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EFFECTS OF GLASS WASTE ON

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF
CONCRETE
PROJECT REPORT
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING
SUBMITTED BY
ANISH SHARMA
UNIV. ROLL NO. 1707304
(DECEMBER 2018)

Department of Civil Engineering

Guru Nanak Dev Engineering collage, Ludhiana

(An Autonomous Collage under UGC Act)


GURU NANAK DEV ENGINEERING COLLAGE, LUDHIANA

CANDIDATE DECLARATION
I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the project work entitled “EFFECTS
OF GLASS WASTE ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE” by “ANISH
SHARMA” in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of degree of M. Tech. (Structural
Engineering) submitted in the Department of Civil Engineering at GURU NANAK DEV
ENGINEERING COLLAGE under I.K.G. PUNJAB TECHNICAL
UNIVERSITY,JALANDHAR is an authentic record of my own work carried out during a period
from July to December 2018 under the supervision of prof. Harpal Singh. The matter presented
in this project report has not been submitted by me in any other university/institute for the award
of M.Tech Degree.

This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of our
Knowledge.

Guided By Co Guided By

Dr. Harpal Singh Prof. Tanu

Professor Assistant Professor

Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering

GNDEC, LUDHIANA GNDEC, LUDHIANA


ABSTRACT

This project work illustrates the effects of waste glass on the compressive strength of concrete
with and without the use of fiber as additive. Compressive strength test on various samples were
conducted and calculated for 3, 7 and 28 days respectively. On addition of fiber as additive (0.5
% of weight of cement), the 28 days compressive strength slightly increases. Upon replacement
of sand with waste glass to the extent of 10%, 20% and 30%, improvement in 28 days
compressive strength is observed. When waste glass is replaced with sand in natural aggregate
along with the addition of fiber (0.5%), the compressive strength for 28 days shows a higher
value as compared to normal concrete with/without the addition of fiber. Thus, waste glass can
be effectively used in concrete yielding improved compressive strength thereby solving the
problem of haphazard disposal. The utilization of waste glass in concrete will not only solve the
problem of land filling but also helps in conserving the natural resources and preventing
environment degradation.

Keywords: Waste glass, fiber, compressive strength, reuse of waste.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all I am highly grateful to the Principal, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College
(GNDEC), Ludhiana, for providing me opportunity to carry out the present project work. The
constant guidance and encouragement received from Dr. K.S Gill Prof. and Head, Department of
Civil Engineering, GNDEC Ludhiana has been of great help in carrying out the present work and
is acknowledged with reverential thanks. I would like to express a deep sense of gratitude and
thanks profusely to Dr. Harpal Singh Prof., Department of Civil Engineering, GNDEC who was
the thesis Supervisor. Without the wise counsel and able guidance, it would have been
impossible to complete the Project work in this manner.
Table of content

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1: IMPORTANCE OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

1.2: GLASS WASTE

1.3: CONCLUSION REMARKS

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 MATERIALS

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DECLARATION


4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.2 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH CURVES FOR VARIOUS


TEST SAMPLES

CHAPTER 5: REFERENCES
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION
1.1 IMPORTANCE OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
Waste glass is waste material which poses serious threat to man and animals through various
modes when disposed of in the open fields and landfills. There exists possibility of utilizing
waste glass in concrete as a partial replacement for fine aggregate (10%, 20%, and 30%). The
use of waste glass will also minimize the injury hazards and environmental degradation. This
project focusing on the possibility of utilizing these waste materials in concrete construction
works through testing of its compressive strength.

1.2 GLASS WASTE


Glass forms as a result of solutions containing alkali and soil alkali metal oxides in addition to
some other metal oxides. Its essential material is (SiO2) silica. WG used in the experiments was
that of colored soda bottles, which a type of print silk WG. Following the gathering process,
these bottles were kept in water so that the labels on them would be removed, and were then
reduced to as fine as 4–16 mm. Unit weight and specific gravity of the WG used in place of
natural aggregates as fine as 4–16 mm were 1493 kg/m3 and 2400 kg/m3 according to ISO
6782:1982 and ISO 6783:1982, respectively. The chemical combination of the glass was as
follows: SiO2 70–75%; Na2O 12–18%; K2O 0–1%; CaO 5–14%; Al2O3 0.5–2.5%; and MgO 0–
4%.

