a  valve  body,  mm;  

Table  5  –  Residual  life  of  valving  depending  on  corrosive  and  erosive  wear,  metal  a  valve  is  made  of  
and  wall  thickness:  

Residual  life  for  wall  thickness  equal  to:  


Erosion/corros
Steel  grade   ion  speed,   (  1.2-­‐  1.4)⋅   (  1.4-­‐  1.5)⋅   (  1.5-­‐  1.8)⋅   (  1.8-­‐  2.0)⋅  
Measuring  unit  
mm/year   δmin*   δmin   δmin   δmin  
1   3   4   5   6   7   8  
VSt3    0.15   Cycle   2200   5060   11930   22600  
20,  20L,  20K,              
А216WCB,    0.15   Cycle   1142   2400   4990   8310  
A350LF2  
17GS,  16G1S,              
10G2S1,    0.15   Cycle   2110   4920   12020   23750  
A352LCC  
10G2,  09G2    0.15   Cycle   1210   2380   5380   9080  

*  δmin  minimal  permissible  wall  thickness  obtained  by  formulae  (1)  and  (2).  

Calculation  is  performed  with  Кε  =  3.0.  

2.5.2.  Assessment  of  technical  condition  and  estimation  of  possibility  to  extend  time  of  safe  
operation  

Technical  condition  of  valving  is  defined  based  on  a  set  of  results:  

• Analysis  of  technical  datasheets;  


• Test  of  working  condition;  
• Test  of  sealing;  
• Test  of  a  valve  body  and  welds  by  non-­‐destructive  methods;  
• Control  calculations  of  a  body’s  strength.  

Based  on  results  of  technical  diagnostics,  valves  meeting  the  following  criteria  must  be  dismantled:  
valves  with  an  expired  service  life  time  (specified  in  datasheets)  or  in  operation  for  over  30  years  if:  

27  
• A  manufacturer’s  design  does  not  include  lubricant  injection  to  seat  gaskets  of  a  valve  or  packing  
fittings  and  pipelines  are  dismantled  or  welded  during  operation;  
• Gasket  rings  of  a  valve  seat  are  made  of  a  material  such  as  PCTFE  (polytrifluorochloroethylene);  
• Seats  of  a  valve  use  a  hydraulic  system  of  forced  release;  
• Repair  works  of  body  parts  were  performed  (welding  of  wormholes,  cracks,  flanged  joints,  etc);  
• Arrangement  of  main  details  does  not  comply  with  regulatory  framework  and  their  restoration  is  
not  possible.  

Operation  time  of  a  valve  can  be  safely  extended  if  all  elements  of  a  valve  are  in  working  condition  in  
accordance  with  requirements  of  regulatory  and  technical  framework  and  the  present  document,  
based  on  results  of  technical  diagnostics.  

Valving  can  be  further  operated  for  another  10  years  if  the  diagnostics  performed  showed  that:  

• There  are  no  unacceptable  flaws  (Appendix  D)  and  other  deviations  from  requirements  of  
regulatory  framework  and  a  manufacturer’s  datasheet,  which  can  influence  working  condition  of  a  
valve;  
• Under  calculated  load  parameters  (pressure  and  temperature),  it  maintain  working  condition  
(corrosive  and  erosive  wear  of  metal  does  not  reduce  load  bearing  capacity  to  a  level  below  
calculations);  
• Design  version  meets  regulatory  framework  requirements;  
• Metal  condition  meets  regulatory  framework  requirements;  
•  Seal,  strength  and  tightness  of  valving  connections  and  elements  meet  regulatory  framework  
requirements;  

Valving  can  be  further  operated  for  another  5  years  if  the  diagnostics  performed  discovered  acceptable  
flaws  such  as:  

• Separate  voids  and  impurities  of  <5%  of  thickness  of  a  valve  body  and  weld  joints,  according  to  
visual  and  measuring  control;  of  <10%  according  to  ferroprobe,  magnetic  powder  and  ultrasound  
control.  
• Gas  leaks  in  seats  not  exceeding  180  (cm3/min)  х  DN  (mm)  for  DN  300-­‐1400  (mm)  at  ΔР=6.0  
MPa;  18  (cm3/min)  х  DN  (mm)  for  DN  50-­‐250  (mm)  at  ΔР=6.0  MPa.  

To  complete  technical  diagnostics,  the  report  is  drawn  “Conclusions  on  technical  diagnostics  of  
valving”.  

The  report  includes:  

• Title  of  the  report;  


• Introduction  containing  the  basis  for  performance  of  diagnostics,  information  of  the  expert  
organization  and  their  license,  information  on  experts;  
• A  list  of  units  subject  to  diagnostics;  
• Information  on  the  commissioner;  
• Purpose  of  technical  diagnostics;  
• Results  of  diagnostics;  
• Final  part  with  conclusions  and  recommendations  for  technical  solutions  and  adjusting  

28  
measures;  
• Appendices  containing  a  list  of  regulatory  documents  and  manuals,  programme,  control  map,  a  
copy  of  Rostekhnadzor  license.  

The  report  is  signed  by  all  members  of  the  expert  panel  and  ratified  by  an  official  of  Contractor.  Then  
Commissioner  approves  it  of.  

If  the  report  makes  a  conclusion  that  safe  operation  of  valving  can  be  prolonged,  Commissioner  hands  
the  report  to  Rostekhnadzor  local  representative  office  for  validation.  

The  report  becomes  an  essential  part  of  maintenance  documents.  A  note  must  be  included  in  a  
warranty  and  service  book  of  a  valve  that  safe  operation  of  valving  was  extended.  

2.6.  Diagnostics  Valveing  by  Microimpulse  method  

Theory  of  Method.  

The  method  is  based  on  the  following  phenomena  and  techniques:  

• Individual  vibration  frequencies  of  an  object  


• Physics  of  rigid  and  elastic  interactions  
• Fourier  transforms  
• Spectrum  stripping  

Task  statement  

The   shut-­‐off   valve   in   question   (ball   valve)   is   represented   as   a   system   comprising   n   objects   of   known   or  
predictable   geometrical,   strength,   dynamic   and   mass   parameters.   Mechanic   interactions   between  
them  are  also  either  known  or  predictable.  The  range  of  interactions  extends  from  absolute  rigidity  to  
elasticity   and   beyond,   to   complete   absence   of   interactions   between   objects.   The   task   to   solve   about  
this   system   of   objects   is   to   establish   if   individual   vibrations   of   objects   are   present   or   absent   in   the  
system.  Another  possibility  to  find  a  solution  for  this  task  is  to  alter  mechanical  interactions  between  
objects  from  rigidity  to  elasticity  and  vice  versa.    

Figure  2.5.1.  Sampling  of  mechanical  system  with  various  types  of  the  link  

29  
Figure     2.5.1   shows   a   mechanical   system   of   six   objects   1…6   with   different   types   of   mechanical  
interactions.  Each  object  has  a  mass  of  m  and  an  individual  frequency  of  f.  

Description  

According   to   classical   mechanics,   each   object   has   individual   vibration   frequencies,   which   are  
conditioned  by  geometrical  characteristics  of  the  object  in  question,  its  mass,  flexibility,  strength  and  
so  on.  

A   mechanical   impact   produced   on   an   object,   such   as   a   blow   or   a   swing   as   harmonic   and   non-­‐harmonic  
vibrations,   will   bring   about   a   certain   response   by   the   object   resulting   in   individual   vibrations   at   an  
individual  frequency  (frequencies)  of  the  object  vibrations.  

