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ICON College of Technology and Management

Department of Travel & Tourism Management

BTEC HND in Hospitality Management


The Hospitality Business Toolkit

Tutor: David Boyd

Submitted by Raul Conicica

ID No: 15971

Session: September 2018

The Hospitality Business Toolkit HM

Table of content

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………. pg. 3

P1 Investigate the principles of managing and monitoring financial performance…………………….pg. 4

P2 Apply the double entry book-keeping system of debits and credits to record sales and purchases

transactions in a general ledger…………………………………………………………………………pg. 5

P3 Produce a basic trial balance applying the use of the balance off rule to complete the ledger / M1

……………………………………………………………………………………………………..……pg. 7

P4 Review the different stages of the HR life cycle applied to a specific hospitality job role, and their

importance for retaining and developing talent / M2…………………………………………………...pg. 8

P5 Develop a performance management plan for a specific hospitality job role, applying techniques to

resolve negative behavior and to overcome issues of staff retention………………………………….pg. 11

P6 Identify specific legislation that a hospitality organisation has to comply and adhere

to……………………………………………………………………………………................…..…...pg. 14

P7 Using specific examples, illustrate how company, employment and contract law has a potential impact

on business decision-making in the hospitality industry / M3 / D3 ………………….…………….…pg. 15

P8 Explore how different functional roles within the hospitality sector interrelate………………..…pg. 16

P9 Explain the different methods of communication, coordination and monitoring applied within a

specific department of a hospitality organisation to strengthen the value chain / M4 /D4……..……..pg. 18

Conclusion……………………………………………………………….………..…………………..pg. 19

Reference……………………………………………………………………………………………....pg 20

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The hospitality management is an essential part of hospitality business. Hence, this business is depended

on various parts or section the management system has to be good and well planned. In this study, the

business toolkit of The Kensington Hotel will be discussed. This study will focus on the finance

management and on various ways to reduce the cost in this particular hospitality business. This research

will discuss the finance related principles and monitoring system of finance in The Kensington Hotel. The

report will describe the human resource strategy as well as it will pay focus on the performance

management plan. Additionally in this study, will be described the possible impact of legitimate and

moral reflection on a hospitality business. And also, how important is a healthy coordination and

integration of various functions of the departments in the hospitality sector. I attracted the focus in this

study along the various forms of coordination, communication, and observation applicable within a

certain department of The Kensington Hotel to strengthen and perfect the services of this brand of which I

was previously employed.

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P1 Investigate the principles of managing and monitoring financial performance

The financial performance has to be monitored and managed well for the success of any business

organization. In the case of The Kensington Hotel, it is important that the financial performance in the

hotel is covered with all the processes with a behavioral strategic execution. This is achieved with

professional accountants, perminant employees and managers advice with years of experience in the

company. They will help the organization deliver on objectives, goals or targets using various strategies.

This could include :

- Various ideas for spending less on various items for cleaning or cooking but maintain the quality

or help reduce some extra expenses in the buisness

- Investing money in the company account weekly throughout the year at a 5% percent annual

investment return can be in the value of millions in the years to follow. Its also a good way to

plan for the unexpected like unforeseen emergencies like flooding of floors

- Keep within bounds debt by having clever investing of money in items that hold their value

over time like quality furniture that can be resold when refurbishing the hotel

- Continuously educating your staff with cross or shadowing sessions for higher quality services.

(Goymer, 2010)

The major principles of managing and monitoring financial performance of The Kensington Hotel have

been discussed below:

1. The preparation of key financial statement: The profit loss statements of the hotel and the balance

sheet have to be well prepared each month. This can help the organization to get a financial overview of

the hotel every month (Ellerman, 2016).

2. The preparation of the aged debtors trial balance: It is a very important part of the financial

management as it can help the hotel to get a brief about the customers who owe them money

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(Easterbrook, and Fischel, 2012). They can follow the defaulters in this process and this can help to get

back their money.

3. The preparation about the inventory records: The Kensington hotel invested heavy money in the

raw metals of foods for the guests, the equipments for the betterment of their hospitality service and they

used high technological machines for their betterment of the service. However, these inventory records

help to track the exact amount behind these investments and the financial benefits comes because of these

investments (Jagels, and Ralston, 2016).