Glass has been indispensable to man’s life due to such properties as pliability to take any shape
with ease, bright surface, resistance to abrasion, safety and durability. As utility ranges of the
glass increase, so does the amount of the waste glass (WG). United Nations estimates the volume
of yearly disposed solid waste to be 200 million tons, 7% of which is made up of glass the world
over. For Turkey, this amounts to 120,000 tons, 80,000 tons of which are recycled, with
Germany reporting 3 million tons of WG being recycled. Furthermore, unlike other waste
products, glass is imperishable and thus detrimental to the environment. Using WG in the
concrete has gained far more importance in parallel to environmental consciousness. While using
WG in the concrete as aggregate improves some of the concrete properties, it also negatively
affects some others. WG, finer than 38 Am, exhibited a pozzolanic behavior and if the WG can
be even finer, WG pozzolanic activity can be remarkably improved.
Glass is a transparent material produced by melting a mixture of materials such as silica, soda
ash, and CaCO3 at high temperature followed by cooling where solidification occurs without
crystallization. Glass is widely used in our lives through manufactured products such as sheet
glass, bottles, glassware, and vacuum tubing. Glass is an ideal material for recycling. The use of
recycled glass saves lot of energy and the increasing awareness of glass recycling speeds up
focus on the use of waste glass with different forms in various fields. One of its significant
contributions is the construction field where the waste glass was reused for concrete production.
The application of glass in architectural concrete still needs improvement.

1.3 CONCLUSION REMARKS


Several study have shown that waste glass that is crushed and screened is a strong, safe and
economical alternative to sand used in concrete. During the last decade, it has been recognized
that sheet glass waste is of large volume and is increasing year by year in the shops, construction
areas and factories. Using waste glass in the concrete construction sector is advantageous, as the
production cost of concrete will go down. The amount of waste glass is gradually increased over
the years due to an ever-growing use of glass products. Most of the waste glasses have been
dumped into landfill sites. The land filling of waste glasses is undesirable because they are not
biodegradable, which makes them environmentally less friendly. There is huge potential for
using waste glass in the concrete construction sector. Crushed glass or cullet, if properly sized
and processed, can exhibit characteristics similar to that of gravel or sand. When used in
construction applications, waste glass must be crushed and screened to produce an appropriate
design gradation. Glass crushing equipment normally used to produce a cullet is similar to rock
crushing equipment. Glass crushing equipment in glass sector has been primarily designed to
reduce the size or density of the cullet for transportation purposes. Ground waste glass was used
as aggregate for mortars and no reaction was detected with fine particle size, thus indicating the
feasibility of the waste glass reuse as fine aggregate in mortars and concrete. Estimated cost for
housing is more and some construction materials like natural sand are also becoming rare. Waste
glasses are used as aggregates for concrete.
CHAPTER 2:
LITERATURE REVIEW

Ismail ZZ, Al-Hashmi EA. Recycling of waste glass as a partial replacement


for fine aggregate in concrete. Waste Manage 2009;29(2):655–59.
Waste glass creates serious environmental problems, mainly due to the inconsistency of waste
glass streams. With increasing environmental pressure to reduce solid waste and to recycle as
much as possible, the concrete industry has adopted a number of methods to achieve this goal.
The properties of concretes containing waste glass as fine aggregate were investigated in this
study. The strength properties and ASR expansion were analyzed in terms of waste glass content.
An overall quantity of 80 kg of crushed waste glass was used as a partial replacement for sand at
10%, 15%, and 20% with 900 kg of concrete mixes. The results proved 80% pozzolanic strength
activity given by waste glass after 28 days. The flexural strength and compressive strength of
specimens with 20% waste glass content were 10.99% and 4.23%, respectively, higher than
those of the control specimen at 28 days. The mortar bar tests demonstrated that the finely
crushed waste glass helped reduce expansion by 66% as compared with the control mix.