Thus,  when  a  range  of  individual  vibration  frequencies  of  an  object  is  known  and  when  the  analysis  of  a  
vibration   frequencies   range   is   performed,   conclusions   can   be   made   regarding   vibrations   of   a   specific  
object  within  a  system.  

Figure  2.5.2.  Sampling  of    making  one  new  object  by  rigid  mechanical  link  

The  first  step  in  search  of  a  solution  is  to  identify  individual  vibration  frequencies  for  each  object  of  a  
system.  Based  on  geometric  dimensions  of  an  object,  and  mechanical  characteristics  of  the  material  an  
object   is   made   of   and   using   an   appropriate   mathematical   tool   or   empirical   methods,   a   range   of  
individual  vibration  frequencies  for  each  object  of  the  system  can  be  established.  

Obviously,   rigid   interaction   between   two   objects   within   a   system   forms   in   fact   a   new   object   which   has  
a  new  range  of  individual  vibration  frequencies,  similar  to  a  one-­‐piece  object  (Figure  2.5.2.).  

30  
 

Figure   2.5.3.   Formation   and   distribution   of   aggregation   frequency   with   increasing   connection   between  
two  objects    

Consequently,   transitional   types   of   mechanical   interactions   (not   absolutely   rigid   or   incomplete  


interactions)   bring   about,   in   simple   terms,   two   ill-­‐defined   individual   vibration   frequencies  
corresponding  to  two  objects  and  one  ill-­‐defined  frequency  range  of  a  new  object  which  comprises  the  
two   former   ones.   Such   compound   objects   will   be   hereafter   referred   to   as   “aggregates”,   and   their  
frequencies  as  “aggregation  frequencies”  (Figure  2.5.3.).  

As   all   objects   within   a   system   maintain   various   mechanical   interactions   between   each   other,   such  
system  is  considered,  therefore,  an  aggregate,  and,  as  one  whole,  will  have  a  characteristic  aggregation  
frequency  range.  

Frequency  sampling  and  frequency  transformation  

Individual   frequencies   of   most   physical   objects   of   a   complex   shape   are   not   harmonic,   which   means  
that   a   frequency   range   of   such   vibrations   will   be   extensive   and   approach   infinity.   Consequently,   in  
accordance   with   the   method   described,   for   every   range   of   individual   vibration   frequencies   a   limited  
number  of  frequencies  are  selected,  which  are  the  best  defined  and  lowest  harmonics  in  a  range  and  
are  directly  linked  to  major  geometric  dimensions  and  mass  of  an  object.  

Thus,  every  object  should  be  characterized  by  two  frequencies,  which  will  be  further  addressed  as  Fm  
(frequency  linked  to  a  mass  of  an  object)  and  Fd  (frequency  linked  to  dimensions  of  an  object).  

Aggregates   will   also   be   characterized   by   two   frequencies,   which   are   linked   to   the   main   geometric  
dimension  of  an  object  (aggregate)  and  a  mass  of  an  aggregate.  

This   means   that   every   aggregate   has   a   range   of   main   frequencies,   which   are   linked   to   its   mass   and  
dimensions,   as   well   as   mass   and   dimensions   of   smaller   objects   and   aggregates   which   constitute   its  
parts.  

31  
Obtaining  and  analyzing  data  

In  order  to  apply  the  method,  an  aggregate  should  be  subject  to  an  external  mechanical  impact  in  the  
form  of  white  noise.  It  will  be  sufficient  to  apply  noise  which  is  white  within  the  limits  of  the  frequency  
domain  under  examination.  

With   white   noise   in   place,   every   object   and   aggregate   of   a   system   will   experience   impact   in   the  
frequency   domain,   in   which   their   individual   frequencies   are   located.   Thus,   every   object   and   every  
aggregate  will  gain  mechanical  energy  for  performing  individual  vibrations.  

As   soon   as   all   objects   and   aggregates   of   a   system   come   into   motion,   it   is   sufficient   to   carry   out   a  
frequency   analysis   of   all   vibrations   transforming   a   sum   of   all   vibrations   into   a   frequency   domain   by  
Fourier  method  or  applying  Fourier  quick  transform,  which  can  be  performed  with  most  convenience  
by  numeric  methods.  

Figure  2.5.4.  Procedure  of  frequencies  characteristic  and  levels'  analyse  

As  a  result  of  frequency  transformation,  a  vibration  spectrum  of  the  system,  as  well  as  its  details  and  
aggregates,  is  obtained  (Figure  2.5.4.).  

At   the   next   stage,   a   weighted   average   spectrum   must   be   obtained,   with   no   regard   for   characteristic  
frequencies.   It   can   be   done   based   on   the   minimal   values   of   spectral   bands;   otherwise   a   spectrum   of  
external  impact  can  be  used.  

Then  spectral  stripping  must  be  performed  to  obtain  a  difference  spectrum.  

32  
A   difference   spectrum   contains   information   on   frequencies   which   are   characteristic   of   objects   and  
aggregates  of  a  system.  

Then  an  analysis  of  a  difference  spectrum  is  carried  out  to  identify  frequencies  characteristic  of  objects  
and  aggregates  of  a  system.  If  a  spectrum  of  a  signal  contains  frequencies  characteristic  of  an  object  or  
aggregate,  a  conclusion  can  be  made  that  this  object  is  moving  relative  to  the  system  at  its  individual  
frequencies.   The   less   defined   frequencies   characteristic   of   a   given   object   are,   the   stronger   its  
mechanical  link  with  other  objects  or  aggregates  is.  If  an  object  has  an  absolutely  rigid  link  with  other  
objects  or  aggregates,  it  will  have  either  no  or  negligible  individual  frequencies.  

Thus,  a  conclusion  can  be  made  on  individual  vibrations  of  each  object  of  a  system.  Reference  values  
can   then   be   set,   providing   a   qualitative   characteristic   of   a   degree   of   mechanical   interaction   for   each   of  
a  system’s  objects.  

Application  of  Method  for  Shut-­‐off  Valve  Diagnostics.  

The  present  state  of  the  theory  is  based  on  a  range  of  conditions,  suppositions  and  assumptions:  

• Shut-­‐off  valves  include  ball  valves  of  various  diameters  and  designs.  
• When  a  valve  is  examined,  only  its  major  and  larger  parts  and  details  are  taken  into  account.  
Smaller  objects  which  constitute  parts  of  a  valve  are  ignored  and  their  individual  frequencies  are  not  
considered  in  a  general  analysis.  
• Valve  actuator  details  are  not  included  into  examination.  
• Calculation  of  individual  frequencies  of  a  valve  details  and  parts  is  based  on  numeric  methods,  
mathematical  simulation,  measurements  and  analysis  of  individual  details  and  elements  of  a  valve.  
• Spectrum   stripping   can   be   complemented   by   the   preprocessing   of   recorded   signals,   the  
content  and  implementation  of  which  are  a  know-­‐how  of  the  company.  
• Spectrum  stripping  can  be  substituted  by  graphical  analysis  of  spectra.  
• Analyzing   signals   produced   by   a   valve,   the   assumption   is   made   that   additional   masses   of  
environment   and   a   pipeline   do   not   influence   mass   and   frequency   characteristics   of   the   objects  
measured.  
• In   the   Microimpulse   method,   white   noise   is   replaced   with   other   signals   of   a   specifically  
calculated  frequency  spectrum  depending  on  actual  conditions.  
• Recording   of   signals   is   performed   by   highly   sensitive   vibration   sensors   of   a   bandwidth   over  
100kHz.  