P2 Apply the double entry book-keeping system of debits and credits to record sales and purchases

transactions in a general ledger

The basic need for having a double entry book-keeping system in place is to oversee debit and credits. It

is very important to understand the working system of debits and credits to understand the sales and

purchases transactions in a general ledger of The Kensington hotel. They have been described below:

Cash account A/C Wages A/C Vlad A/C

1/7 Capital 2/7 Purchase 8/7 Cash A/C Balance c/d Sales 1.500

20.000 A/C 2.500 150 300

14/7 Sales 8/7 Wages 150 25/7 CashA/C

1000 22/7 Fixture & 150

Balance Fittings 6.000

= 21.000 25/7 Wages




31/7 Rent


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b/d 21.000-

11.050 = 9.950

Sales A/C Capital A/C Annastasia A/C

Vlad 1.500 1/7 Cash 26/7 Cash 31/7 Purchase

14/7 Cash 20.000 2.000 3.000

1.000 b/d 1.000

18/7 Weber



Weber A/C Fixture/Fittings Purchase A/C

Cash A/C


18/7 Sales 200 Annastasia


Rent A/C

31/7 Cash 250

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Record debits and credits for asset accounts: Assets means the equipments, which are owned by The

Kensington hotel. The credits of the hotel have been recorded on the right, and the debits are recorded on

the T- account. In the case of the general ledger, the credits are recorded in the right side of the ledger as a

decrease asset of the hotel, and the debits are recorded as the asset in the left side of the ledger

(Carruthers, and Espeland, 2014).

Recording of debit and credit for expense account: In an expense account of The Kensington hotel, the

debits used to be increased and the credit used o be decreased (Tichy, 2011).

P3, M1. Produce a basic trial balance applying the use of the balance off rule to complete the ledger

A basic trial balance is important to complete the ledger. In the case of Kensington hotel, it plays the role

of the most first financial statements. The trial balances record details of each debit as well as it also

record the corresponding credit entries according to the double entry concept. The trial balance is good

for identifying any kinds of differences in the financial statement. Here the basic trial balance has been


The Kensington hotel

Trial Balance as at 25 August 2018

Accountant Debit Credit

£ £
Share capital 30.000

Fixture and furniture 10.000

Building 20.000

Creditor 10.000

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Debtors 6.000

Cash 4.000

Profit 20.000

Maintenance cost 16.000

General and administration expense 4.000

Total 60.000 60.000

As per the trial plan, it is clear that, all the titles of the accounting period and entity end for which, the

basic trial plan has been made. The extracted balance has been shown as the name of the account title. In

the left column the expenses and assets has been described along with this, in the right column income

and equity has been shown. In the bottom of each column the total amount has been shown.

P4, M2. Review the different stages of the HR life cycle applied to a specific hospitality job role, and

their importance for retaining and developing talent

The H.R is unique and important for the hospitality industry. The H.R life cycle involves the different

kinds of steps an employee faces and the role of an H.R during those stages. The stages have their own

benefits, challenges and opportunities as well. Here are the stages of HR life cycle for the role of waiter in

the Kensington hotel have been described:

1. Attraction: Because it’s a prestigious hotel that is established itself on the market as a brand, the offer

for a job is a major attraction for someone who likes to work in the hospitality industry. But a good

candidate for a good job position will research the companies background extensively and ask their

individual professional circles to learn as much as they can about it’s values.

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- Adaptability: Succesful companies as employers have a good rate of adapting to the needs of there

current employees or futher ones.

- Relevancy: There has to be relevancy in the company such as what the employees speech out within the

company and also outside the company. This can atract or detract new candidates.

- Sustainability: It is important to listen to the conversations between candidates and employees

conducting the interview and them trying to influence those conversations when possible.

- Execution: The ideal employees interviwing the candidates are brand advocates and reputation managers

with a long history in the company.

2. Recruitment: Because we live in a digital age the recruiting process is becoming more of a social

procedure, however close to 70% of new hired candidates come from employee recommendatios. That

is why employees play such an important role in a company. In the case of the Kensington hotel, the H.R

focuses on the politeness and communication skills of the interviewer as waiters have to communicate

with their clients. The H.R also focuses on the active listening skills of the interviewer, as for a waiter it is

a major part to listen to the customers and his manager. The recruitement process can be applied with

talent pools,peer-to-peer referals or video recruting. Implementing these new technologies embody a new

and attractive work environment to new candidates. (Kerzner, and Kerzner, 2017).