Khatib J.M., Sohl H.S., H.S. Sohl and Chileshe N. (2012) “Glass Powder
Utilisation in Concrete Production” European Journal of Applied Sciences 4
(4): 173-176, 2012 ISSN 2079-2077 © IDOSI Publications,
The maximum compressive strength occurs at around 10% glass powder and beyond
10% it tends to decrease and is lower than that of the control.

Shao, Y., Lefort, T., Moras, S. and Rodriguez, D. (2000), Studies on concrete
containing ground waste glass, Cement and Concrete Research 30, 91–100.
Glass is widely used in our lives through manufactured products such as sheet glass, bottles,
glassware, and vacuum tubing. Glass is an ideal material for recycling. The use of recycled glass
helps in energy saving. The increasing awareness of glass recycling speeds up inspections on the
use of waste glass with different forms in various fields. One of its significant contributions is to
the construction field where the waste glass was reused for concrete production. The application
of glass in architectural concrete still needs improvement. Laboratory experiments were
conducted to further explore the use of waste glass as coarse and fine aggregates for both ASR
(Alkali-Silica-Reaction) alleviation as well as the decorative purpose in concrete. The study
indicated that waste glass can effectively be used as fine aggregate replacement (up to 40%)
without substantial change in strength.
Júnior, E. J. P. de M., Bezerra, H. de J. C. L., Politi, F. S. and Paiva, A. E. M.
(2014), Increasing the compressive strength of Portland cement concrete using
flat glass powder, Materials Research. 17(Suppl. 1), 45-50.
This paper analyzes the compressive strength of Portland cement concrete in response to the
incorporation of 5%, 10% and 20% of flat glass powder in place of sand, at w/c (water/cement)
ratios of 0.50, 0.55 and 0.58. A statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed after 7,
14 and 28 days of curing. The compressive strength test results indicate that the concrete
containing a w/c ratio of 0.50 can be used for structural applications, regardless of the waste
glass content, as can that with a w/c ratio of 0.55 containing 20% of waste glass. We suggest that
the use of flat glass powder in place of sand in the abovementioned percentages is feasible for
the production of an environmentally appropriate and structurally applicable concrete. However,
the concrete’s fluidity and void content must be taken into account.

Abdallah, S. and Fan, M. (2014), Characteristics of concrete with waste glass


as fine aggregate replacement, International Journal of Engineering and
Technical Research, 2(6), 11-17.
This paper systematically investigates the characteristics of concrete containing fine crushed
glass during its process, the best ratio of fine crushed glass which leads to higher strength of
concrete in order to produce concrete blocks, and the effect of waste glass replacement on the
expansion caused by Alkali-silica reaction (ASR).. It was found that the slump of concrete
containing waste glass as fine aggregate replacement decreased with increases in the waste glass
content but without loss of workability. The compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strength
of concrete with 20% waste glass content increased by 5.28 %, 18.38% and 8.92% respectively
at 28 days. The mixes with waste glass replacement showed a denser internal concrete structure
or more consistent structure under ultrasonic pulse velocity assessment. There was a clear
decrease in the water absorption with an increase of waste glass aggregate ratio, and a clear
reduction in the expansion of the waste glass concrete, showing an alkali–silica reaction in
concrete which occurred between the active silica of waste glass and alkali of cement paste.
Index Terms— Waste glass; Concrete; Properties; Alkali-silica reaction.