33  
 

Figure  2.5.5.  Kinematical  scheme  of  a  ball  valve.  

Figure  2.5.6.  Ball  Valve's  objects  system  scheme  

Standard  kinematical  scheme  of  a  ball  valve  (Figure  5)  consists  of  4  main  constitutive  parts:  a  body,  a  
ball  and  two  seats  of  a  valve.  Every  pair  of  valve  details  is  provided  with  gaskets,  which  ensures  rigid  
mechanical   links   if   a   valve   is   functioning   properly.   This   means   that   a   system   of   objects   and   an  
aggregate   are   formed   as   in   Figure   2.5.6.   If   gasketing   is   damaged   or   loose,   aggregate   “1”   can   come  
apart,  resulting  in  the  following  combinations  of  bodies  and  aggregates:  

2;  3;  4.1;  4.2  


2+3;  4.1;  4.2  
2+3+4.1;  4.2  
2+3+4.2;  4.1  
2;  3+4.1;  4.2  
2;  3+4.2;  4.1  
2;  3+4.1+4.2  

Thus,  8  variants  of  a  mechanical  system  are  possible  for  a  ball  valve,  one  of  them  being  an  aggregate  
valve   as   in   Figure   2.5.6.   Each   variant   corresponds   to   a   range   of   frequencies   linked   to   mass   and  
dimensions  of  objects  and  aggregates.  In  the  given  case  each  object  (aggregate)  can  be  associated  with  
2  frequencies  (frequency  based  on  mass  and  frequency  based  on  dimensions).  It  has  been  established  
empirically   that   in   the   case   of   ball   valves,   the   frequency   based   on   dimensions   depends   usually   on   a  
dimension  Dy  and  can  be  calculated  in  accordance  with  the  following  formula:  

Vs  refers  to  propagation  speed  of  sound  waves  in  material  a  valve  detail  is  made  of.  
34  
Frequencies   linked   to   mass   are   either   measured   for   real   objects   or   obtained   by   calculation   or  
mathematical  simulation.  

Analysis  specifics  with  regard  to  real  objects  

Actual   noise   conditions   are   different   from   ideal   conditions,   and   when   signals   are   being   recorded   there  
is   usually   noise   from   other   irrelevant   sources   (industrial   interference).   When   producing   a   record  
intended  for  further  analysis,  a  number  of  requirements  should  be  met:  

• In  a  working  frequency  range,  the  level  of  interference  must  not  exceed  the  level  of  response  
from  objects  under  examination.  
• Interference   beyond   a   working   frequency   spectrum   must   not   create   harmonics   and   sub-­‐
harmonics   in   a   working   frequency   spectrum   of   a   level   exceeding   response   from   objects   under  
examination.  

In   order   to   fulfill   these   conditions,   active   impact   and   analysis   equipment   must   meet   the   following  
requirements:  

• A  sufficient  capacity  of  white  noise  generation.  


• A  sufficient  frequency  range  for  recording  the  entire  range  of  responses.  
• A  sufficient  dynamic  range  for  leaving  out  industrial  interference.  

The   above   requirements   are   satisfied   by   the   equipment   working   at   20...40dB   above   industrial  
interference,   with   a   frequency   band   at   least   200%   wider   than   the   range   of   frequencies   under  
examination,   and   a   dynamic   range   exceeding   the   examined   signals   by   40...100dB   in   the   entire  
examined  frequency  range.  

The  weighted  average  spectrum  of  noise  corresponds  to  industrial  interference  with  the  exception  of  
spectrum  spikes  at  harmonic  frequencies.  

It  has  been  established  empirically  that  a  high  signal  level  (see  Figure  4)  corresponds  to  the  exceeding  
of  an  weighted  average  spectrum  value  by  over  9dB  with  a  frequency  band  within  ±10%  or  by  over  6dB  
with  a  frequency  band  of  ±5%.  Empirical  evidence  has  shown  that  an  average  signal  level  (see  Figure  4)  
corresponds   to   the   exceeding   of   a   weighted   average   spectrum   value   by   over   6dB   with   a   frequency  
band  within  ±10%  or  by  over  3dB  with  a  frequency  band  of  ±25%.    

The   high   level   of   a   signal   is   evidence   of   the   fact   that   link   between   the   detail   and   other   details   or  
aggregates   is   rather   loose.   The   average   level   of   a   signal   is   evidence   of   the   fact   that   link   is   partially  
weakened,  which  can  be  caused  by  partial  deterioration  of  sealing  or  missing  sealer  in  valve  seats.  In  
valve   maintenance,   the   particular   characteristic   of   this   method   is   the   opportunity   to   validate   the  
results  by  packing,  washing  and  jostling  a  gasket,  along  with  identification  of  individual  frequencies  of  
details   and   aggregates,   which   allows   increasing   accuracy   of   defect   location   and   diagnostics   results.  
Besides,   location   of   a   source   of   an   individual   frequency   or   gas   turbulence   can   be   established   with   a  
higher   accuracy   by   finding   correlations   between   records   of   three   or   more   vibration   sensors.   The  
advantage   this   technique   provides   is   the   possibility   to   control   technical   condition   of   shut-­‐off   valves  
when  they  are  both  open  and  closed  (with  or  without  pressure  drop).    

35  
Collection  of  Data  for  Shut-­‐off  Valve  Diagnostics.  

The   recording   of   data,   necessary   for   diagnostics   of   an   object   in   a   shut-­‐off   valve,   is   performed   by  
diagnostic  equipment.  The  equipment  consists  of  an  electronic  unit,  one  or  more  signal  record  sensors,  
an  induction  oscillator  sending  special  signals  to  the  valve,  a  grounding  cable  and  software,  responsible  
for  signal  generation,  response  recording  and  device  control.  

Input  voltage  of  the  instrument  unit  is  220V  50Hz.  If  connecting  to  power  supply  is  not  possible  in  field  
conditions,  an  autonomous  power  generator  is  used.  

When   working   in   bad   weather   conditions,   with   rain   or   wind   speed   exceeding   10   m/s,   some   kind   of  
shelter  should  be  used  (a  shed,  an  awning,  etc).  

The  equipment  can  operate  within  an  environment  temperature  range  of  -­‐20  to  +35  degrees  Celsius.  

Before   examination   and   diagnostics,   a   number   of   photographs   of   the   object   are   made.   Separate  
pictures   are   made   of   elements   which   identify   a   valve   and   actuator   manufacturer,   if   there   are   any   on   a  
valve   (plates,   legends,   etc).   If   such   information   is   available,   a   datasheet   copy   with   major   geometric  
dimensions   of   valve   details   should   be   obtained.   The   electronic   unit   of   equipment   is   grounded   to   a  
metal  railing  of  a  valve  site.  If  not  possible,  the  grounding  conductor  is  attached  to  a  metal  bar  buried  
in  the  ground.  

In   order   to   perform   examination,   vibration   sensors   with   magnetic   holders   are   installed   on   a   valve  
sleeve.   If   they   cannot   be   installed   on   a   sleeve,   sensors   are   installed   on   any   other   available   part   of   a  
valve,  suitable  for  this  use.  