3. Onboarding: Satisfied senior employees are not only exited and engaged about working on new

projects, but also enjoy helping new employees transition into their new roles as well. The feeling of

belonging is the most basic need for the waiter job of the Kensington hotel. It can be done with job aid

wiki boards, mentoring or gamification. As it is a famous hotel, therefore the clients of the hotels come

from a high society. The waiters have to interact with many famous persons. Therefore, a proper training

has to be must criteria for the H.R as it can develop the working techniques of the waiters. They can also

subject after 90-days a feedback interview to survey the candidates accommotating in the company.

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4. Development: Some employees will not settlein the same job for years on end and have the desire to

grow, to feel inspired and this comes due to new collaboration in the community surrounding them.

Getting to know the employees skills to develop their talents and also share them. Motivation plays a

major role in developing confidence among the waiters. Employees can be sometimes great teachers and

new idea givers. The H.R gives them proper motivational speech to encourage them and builds a strong

relationship and bond with the waiters. Sustainability can be achieved with employees feeling valued,

doing their job more professionaly, giving the company a brand status resulting in business revenue.

5. Retention: In this stage, the H.R examine the waiters closely and make decision that, if he fits in the

job role or not. The H.R also has to give time personally to evaluate the work of the waiter. Companies

who can offer a friendly and efficient work environments and recognizes their employees work and

efforts will have high level of retention. The waiter needs to feel appreciated by the company, and that it

cares for his/her well-being. This will make them feel more connected with their functional work. This

has to be made in the basis of real facts like peer-to-peer acknowledgement and continuous recognition

from his superiors.

5. Separation: It is the last stage of the H.R life cycle and of any employee. 89% of hospitality

companies think that there employees leave because of getting more money elsewhere. Bur actually only

12% leave because of this. In reality, 75% of employees leave of one's own free will because of their

bosses. In this stage the H.R, should recognize the hard work of the employees, but has to understand why

employees are leaving. Some of them will stay in touch with former collegues. Employees who leave are

always the best candidates to rehire, but very few are rehired. (Rutherford, Buller, and McMullen, 2013).

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P5 Develop a performance management plan for a specific hospitality job role, applying techniques

to resolve negative behavior and to overcome issues of staff retention

Performance management plan for the job of waiter:

Waiter and waitress performance form


Evaluation period:

Position: Date:


Review of Performances

 Job description.

 Rate the candidates performance, using the definitions underneath.

 Give an overall mark in the space provided, by ticking one of the boxes.

Performance Rating Guidelines

Excellent – Candidates performance is outstanding

Above Expectations - Candidates performance is above the job requirements

Meets Standards - Candidates performance is competent to the job

Substandard - Candidates performance fails to meet job requirements

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PERFORMANCE RATING (using the above performance rating guidelines)

Time management – How efficient is the candidate in Excellent

planning, organizing and handling job requirements. Above Expectations
Meets Standards
Knowledge of the job – What are the candidates skill levels, Excellent
methods and techniques to meet job requirements. Above Expectations
Meets Standards
Level of communication – How efficient is the candidate to Excellent
express ideas, listening to others, both in speaking and Above Expectations
writing. Meets Standards
Teamwork – How cooperative is the candidate with other Excellent
employees to achieve certain tasks given. Above Expectations
Meets Standards
Problem solving and decision making – How efficient is the Excellent
candidate to understand a problem and in making practical Above Expectations
decisions to solve it. Meets Standards
Independent Action – How independent and resourceful is Excellent
the candidate in within the jobs prescribed limits. Above Expectations
Meets Standards
Leadership – How efficient is the candidate in achieving a Excellent
certain set goal while leading other members of the team. Above Expectations
Meets Standards
Appearance and presentation – How is the candidates Excellent
personal hygiene. Above Expectations
Meets Standards
Level of response – How is the candidates level of Excellent
concentration and responsiveness during the job. Above Expectations
Meets Standards
(Hutchinson, 2013)

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Techniques to resolve negative behavior and to overcome issues of staff retention

a. Employee preparation beginning from the interview process. In the performance management

plan, it is most important to make the employee ready for performance. In the case of the waiter

job the H.R should explain the complete organizational polices and their appraisal process of the

Kensington Hotel.

b. Motivate employees by taking a future focused approach to all areas of talent management.

c. Drive engagement by aligning goals, learning and development to organizational outcomes and

career progression. (Otley, 2015).

d. Building manager-employee relationship with the right feedback and coaching conversations.

e. Developing leaders with the skills to help their people grow and succed.

f. Monitoring the progress on set goals. The H.R has to be aware about the progress of all

employees. Along with that, they also make sure that, the member of staff treats all his clients

very well. The H.R also can take reviews from the clients of The Kensington Hotel about the

waiters. (Joshi,2015)

g. Using technology to enable and focus the talent of a new employee and align it to the needs of

your all staff in the department and the clientele of the buisness.

h. Appraisal of staff throught the whole department This process is important for making the

employees happy and satisfied, therefore, they can give their best in the workplace. In this case,

the H.R should observe the waiters, listen to them, and should give those instructions for their

work betterment and then recognize their good work (Aguinis, 2013).