Malik M. Iqbal, Bashir Muzafar, Ahmad Sajad, Tariq Tabish, and


Chowdhary Umar (2013) “Study of Concrete Involving Use of Waste Glass as
Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregates” IOSR Journal of Engineering
(IOSRJEN) e-ISSN: 2250-3021, p-ISSN: 2278-8719 Vol. 3, Issue 7 (July).
Malik M. Iqbal et al [2013] in their study of concrete involving use of Waste Glass as Partial
Replacement of Fine Aggregates carried out this test and resulted that the percentage water
absorption decreased with increase in waste glass content. The lowest value of water absorption
was found for concrete mix with 40% waste glass content.
Metwally IM. Investigations on the performance of concrete made with
blended finely milled waste glass. Adv in Struct Eng 2007;10(1):47–53.
Non-recyclable waste glass, which is produced from fluorescent lamps factories, constitutes a
problem for solid waste disposal in various countries worldwide. Thereby, the accumulation of
waste glass in the plants, not being used, represents not only a significant loss of money and
energy by occupying a big area from plants but also a negative impact on the environment. This
study is considered of significant interest in the development of environmentally friendly
concrete containing waste glass. Using waste glass as a construction material is a good way to
help the environment following grinding and its use in concrete as a partial replacement for
cement by weight. Five different concrete mixes with various percentages of finely milled waste
glass (FMWG) were prepared. The test results showed that the FMWG has pozzolanic
characteristics and using it as a mineral admixture in concrete, had a bad effect on workability,
but improved considerably the mechanical properties of concrete at later ages. The optimum
percentage of FMWG that gives the maximum values of compressive, splitting tensile and bond
strengths is 10%. Results also showed that expansion due to alkali-silica reaction was minimized
obviously by increase in the FMWG content.

Topcu IB, Canbaz M. Properties of concrete containing waste glass. Cem


Concr Res 2004;34(2):267–74.
In this study, in which waste glass (WG) is considered as coarse aggregates in the concrete, WG
was used reduced to 4–16 mm in proportions of 0–60% in the production of PKC ß/B 32.5/R
type cement. The effects of WG on workability and strength of the concrete with fresh and
hardened concrete tests were analyzed. As a result of the study conducted, WG was determined
not to have a significant effect upon the workability of the concrete and only slightly in the
reduction of its strength. Waste glass cannot be used as aggregate without taking into account its
ASR properties. As for cost analysis, it was determined to lower the cost of concrete productions.
Our study was an environmental one in consideration to the fact that WG could be used in the
concrete as coarse aggregates without the need for a high cost or rigorous energy.

Abu Salem, Z.T., Khedawi, T.S., Baker, M.B., and Abendeh, R. “Effect of
waste glass on properties of asphalt concrete mixtures.” Jordan Journal of
Civil Engineering, 11(1), 117-131.(2017)
The optimal replacement ratio at 10% replacement of glass waste can be used in concrete with
improvement in compressive strength and no significant effect on durability.

Gautam S.P. , Srivastava V. and Aggarwal V.C. “Use of glass wastes as fine
aggregate in concrete” J. Acad. Indus. Res., 1 (6), 320-322. (2012)
Laboratory experiments were conducted to further explore the use of waste glass fine aggregates
for strength test of concrete. The study indicated that waste glass can effectively be used as fine
aggregate replacement (up to 40%) with optimum strength at 10 % replacement.

Adaway M. & Wang Y. “Recycled glass as a partial replacement for fine


aggregate in structural concrete – Effects on compressive strength.”
Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering, 14(1). (2015)
Three concrete samples were tested at 7 and 28 days, for glass replacement proportions of 15, 20,
25, 30 and 40%. Compressive strength was found concrete containing up to 30% fine glass
aggregate exhibits higher compressive strength development than traditional concrete.
CHAPTER 3:
METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODCUTION

The following materials were used in the preparation of the concrete cubes for studying the
effect on compressive strength:

1. Cement: Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) grade 43 IS: 8112-1989.


2. Fine aggregate (sand): IS: 383 – 1970 (conforming to zone II as per IS: 383 – 1970).
3. Coarse aggregate: IS: 1199-1959 (20 mm and 10 mm in ratio of 60:40) graded 20 mm
nominal size as per IS: 383 – 1970.
4. Waste glass (ground and sieved through 4.75 mm but greater than 75 micron size)
graded in zone I as per IS: 383 – 1970 was used in proportions of 10%, 20% and 30%
replacing sand.