The  induction  oscillator  is  installed  on  the  butt  end  of  an  actuator  shaft  while  a  valve  actuator  casing  is  
removed.  If  an  actuator  casing  cannot  be  removed,  the  oscillator  is  installed  on  any  other  available  part  
of  a  valve,  suitable  for  this  use.  

Equipment   software   makes   the   electronic   unit   generate   an   impulse   signal   and   send   it   to   the   oscillator.  
At  the  same  time,  a  valve  response  to  signal  is  recorded  by  vibration  sensors.  

If   possible,   a   repeated   record   of   the   same   signals   must   be   performed   after   additional   manipulations  
with   a   valve   in   order   to   ensure   more   accurate   results.   A   valve   seat   which   comes   first   in   a   product   flow  
is   sealed   with   sealant   by   a   special   blower.   Then   a   repeated   impulse   signal   is   sent   to   a   valve   and   its  
response  is  recorded.  The  same  procedure  is  implemented  after  sealing  the  valve  seat  coming  second  
in  a  product  flow.  

Analysis  of  Obtained  Data  and  Preparation  of  Report.  

Diagnostic   data   analysis   implies   benchmarking   actual   measurements   taken   during   valve   examination  
against  design  characteristics  for  a  valve  of  a  similar  diameter.  

Calculation  of  benchmark  valve  parameters  can  be  based  on  two  basic  data  options:    

1.  No  information  is  available  on  valve  design.    

36  
2.  Drawings  and  datasheets  are  available  for  a  valve.  

If   no   information   is   available   about   a   valve,   benchmark   frequencies   are   used   which   correspond   to  
design   frequencies   of   a   valve   details   of   “standard”   dimensions   and   mass,   typical   of   most   valves   of   a  
given  diameter.  Analyzing  obtained  results,  accuracy  of  parameter  benchmarking  is  then  modified  to  
include  possible  deviations.  

If  technical  datasheets  of  a  specific  valve  model  are  available,  a  more  accurate  calculation  of  a  valve’s  
individual   frequencies   can   be   carried   out   based   on   dimensions   and   masses   of   details   contained   in  
datasheets.  

The  latter  method  provides  more  precise  diagnostic  results.  It  requires  drawings  and  datasheets  for  the  
valve  examined,  which  contain  necessary  design  parameters  of  a  valve.  

A  model  of  a  valve  is  created  in  simulation  software  for  solid  bodies  and  an  analysis  of  its  frequency  is  
performed.  If  a  model  library  contains  a  specific  valve  model  examined  (i.e.  similar  valves  were  tested  
before),  a  corresponding  range  of  benchmark  frequencies  can  be  taken  from  a  model  library.  

FFT   method   is   applied   to   transform   a   recorded   signal   response   of   a   valve   from   time   domain   to  
frequency  domain,  i.e.  a  spectrum  of  recorded  signal  is  created.  

Noise  signal  spectrum  obtained  by  FFT  method  

Approximation  method  is  used  to  design  weighted  average  spectrum  of  a  signal.  The  weighted  average  
spectrum  is  not  included  into  other  drawings  in  order  not  to  overload  them  with  details.  

37  
 

Drawing  of  a  weighted  average  spectrum  

A   frequency   chart   containing   data   on   most   standard   dimensions   and   valves,   such   as   Dу=100,   200,   300,  
500,   700,   1000,   1200,   1400,   individual   frequencies   for   every   valve   detail   or   aggregate,   along   with  
mathematic  simulation,  statistical  methods,  extrapolation  and  measurement  results  are  used  to  single  
out  frequency  bands,  for  which  the  exceeding  of  a  spectral  characteristic  in  a  given  frequency  band  is  
identified.  

Frequencies  of  details  and  aggregates  of  a  valve  with  a  band  width  of  ±25%  are  considered:  

f1   f2   f3   f4   Fd   f2+f3   f2+f4   f3+f4   f2+f3+f4   f2+f4**   f3+f4**  


252   913   380  8400   5024   268   824   363   260   750   348  

f1  is  a  valve  general  frequency,  f2  is  a  body  frequency,  f3  is  a  ball  frequency,  f4  is  a  seat  frequency,  fd  is  
a  diameter-­‐linked  frequency.  f1  and  fd  are  control  frequencies  and  are  not  used  in  diagnostics.  

Analysis   is   started   with   main   frequencies:   f1,   f2,   f3,   f4,   fd.   Aggregation   frequencies   can   be   adjusted  
(recalculated)  if  main  frequencies  deviate  too  much  from  chart  or  predicted  values.  

Sampling  of  frequency  bands  for  preliminary  consideration,  low  frequency  domain  (25%  accuracy)  

38  
 

Sampling  of  frequency  bands  for  preliminary  consideration,  high  frequency  domain  (25%  accuracy)  

Initial   consideration   establishes   spikes   within   25%   accuracy   area   around   main   frequencies   of   details.  
Various  characteristic  spikes  at  harmonic  frequencies  are  not  included  into  consideration.  

Better  accuracy  is  then  introduced  to  the  examined  frequencies  by  narrowing  the  frequency  band  to  
5%   for   known   valve   models   and   to   10%   for   unknown   valve   models   within   selected   previously  
frequency  bands.    

In  the  figures  below  adjusted  frequency  bands  are  colored  yellow,  and  yellow  lines  are  used  to  show  
frequencies  of  details  in  a  low  frequency  domain  equal  to  252Hz,  382Hz,  910Hz,  which  correspond  to  
frequencies   of   an   entire   valve   -­‐   f1,   of   a   ball   -­‐   f3   and   of   a   body   -­‐   f2.   Green   and   red   colors   indicate  
aggregation   frequencies,   green   and   red   arrows   correspond   to   frequencies   of   aggregates.   In   this   case  
aggregate   frequencies   in   the   spectrum   are   either   absent   or   negligible.   Moreover,   frequencies   f1,   f2,   f3  
have   rather   low   amplitudes,   which   means   that   no   significant   malfunction   is   detected.   This   example  
however  is  a  good  illustration  of  a  high  accuracy  of  the  method  in  identifying  possible  defects.  

Sampling  of  frequency  bands  for  final  consideration  (low  frequency  domain)  

39  
 

Sampling  of  frequency  bands  for  final  consideration  (high  frequency  domain)  

Green   color   stands   for   adjusted   frequency   bands   and   red   lines   indicate   frequencies   of   details   in   a   high  
frequency  domain  of  5250Hz  5620Hz,  as  well  as  8500Hz  and  9250Hz.  In  this  case,  frequencies  within  
examined   bands   are   double,   which   is   characteristic   of   individual   valve   details.   A   band   with   a   central  
frequency  of  5024  Hz,  fd,  is  linked  to  diameter  and  is  used  only  to  verify  Dу  value.  A  band  with  a  central  
frequency  of  8400Hz  is  characteristic  of  a  valve  seat.  It  can  be  seen  that  the  red  graph  is  situated  over  
6dB  above  others  and  above  the  average  level  in  this  frequency  range,  which  stands  for  seat  vibration.    

If   possible,   recording   is   accompanied   by   the   packing   or   washing   of   valve   joints   and   the   jostling   of   a  
valve.  In  this  example  the  red  graph  was  recorded  before  valve  seat  packing,  and  the  blue  and  green  
graphs  after  the  packing  of  the  first  and  the  second  valve  seat  correspondingly.  This  procedure  allows  
identifying  which  of  the  two  seats  was  vibrating.    