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P6. Identify specific legislation that a hospitality organisation has to comply and adhere to.

In the hospitality industry, some certain legislations, rules and regulations are essential for the companies

to maintain in order to run the business properly. They are discussed below,

Customer safety acts: In the industry of hospitality, the act regarding the customers and their safety and

security plays a major role. This act in the UK also involves the cleanliness and enough storage of food so

that the customers feel safe and content. In this way, the UK based five star hotels The Kensington can

keep away from the legal issues and compensations as well. At the same time, the Hotel and Motel Fire

Safety Act also provides the hotels a certain guideline to keep up the basic fire and safety instructions

(Roberts, 2014). The Kensington hotel needs to maintain these legislative guidelines in its management

and thus its associated employees trust the hotel authority and stick to the hotel. Simultaneously, the

customers also feel safe within the hotel and enjoy their stay while knowing that they are safe in case of

any uncertainty.

Trade union and workers rights acts: In the hospitality industry, the employees of a certain hotel may

be a part of a union or they may imply some specific settlements regarding their salary, negotiating pay,

terms and conditions work process and other work related advantages. Helping all union members with

employee grievances. Taking part with union members to employer meetings and discussing flexibility in

the workplace. Helping union members in redundancy cases or the selling of the business. For a five star

hotel like The Kensington, the employees need to obey and maintain these settlements and commitments

that are signed with its customers, investors and sponsors. At the same time, the hotel also needs to

maintain ethical marketing procedures (Losekoot and Poulston, 2013). Malpractices in the marketing

sector can drag down the reputation of the hotel do to unethical procedures such as: advertising false or

deceptive messages to customers, leaving out important information in the booking procedure of the

customer and using aggressive sales techniques such as text massages, spamlike e-mail or phone calls.

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Employment acts: There are some certain employment moral imperatives that are ought to be maintained

by the hotels of the hospitality industry. The first step of these acts includes the process of appointing the

righteous employees while executing a task. At the same time, these acts also includes the Sex

Discrimination Act that makes it illegal to discriminate on account of sex and marital status in the

recruitment process. These also include the Race Relations Act that makes it unlawful to discriminate on

account of race, colour, nationality and ethnical or national origin of any employee working in the U.K. It

also covers the Disability Discrimination Act that places the responsibility on employers to make

“reasonable adjustments” to the workplace and methods of working operations in order to allow disabled

(differently abbled) persons to be employed . All these acts were in effect until 2010 when the U.K.

government implemented the Equality Act. This embodied all of the previous acts and also came with

some extra points against discrimination in the workplace. This law includes provisions that ban age

discrimination against adults even if they are retired. Therefore, in order to run The Kensington Hotel in

the hospitality market it needs to respect, apply and maintain these acts.

P7. M3, D3, Using specific examples, illustrate how company, employment and contract law has a

potential impact on business decision-making in the hospitality industry.

The decision making process of the whole hospitality industry as well as The Kensington hotel is hugely

affected by some of the most important employee and contract laws. These are discussed below,

a) Safety and security: The hospitality industry needs to pay attention to its employees primarily. The

employees are the heart of an organization (Bradach, 2017). Thus, their safety, security and comfort are

the top most priorities of The Kensington hotel. In order to have different and innovative point of views to

improvise the action, they authorities allow them to express their selves. As a result, they feel content and

important enough to the company. At the same time, the hotel authority also makes sure their safety and

security to make them feel more secure and comfortable in the work place. As a result, the service of the

hotel will be enhanced and customers will be satisfied as well. The employment act and its features also

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include acts regarding the salary and wages, incentive and promotion of the employees so that the hotels

can maintain the fairness in those factors.

b) Employment contract: Within the hospitality industry, the employees agree for an employment

contract with the authority of a certain company. This legislative framework is mainly based on the

conditions of the employment process, an employee’s basic rights and their duties and responsibilities

regarding the hotel. This contract usually refers to providing a service. Both of the parties of obey to the

terms of the contract so that a better management and employee relationship can be built (Maset and

Mafini, 2018). With the help of a better understanding relationship, The Kensington hotel can make

effective decision for the company and for the employees as well under a friendly work environment.

c) Information right: In the decision making process in the hospitality industry, the employees need the

equal right to have all the essential information. The free flow of the information make the employees

more resourceful while execution of a task. At the same time, they also get the equal right and a unbiased

work environment within the hotel. This act allows the authority of the hotel to make effective and better

decision with the support of the employees.