3.2 MATERIALS
The concrete cubes were casted with cement: sand: aggregate in proportion of 1: 2: 4 with water-
cement ratio as 0.50. The other materials were used in proportions as listed above and water-
cement was reduced by 10% (to 0.45) when super plasticizer was used. The materials obtained
were tested and their relevant properties are discussed and compared with the standard
provisions .The materials are:

1) Cement

2) Fine aggregate

3) Coarse aggregate

4) Waste glass

5) Water

6) Fibre

3.211 Cement: The physical properties of cement as determined are given in Table 1. The
specific gravity was 3.15 and fineness was 2800 cm2/g. And its chemical composition is given
below
Table 1 Physical properties of cement
Property Value
Standard consistency (%) 27.5
Fineness (%) 2.2
Initial setting time (minutes) 62
Final setting time (minutes) 617
3 days 25.8
Compressive strength
7 days 34.3
(N/mm2) after
28 days 45.7

Table 2 Chemical composition of cement

Chemical constituent Percentage (%)


Ca O 47.78
SiO2 30.88
Al2O3 6.73
Fe2O3 3.59
Mg O 1.31
SO3 1.66
Loss on Ignition 6.20
Cl 0.011

3.2.2 Fine aggregate: Fine aggregate consists of aggregation of mineral grains obtained from the
disintegration of rocks. The sand used in the experimental study was crushed sand from natural
boulders. Specific gravity of fine aggregate is 2.63 the water absorption is 0.09%. As per IS:
383-1970, the fine aggregate lies in grading zone II which is good quality sand for concrete
work. The fineness modulus of sand is 2.60 and this again indicates the suitability of sand in
concreting.
3.2.3 Coarse aggregate: Coarse aggregate consist of the crushed stone used for making
concrete. The stone is quarried from the quarries, crushed in the crusher and then graded to suit
different requirements. Crushed angular hard sandstone of maximum size 20 mm from a local
quarry was used as coarse aggregate. The specific gravity of coarse aggregate is 2.64 and
fineness modulus is 6.57. The impact value of coarse aggregate is 18% and its crushing value
and water absorption are 22% and 0.02% respectively. The coarse aggregate conforming to
graded aggregate of nominal size 20 mm as per IS: 383-1970 was used and its particle size
distribution curve.

3.2.4 Waste glass: Glass forms as a result of solutions containing alkali and soil alkali metal
oxides in addition to some other metal oxides and contains primarily silica (SiO 2). The waste
glass of the used window panes was taken as replacement of fine aggregate. As per IS: 383-1970,
the waste glass fine aggregate lies in grading zone I. The specific gravity of the waste glass was
2.4 g/cm3. The chemical composition of waste glass is given below.

Chemical composition of waste glass


Constituent Percentage (%) Range (%)
SiO2 72.3 70-75
Na2O 14.2 12-18
K2O 0.4 0-1
CaO 9.4 5-14
Al2O3 1.5 0.5-2.5
MgO 2.2 0-4

3.2.5 Water: Potable water conforming to stipulations of IS: 456-2000 (reaffirmed in 2011) is
used for mixing and curing. The properties of water show that the water is suitable for use in
concrete work.
3.2.6 Fibers: The fibers of 6 mm size were used in the study to the extent of 100 g/bag of cement
(50Kg). The use of fibres reduces cracks during plastic and hardening stage and decreases
water seepage and protects steel in concrete from corroding. Further, it increases the
abrasion resistance by over 40% thereby increasing the life of roads, walkways, floors etc. The
workability of the concrete is increased and rebound loss is reduced substantially.