Report  Form.  

Report  on  shut-­‐off  valve  diagnostics  includes  the  following  data:  

• Time  and  date  of  examination.  


• A  valve’s  location  and  inventory  number,  data  on  the  operator  and  manufacturer  of  a  valve.  
• Particular  features  of  a  valve’s  installation  and  photos  of  actual  location  of  a  valve.  
• Information   on   operation   mode   of   diagnostic   equipment   while   recording:   number   of   recording  
channels,  digitizing  capacity,  sampling  frequency.  
• Information  on  valve  seats  sealing  (if  performed),  sealant  type  and  consumption.  
• Results  of  analysis  and  contrastive  graphs  of  a  valve  aggregate  frequencies.  If  a  valve  aggregate  
frequencies   show   alterations   after   sealing   a   valve   seats   by   sealants,   it   is   necessary   to   include  
data  on  and  graphs  of  manipulations  which  caused  alterations.  
• Final  drawing  of  a  valve  with  defects  detected  by  examination.  
• Conclusions  on  proper  functioning  or  defects  of  a  valve  examined.  

40  
CHAPTER  3    

3.1.  Experimental  research    

In   the   experimental   part   of   the   survey   was   conducted   the   10   valves   on   the   linear   part   of   the  
pipeline   "Urengoy-­‐Uzhgorod".   All   valves   were   tested   by   first   level   diagnostic,   which   held  
operational  service  and  a  nine  of  10  valves  were  marked  as  inefficient,  and  were  aimed  to  cutting  
off.   After   this   has   been   used   third   level   of   diagnosis,   more   detailed   conclusions   are   made   for   each  
valve  and  by  the  end  of  this  level  of  diagnostics  has  been  identified  that  8  of  9  valves  can  remain  in  
operation  with  the  condition  of  certain  recommendation.

3.2.  Technical  diagnostic  by  the  method  «Microimpuls»  

The  diagnostic  research  was  carried  out  by  the  method  "mikroipuls"  mode  "manual".  

Figure  3.1.  Basic  scheme  by  the  method  «Microimpuls»    

41  
3.3.  Information  about  the  object  of  technical  diagnostic  

Table  3.1.  

Name  and  designation   Number  


equipment   Year  of  
Installation  site  
Serial   Technological   commissioning  
 
Ball  valve  
1269  km.  "Urengoy-­‐
Valve  1   Nichimen  DN   7K5587   272   1979  
Chelyabinsk"  2nd  line  
1200  PN  75  
Ball  valve   1269  km.  
Valve  2   Aleksin  DN   1863   171   "Komsomolskoe-­‐Surgut"   2000  
1200  PN  75   1st  line  
Ball  valve   1262.3  km.  
Valve  3   Nichimen  DN   7E5449   168   ""Komsomolskoe-­‐Surgut   2000  
1400  PN  75   1st  line  line  
Ball  valve  
1269  km.  "Urengoy-­‐
Valve  4   Aleksin  DN   980   272р   2009  
Chelyabinsk"  2nd  line  
1200  PN  80  
Ball  valve   1269  km.  
Valve  5   Nichimen  DN   6G4690   1  SV   "Komsomolskoe-­‐Surgut»   1978  
1400  PN  75   1st  line  line  
Ball  valve  
1269  km.  "Urengoy-­‐
Valve  6   Aleksin  DN   1863   1  SV2   2000  
Chelyabinsk"  2nd  line  
1400  PN  80  
Ball  valve  
1269  km.  "Urengoy-­‐
Valve  7   Nichimen  DN   6V5022   NSV2   1978  
Chelyabinsk"  2nd  line  
1400  PN  75  
Ball  valve  
1269  km.  "Urengoy-­‐
Valve  8   Nichimen  DN   6V5022   SSV2   1978  
Chelyabinsk"  2nd  line  
1400  PN  75  
Ball  valve  
1269  km.  "Urengoy-­‐
Valve  9   Nichimen  DN   7E5532   273   1979  
Chelyabinsk"  2nd  line  
1400  PN  75  
Ball  valve  
1269  km.  "Urengoy-­‐
Valve  10   Nichimen  DN   7В5246   274   1979  
Chelyabinsk"  2nd  line  
1400  PN  75  

42  
3.4.  Purpose  and  description  of  equipment  

Each  examinee  valve  is  a  steel  welded  construction  consisting  of  a  housing  with  a  ball  cap  and  two  
saddles,  flush  joint,  with  weld  ends  DN-­‐1200-­‐1400.  Each  valve  has  its  location  on  the  1st  and  2nd  
pipeline  line  "Urengoy-­‐Surgut-­‐Chelyabinsk."  These  valves  are  designed  to  overlap  (start)  of  the  
medium  flow  depending  on  process  requirements.  
 
Table  3.4.1     Main  data  and  specifications  for  valve  1  
      (data  form,  the  operational  documentation)  

Installation  site   1269  km.  "Urengoy-­‐Chelyabinsk"  2st  line  


Name  of  valve   Ball  valve  
Conventional  symbol   Nichimen  DN  1200    
Manufacturer   Japan  Steel  Works,  LTD,  Япония.  
Year  of  manufacture   -­‐  
Year  of  commissioning   1979  
Position  of  the  valve   Horizontal  
Connection  to  the  pipeline   weld  
Manufactoring  number   7K5587  
Technological  number   272  
Nominal  diameter    DN,  mm   1200  
Nominal  diameter    of  connecting  ends  DN,  mm   1200  
Nominal  pressure  РN,  МPa   75  
Operating  pressure  Рр,  МPa   -­‐  
Operation  environment   Natural  gas  
Type  of    Actuator   Pneumohydraulic  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

43  
Table  3.4.2     Main  data  and  specifications  for  valve  2  
        (data  form,  the  operational  documentation)  

Installation  site   1269  km.  "Komsomolskoe-­‐Surgut"  1nd  line  


Name  of  valve   Ball  valve  
Conventional  symbol   AleksinDN  1400    
Manufacturer   Tyazpromarmatura,  Alexin  town,  Russia  
Year  of  manufacture   1989  
Year  of  commissioning   2000  
Position  of  the  valve   Horizontal  
Connection  to  the  pipeline   Weld  
Manufactoring  number   1863  
Technological  number   171  
Nominal  diameter    DN,  mm   1400  
Nominal  diameter    of  connecting  ends  DN,  mm   1400  

Nominal  pressure  РN,  МPa   80  

Operating  pressure  Рр,  МPa   -­‐  


Operation  environment   Natural  gas  
Type  of    Actuator   Pneumohydraulic  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
44  
Table  3.4.3              Main  data  and  specifications  for  valve  3  
      (data  form,  the  operational  documentation)  

Installation  site   1262.3  km.  "Komsomolskoe-­‐Surgut"  1st  line  line  


Name  of  valve   Ball  valve  
Conventional  symbol   Nichimen  DN  1200    
Manufacturer   Japan  Steel  Works,  LTD,  Япония.  
Year  of  manufacture   1977  
Year  of  commissioning   2000  
Position  of  the  valve   Horizontal  
Connection  to  the  pipeline   Weld  
 