P8 Explore how different functional roles within the hospitality sector interrelate.

The different types of functions, their role and their inter connection within the hospitality sector are

discussed below,

1. Food and Beverage Department: Within the hospitality sector, Food and Beverage is one of the most

important and biggest departments. In this department, the five star hotels like, The Kensington generally

includes the restaurants with different types and shapes. These restaurants generally provide the

customers their breakfast, lunch and dinner. Additionally, they also have arrangements for other

entertainment activities including live performances. Food services come along with alcoholic beverage

services. This department causes a huge amount of profit to the hotel. Most of the food and beverage

department features with employee feeding. With the help of this feature, they offer their employees their

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menu, service, cash and credit. Therefore, this department has a direct connection with the management

department of the hotel.

2. Sales and Marketing Department: The sales and marketing department of the hotel does the main job

of surveying the market. The sales part of this department deals with the sales units that are coming to

The Kensington hotel. Moreover, this department includes the advertising and promotional activities

regarding the hotel with the help of public relation department. However, the sales and marketing

department highly involves the finance department with profit and loss, tax and fees and settlements and

compensation, which are included in the finance department.

3. Maintenance Department: Maintenance of the hotel is the key part of running the hotel properly. This

factor is equally important for the customers and owners of the hotel (Bharadwaj, Varadarajan and Fahy,

2013). Like sales and marketing department, maintenance department also interrelated with the finance

department of the hotel. Starting from establishing the hotel to make it more furnished and presentable to

the customers needs the help of finance department. As the customers feel more attracted toward the well

maintained hotel atmosphere, they will prefer well maintained hotel. Thus, the profit of the hotel will

generate automatically.

4. Human Resource Department: Generally, the human resource department is determined in

accordance with the shape of the hotel. As The Kensington is a well-known five star hotel in the UK, it

has an effective human resource department that does the job of keeping the hotel’s reputation intact

(Kubler, et all 2016). Along with this, various types of essential activities including advertisement,

interview, recruitment, direction and ejection are done through the HR department. As a result, HR

department relates to the marketing department.

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P9. M4, D4, Explain the different methods of communication, coordination and monitoring applied

within a specific department of a hospitality organisation to strengthen the value chain.

Different methods of communication, are useful in the coordination and the monitoring process within

The Kensington hotel. I will discuss these recomandations and have chosen as example the housekepping


(i) Verbal or oral communication: In order to strengthen the value brand name and values of The

Kensington hotel, the process of verbal communication is the most effective. As the value chain involves

the planning, sourcing, making and delivering, returning and enabling process. These highly sort after in

the verbal communication process among the employees of the hotel (DeWitt, Nguyen and Marshall,

2018). Thus, the verbal communication process helps the officials to coordinate and monitor various

departments of the hotel.

(ii) Internal communication: Within the hotel as well as the departments such as reception, room service

or food & beverage , need the internal communication for an optimal end result. As the employees of the

hotel work as a team and provide services, they need to communicate with each other. As effective

communication process helps them to create a stronger bong between them, they can also perform better

with coordination. Starting from the planning to enabling process this communication is the most

effective one.

(iii) Written communication: In some cases or for some official purpose, the hotel needs to

communicate with its employees and its customers in written communication process. This written

communication process mainly includes the important announcement, press release and other official

statements (Dubé, Enz, Renaghan and Siguaw, 2013). As this pattern defines the official announcements,

it helps the hotel to coordinate and monitor the employees.

Therefore, the planning component of the value chain highly depends on this communication process.

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This particular report is based on the hospitality business toolkit. In order to accomplish the report

criteria, there has been a brief discussion on the managing finance and transaction of The Kensington

hotels based in the UK. This part mainly has described the principles of monitoring and managing the

finance along with book keeping system to record the transactions and accurate trial balance. In the next

part of this report, the difference stages of HR cycle have been described for develop performance

management plan so that the negative attitudes can be resolved. Besides this, there is also discussion on

the legislation on the hospitality management which shows the effectiveness of the laws on the decision

making process of the hotel. At the same time, the different function of the hotel and its communication

methods to coordinate and monitor more effectively.

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