Manufactoring  number 7E5449  
Technological  number   168  
Nominal  diameter    DN,  mm   1400  
Nominal  diameter    of  connecting  ends  DN,  mm   1400  
Nominal  pressure  РN,  МPa   75  
Operating  pressure  Рр,  МPa   -­‐  
Operation  environment   Natural  gas  
Type  of    Actuator   Pneumohydraulic  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

45  
 
 
Table  3.4.4.            Main  data  and  specifications  for  valve  4  
      (data  form,  the  operational  documentation)        

Installation  site   1269  km.  "Urengoy-­‐Chelyabinsk"  2nd  line  


Name  of  valve   Ball  valve  
Conventional  symbol   AleksinDN  1200    
Manufacturer   Tyazpromarmatura,  Alexin  town,  Russia  
Year  of  manufacture   2008  
Year  of  commissioning   2009  
Position  of  the  valve   Horizontal  
Connection  to  the  pipeline   Weld  
Manufactoring  number   980  
Technological  number   272p  
Nominal  diameter    DN,  mm   1200  
Nominal  diameter    of  connecting  ends  DN,  mm   1200  
Nominal  pressure  РN,  МPa   80  
Operating  pressure  Рр,  МPa   -­‐  
Operation  environment   Natural  gas  
Type  of    Actuator   Pneumohydraulic  
 

       

46  
 

Table  3.4.5.              Main  data  and  specifications  for  valve  5  


      (data  form,  the  operational  documentation)  

Installation  site   1269  km.  "Komsomolskoe-­‐Surgut"  1st  line  line  


Name  of  valve   Ball  valve  
Conventional  symbol   Nichimen  DN  1400    
Manufacturer   Japan  Steel  Works,  LTD,  Япония.  
Year  of  manufacture   1977  
Year  of  commissioning   1978  
Position  of  the  valve   Horizontal  
Connection  to  the  pipeline   Weld  
Manufactoring  number   6G4690  
Technological  number   1SV  
Nominal  diameter    DN,  mm   1400  
Nominal  diameter    of  connecting  ends  DN,  mm   1400  
Nominal  pressure  РN,  МPa   75  
Operating  pressure  Рр,  МPa   -­‐  
Operation  environment   Natural  gas  
Type  of    Actuator   Pneumohydraulic  
       
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

47  
 
Table  3.4.6.            Main  data  and  specifications  for  valve  6  
      (data  form,  the  operational  documentation)  

Installation  site   1269  km.  "Urengoy-­‐Chelyabinsk"  2nd  line  


Name  of  valve   Ball  valve  
Conventional  symbol   AleksinDN  1400    
Manufacturer   Tyazpromarmatura,  Alexin  town,  Russia  
Year  of  manufacture   1989  
Year  of  commissioning   2000  
Position  of  the  valve   Horizontal  
Connection  to  the  pipeline   Weld  
Manufactoring  number   1863  
Technological  number   1SV  II  
Nominal  diameter    DN,  mm   1400  
Nominal  diameter    of  connecting  ends  DN,  mm   1400  
Nominal  pressure  РN,  МPa   80  
Operating  pressure  Рр,  МPa   -­‐  
Operation  environment   Natural  gas  
Type  of    Actuator   Pneumohydraulic  
     

 
48  
Table  3.4.7              Main  data  and  specifications  for  valve  7  
      (data  form,  the  operational  documentation)  

Installation  site   1297  km.  "Urengoy-­‐Chelyabinsk"  2st  line  line  


Name  of  valve   Ball  valve  
Conventional  symbol   Nichimen  DN  1400    
Manufacturer   Japan  Steel  Works,  LTD,  Япония.  
Year  of  manufacture   1977  
Year  of  commissioning   1978  
Position  of  the  valve   Horizontal  
Connection  to  the  pipeline   Weld  
Manufactoring  number   6V5022  
Technological  number   NSV  2  
Nominal  diameter    DN,  mm   1400  
Nominal  diameter    of  connecting  ends  DN,  mm   1400  
Nominal  pressure  РN,  МPa   75  
Operating  pressure  Рр,  МPa   56  
Operation  environment   Natural  gas  
Type  of    Actuator   Pneumohydraulic  
     

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

49  
 
Table  3.4.8              Main  data  and  specifications  for  valve  8  
      (data  form,  the  operational  documentation)  

Installation  site   1299  km.  "Urengoy-­‐Chelyabinsk"  2st  line  line  


Name  of  valve   Ball  valve  
Conventional  symbol   Nichimen  DN  1400    
Manufacturer   Japan  Steel  Works,  LTD,  Япония.  
Year  of  manufacture   1977  
Year  of  commissioning   1978  
Position  of  the  valve   Horizontal  
Connection  to  the  pipeline   Weld  
Manufactoring  number   6V5022  
Technological  number   SSV  2  
Nominal  diameter    DN,  mm   1400  
Nominal  diameter    of  connecting  ends  DN,  mm   1400  
Nominal  pressure  РN,  МPa   75  
Operating  pressure  Рр,  МPa    
Operation  environment   Natural  gas  
Type  of    Actuator   Pneumohydraulic  
       

 
50  
Table  3.4.9              Main  data  and  specifications  for  valve  9  
      (data  form,  the  operational  documentation)  

Installation  site   1307  km.  "Urengoy-­‐Chelyabinsk"  2st  line  line  


Name  of  valve   Ball  valve  
Conventional  symbol   Nichimen  DN  1400    
Manufacturer   Japan  Steel  Works,  LTD,  Япония.  
Year  of  manufacture   -­‐  
Year  of  commissioning   1979  
Position  of  the  valve   Horizontal  
Connection  to  the  pipeline   Weld  
Manufactoring  number   7E5532  
Technological  number   273  
Nominal  diameter    DN,  mm   1400  
Nominal  diameter    of  connecting  ends  DN,  mm   1400  
Nominal  pressure  РN,  МPa   75  
Operating  pressure  Рр,  МPa    
Operation  environment   Natural  gas  
Type  of    Actuator   Pneumohydraulic  
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

51  
Table  3.4.10.            Main  data  and  specifications  for  valve  10  
      (data  form,  the  operational  documentation)  

Installation  site   1309  km.  "Urengoy-­‐Chelyabinsk"  2st  line  line  


Name  of  valve   Ball  valve  
Conventional  symbol   Nichimen  DN  1400    
Manufacturer   Japan  Steel  Works,  LTD,  Япония.  
Year  of  manufacture   -­‐  
Year  of  commissioning   1979  
Position  of  the  valve   Horizontal  
Connection  to  the  pipeline   Weld  
Manufactoring  number   7B5246  
Technological  number   274  
Nominal  diameter    DN,  mm   1400  
Nominal  diameter    of  connecting  ends  DN,  mm   1400  
Nominal  pressure  РN,  МPa   75  
Operating  pressure  Рр,  МPa   -­‐  
Operation  environment   Natural  gas  
Type  of    Actuator   Pneumohydraulic  
 

52  
3.5.  Results  of  technical  diagnostics  of  valves  

Technical  diagnosis  included  the  following  activities:    

-­‐  Inspection  of  the  facility;    

-­‐  Filming  of  property  surveys;    

-­‐  Construction  of  the  mass  of  the  object  model;    

-­‐  A  comparison  of  object  with  a  mass  model;    

-­‐  Analysis  of  the  data.  

Table  3.5.1.     The  output  of  the  analyzer  for  the  valve  1                                                          

f3(Sphere)   f4(Saddle)   f2+f4**   f2+f4   f3+f4**   f2(Corpse)   f3+f4   f2+f3   f2+f3+f4   f1(Total)  
4,033   3,6755   3,654   3,528   3,514   3,388   3,371   3,143   3,0395   2,944  

Table  3.5.2.     The  output  of  the  analyzer  for  the  valve  1                                                      

f3(Sphere)   f3+f4   f3+f4**   f2(Corpse)   f2+f4   f2+f4**   f4(Saddle)   f2+f3   f2+f3+f4   f1(Total)  
8,992   8,3385   7,772   7,4965   7,0155   6,603   4,1205   3,656   3,5435   3,4305  

Table  3.5.3.     The  output  of  the  analyzer  for  the  valve  3                                                      

f2(Corp f2+f3+f f1(Total


f4(Saddle)   f3(Sphere)   f3+f4   f3+f4**   f2+f4   f2+f4**   f2+f3  
se)   4   )  
2,2525   -­‐2,795   -­‐3,0295   -­‐3,2325   -­‐3,331   -­‐3,5035   -­‐3,6515   -­‐4,87   -­‐4,9665   -­‐5,0595  

Table  3.5.4.     The  output  of  the  analyzer  for  the  valve  4                                                          

f4(Saddle)   f3(Sphere)   f3+f4   f2(Corpse)   f3+f4**   f2+f4   f2+f4**   f2+f3   f2+f3+f4   f1(Total)  
1,9455   1,373   1,068   1,045   0,873   0,854   0,6825   -­‐0,605   -­‐0,6655   -­‐0,721  

Table  3.5.5.     The  output  of  the  analyzer  for  the  valve  5                                                        

f4(Saddle)   f3(Sphere)   f3+f4   f3+f4**   f2(Corpse)   f2+f4   f2+f4**   f2+f3   f2+f3+f4   f1(Total)  
0,0995   -­‐0,3635   -­‐0,5665   -­‐0,743   -­‐0,829   -­‐0,97   -­‐1,107   -­‐1,96   -­‐1,9765   -­‐1,9915  

53  
Table  3.5.6.     The  output  of  the  analyzer  for  the  valve  6                                                      

f4(Saddle)   f3(Sphere)   f3+f4   f3+f4**   f2(Corpse)   f2+f4   f2+f4**   f2+f3   f2+f3+f4   f1(Total)  
0,8175   -­‐0,8045   -­‐1,1075   -­‐1,3665   -­‐1,492   -­‐1,7115   -­‐1,9   -­‐3,209   -­‐3,2495   -­‐3,2885  

Table  3.5.7.     The  output  of  the  analyzer  for  the  valve  7                                                      

f3(Sphere)   f3+f4   f3+f4**   f2(Corpse)   f2+f4   f4(Saddle)   f2+f4**   f2+f3   f2+f3+f4   f1(Total)  
-­‐3,3185   -­‐3,6385   -­‐3,917   -­‐4,052   -­‐4,274   -­‐4,3605   -­‐4,4905   -­‐5,772   -­‐5,7755   -­‐5,778  

Table  3.5.8.     The  output  of  the  analyzer  for  the  valve  8                                                        

f4(Saddle)   f3(Sphere)   f3+f4   f3+f4**   f2(Corpse)   f2+f4   f2+f4**   f2+f3   f2+f3+f4   f1(Total)  
0,2305   -­‐1,821   -­‐2,104   -­‐2,35   -­‐2,4695   -­‐2,678   -­‐2,8565   -­‐4,0425   -­‐4,062   -­‐4,0815  

Table  3.5.9.     The  output  of  the  analyzer  for  the  valve  9                                                      

f4(Saddle)   f1(Total)   f2+f3+f4   f2+f3   f2+f4**   f2+f4   f2(Corpse)   f3+f4**   f3+f4   f3(Sphere)  
3,702   -­‐0,336   -­‐0,3415   -­‐0,347   -­‐0,487   -­‐0,507   -­‐0,53   -­‐0,543   -­‐0,5705   -­‐0,6015  

Table  3.5.10.     The  output  of  the  analyzer  for  the  valve  10                              

f4(Saddle)   f2+f3   f2+f3+f4   f1(Total)   f2+f4**   f2+f4   f2(Corpse)   f3+f4**   f3+f4   f3(Sphere)  
-­‐0,36   -­‐2,65   -­‐2,6685   -­‐2,683   -­‐2,798   -­‐2,82   -­‐2,8635   -­‐2,8835   -­‐2,925   -­‐2,973  

                         

54  
 

3.6.  Data  analysis  

Valve  1  –  Gas  leaks  detected.  Actions  are  required.  

Valve  2  –  Gas  leaks  detected.  Actions  are  required.  

Valve  3  –  Gas  leaks  detected.  Actions  are  required!  

Valve  4  –  Gas  leaks  detected.  Actions  are  required!  

Valve  5  –  Gas  leaks  probably  exist.  No  directs  reasons.    

Valve  6  –  Gas  leaks  detected.  Actions  are  required!  

Valve  7  –  Gas  leaks  detected.  Actions  are  required!  

Valve  8  –  Gas  leaks  probably  exist.  No  directs  reasons.    

Valve  9    -­‐  Gas  leaks  probably  exist.  No  directs  reasons.    

Valve  10  -­‐  Complete  data  with  recommendations  

After  3st  level  of  diagnostics  we  had:  

Valve  1  

The  largest  amplitude  characteristic  of  the  ball  (4.033  dB),  a  smaller  amplitude  of  vibration  is  
characterized  by  a  saddle  (3.6755  dB),  the  remaining  parts  and  assemblies  vibrate  less,  and  the  unit  is  
"Valve"  is  a  very  small  amplitude  oscillations,  which  indicates  the  poor  condition  of  the  valve.  Leak  
Detection  for  saddles.  The  value  of  leakage  of  the  spectral  density  is  about  30-­‐100  liters  /  min.    

Valve  2  

The  largest  amplitude  characteristic  of  the  ball  (8.992  dB),  the  remaining  parts  and  assemblies  vibrate  
less,  and  the  unit  is  "Valve"  is  a  very  small  amplitude  oscillations,  which  indicates  the  poor  condition  of  
the  valve.  Leak  Detection  of  the  spindle.  The  value  of  leakage  of  the  spectral  density  is  about  30-­‐100  
liters  /  min.  

Valve  3  

The  largest  amplitude  characteristic  of  the  saddle  (2.2525  dB),  the  remaining  parts  and  assemblies  
vibrate  less,  and  the  unit  is  "  Valve  "  is  a  very  small  amplitude  oscillations,  which  indicates  the  poor  
condition  of  the  valve.  Leakage  from  the  spectral  density  is  about  70-­‐300  liters  /  min.  

55  
Valve  4  

The  largest  amplitude  characteristic  of  the  saddle  (1.9455  dB),  a  smaller  amplitude  of  vibration  is  
characterized  by  a  ball  (1.373  dB),  the  remaining  parts  and  assemblies  vibrate  less,  and  the  unit  is  "  
Valve  "  is  a  very  small  amplitude  oscillations,  which  indicates  the  poor  condition  of  the  valve.  Leak  
Detection  for  saddles.  The  value  of  leakage  of  the  spectral  density  is  about  3-­‐30  l  /  min.  

Valve  5  

The  largest  amplitude  characteristic  of  the  saddle  (0.0995  dB),  a  smaller  amplitude  of  vibration  is  
characterized  by  a  ball  (-­‐0.3635  dB),  the  remaining  parts  and  assemblies  vibrate  less,  and  the  unit  is  
"Valve"  is  a  small  amplitude  oscillations  (-­‐1.9915  dB),  indicating  unsatisfactory  condition  of  the  valve.  
Leak  Detection  for  saddles.  The  value  of  leakage  of  the  spectral  density  is  about  3-­‐30  l  /  min.  

 Valve  6  

The  largest  amplitude  characteristic  of  the  saddle  (0.8175  dB),  a  smaller  amplitude  of  vibration  is  
characterized  by  a  ball  (-­‐0.8045  dB),  the  remaining  parts  and  assemblies  vibrate  less,  and  the  unit  is  "  
Valve  "  is  a  small  amplitude  oscillations  (-­‐3.2885),  indicating  that  unsatisfactory  crane.  There  is  a  
probable  leakage  of  saddles.  The  value  of  leakage  of  the  spectral  density  is  about  3-­‐30  l  /  min.  

Valve  7  

The  largest  amplitude  characteristic  of  the  ball  (-­‐3.3185  dB),  a  smaller  amplitude  of  vibration  is  
characterized  by  the  unit  "ball  +  Saddle"  (-­‐3.6385  dB),  the  remaining  parts  and  assemblies  vibrate  less,  
and  the  unit  is  "  Valve  "  is  a  small  amplitude  oscillations  (-­‐5.778),  indicating  that  the  poor  condition  of  
the  ta  valve.  Leak  Detection  of  the  spindle.  The  magnitude  of  leakage  Spectral  density  is  about  3-­‐30  l  /  
min.  

Valve  8  

The  largest  amplitude  characteristic  of  the  saddle  (0.2305  dB),  a  smaller  amplitude  of  vibration  is  
characterized  by  a  ball  (-­‐1.821  dB),  the  remaining  parts  and  assemblies  vibrate  less,  and  the  unit  is  "  
Valve  "  is  a  small  amplitude  oscillations  (-­‐4.0815),  indicating  the  poor  able  of  the  valve.  There  is  a  
probable  leakage  of  saddles.  The  magnitude  of  leakage  Spectral  density  is  about  3-­‐30  l  /  min.  

Valve  9  

The  largest  amplitude  characteristic  of  the  saddle  (3.702  dB),  a  smaller  amplitude  of  vibration  is  
characterized  by  a  unit,  "  Valve  "  (-­‐0.336  dB),  the  remaining  parts  and  assemblies  vibrate  less,  which  
means  not  quite  satisfactory  valve.  Leak  Detection  for  saddles.  The  magnitude  of  leakage  Spectral  
density  is  about  3-­‐30  l  /  min.  

Valve  10  

The  largest  amplitude  characteristic  of  the  saddle  (-­‐0.36  dB),  a  smaller  amplitude  of  vibration  is  
characterized  by  the  unit  "ball  +  Case"  (-­‐2.654  dB),  the  remaining  parts  and  assemblies  vibrate  less,  
and  the  unit  is  "  Valve  "  is  a  small  amplitude  oscillations  (-­‐2.683)  indicating  the  poor  condition  of  the  
56  
valve.  There  is  a  probable  leakage  of  saddles.  Probably  baked  onto  the  saddle  to  the  body.  The  
magnitude  of  leakage  Spectral  density  is  about  3-­‐30  l  /  min.    

These  conclusions  tell  us  that  after  the  investigating  our  valves  by  the  method  “Microimpuls”  
(third  level  of  diagnosis),  we  can  conclude  that  only  one  valve  is  impossible  to  use  -­‐  this  is  valve  
number  three.  All  other  valves  are  acceptable  rate  of  vibration,  and  therefore  can  be  left  in  
operation,  but  after  intermediate  or  capital  repairs.  

3.7.  CONCLUSIONS

After  all  the  research  and  analytical  procedures,  there  were  several  key  findings:  

1.  The  use  of  valving  diagnostic  is  a  necessary  event  for  the  safe  and  efficient  operation  of  the  gas  
transmission  system.    This  work  (and  many  other  publications  on  this  topic)  shows  and  proves  
both  economic  and  technical  profitability  of  diagnostic  equipment.  

2.  For  the  most  effective  diagnostic  should  be  used  multi-­‐level  diagnostics.  Depending  on  the  
condition  of  the  equipment  recommened  to  choose  one  or  another  level  of  diagnostics.  Each  level  
of  the  previous  diagnosis  must  give  an  opinion  on  the  need  for  the  next  level,  or  vice  versa.  

3.  The  third  level  of  diagnosis  is  the  most  informative  and  efficient,  and,  as  demonstrated  by  an  
experimental  part,  can  give  much  more  information  about  the  object.  

Thus,  after  a  study  of  10  valves  of  the  linear  part  of  gas  pipeline,  it  was  concluded  that  only  one  
valve  should  be  cutted  off,  all  other  valves  may  remain  in  operation  for  later  use,  but  with  the  
condition  of  the  fulfillment  of  certain  RECOMMENDATIONS.  

 
57  
 

APPENDIX  A    

Sampling  of  report  form  

 
58  
 

APPENDIX  B  

Recommended  methods  of  sealing  testing  

1.  Manometric  method  

Calculation  of  leak  based  on  gas  pressure  increase  in  a  pipeline  after  the  valve  is  performed  according  
to  the  following  formula:  

Q  =  k  ·∙  Vpipe  ·∙  Рspring  /(273+T)  ·∙  tmeasure  

where:  Q  –  leak  value,  cm3/min;  

k  –  factor  =  273  (for  gas);  

Vpipe  –  pipeline  volume  =  3.14  ·∙  D2pipe  ·∙  Lpipe/4,  cm3;  

Рspring  –  spring  manometer  reading,  kgf/cm2;  

Т  –  gas  temperature  in  a  pipeline,  ºС;  

tmeasure  –  time  of  measurement,  min.  

2.  Acoustic  method  

Calculation  of  a  leak  based  on  reading  of  an  acoustic  emission  leak  detection  sensor  VPAC  5131  is  
performed  according  to  the  following  formula:  

Q  =  log10  (-­‐0.911  +  (k1  ·∙  0.0453  ·∙  Nsig)  -­‐  0.286  ·∙  (  log10  РΔ)  +  0.963  ·∙  (  log10  DN)  -­‐  k2)  

where:  Q  –  leak  value,  cm3/min;  

k1  –  factor  =  1.7  (for  gas);  

Nsig  –  signal,  dB;  

РΔ  –  pressure  drop  at  a  valve  member,  bar;  

DN  –  nominal  diameter  of  a  valve;  

k2  –  factor  =  0.269  (for  ball  valves).  

*  Calculation  is  done  with  an  automatic  computing  programme.  

59  
 

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N   o   t   e:   when   using   the   current   standard   it   is   reasonable   to   verify   validity   of   references   both   in  
corresponding   indices   drawn   up   as   of   January   1   of   the   current   year   and   by   informational   indices  
released  during  the  current  year.  If  a  reference  document  is  replaced  (amended),  the  current  standard  
should   apply   in   compliance   with   the   replaced   (amended)   document.   If   a   reference   document   is  
annulled   without   being   replaced,   a   provision   referring   to   it   is   applicable   with   the   exception   of   this  
reference.  

63  

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