3.3 PROPORTIONING OF MATERIALS AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TESTS


CONDUCTED

3.3.1 EXPERIMENTAL INTRODUCTION


Specimens of desired grading: Cement: sand: aggregate:: 1: 2: 4 in air-dried condition as per
IS: 456 – 2000.
Size of specimens: 15 cm x 15 cm x 15 cm.
Number of specimens: 3 specimens for each test at 3, 7 and 28 days curing period, total – 9
specimens.
Experimental program: The experimental study includes preparation of samples of desired
grading (cement: fine aggregate: coarse aggregate:: 1: 2: 4) in air-dried conditions as per IS: 456-
2000 (water-cement ratio 0.5). The concrete were filled in three layers and each layer was
compacted. The test specimens were stored in the laboratory at a place free from vibration under
damp matting for 24 hours and then stored in clean water at a temperature of 25° - 30° C.
Specimens stored in water were tested for compressive strength after removing from water in air-
dried condition as per IS: 456- 2000.

3.3.2 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TESTS

The compressive strength tests were conducted on concrete cubes casted with the following
material combinations after 3, 7 and 28 days curing periods.

Sr. No. Combination No. of


samples
1. A1-Cement: sand: aggregate:: 1: 2: 4 3
2. A4-Cement: sand: aggregate:: 1: 2: 4 + 0.5% fiber 3
3. C11, C12 and C13 - 9
Cement: sand: aggregate:: 1: 2: 4 (sand replaced by waste
glass = 10%, 20%, 30%)
4. C41, C42 and C43 - 9
Cement: sand: aggregate:: 1: 2: 4 + 0.5% fiber (sand replaced
by waste glass = 10%, 20%, 30%)
Total number of specimens 24

Some typical cement concrete cubes casted without/with fiber are shown below.
Cement concrete cube Cement concrete cube with fibre

3.3.3 TESTING OF CONCRETE CUBES


The test cubes of size 15 cm x 15 cm x 15cm casted in the laboratory with various material
combinations. Compression strength tests were performed on cubes in universal compression
testing machine to determine their compressive strength at 3, 7 and 28 days respectively.

Cement concrete cube (with glass waste) - testing in UTM

The failure pattern of the cement concrete cube containing glass waste shows brittle failure as is
evident from the nature of the nearly vertical cracks.
Failure pattern of cement concrete cube (with fibre)

The failure pattern of cement concrete cube containing fibre shows practically very small cracks.
CHAPTER 4:
RESULTS AND DECLARATION
4.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter includes the description of various materials used in casting of test concrete cubes
in the laboratory to study their effect on the compressive strength of concrete. The waste glass
and fibre has been used. The graphical representation which shows the compressive strength of
different series (A1, A4, C1 and C4) is shown below.

4.2 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST CURVES FOR VARIOUS TEST


SAMPLES
4.2.1 Compressive strength comparison for 3, 7 and 28 days for series A1 and A4: The
compressive strength of normal cube specimen (A1 series) and concrete specimen containing
fiber are shown in figure1.

24 23.12
A1 Series: C+S+A : 1:2:4
A4 Series: C+S+A+F : 1:2:4 21.29
Compressive strength (N/mm2 )

20 18.85

16.29
18.27
16
15.91

12

8
2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30
Age (days)

Figure1 Compressive strength test comparison for A1 and A4 series.


From the graph, it is clear that for A4 series with the addition of fiber in concrete the
compressive strength increases. The increase may be due to fine segments of fiber which fills the
voids in the cube matrix.
4.2.2 Compressive strength comparison for 3, 7 and 28 days for A1 and C1 series: The
compressive strength of normal concrete specimen (A1) and concrete specimen containing waste
glass for 10%, 20% and 30% respectively (C11, C12 and C13) are shown in figure 2.
32
29.17

28 26.76
Compressive strength (N/mm2 )

23.74 25.9
24
20.93 21.29

20 18.27

15.91
16
12.25 11.89
A1 Series: C+S+A : 1:2:4
12 11.07
C1 Series: C+[FA(S+WG)]+A : 1:2:4 (10%)
9.05 C1 Series: C+[FA(S+WG)]+A : 1:2:4 (20%)
C1 Series: C+[FA(S+WG)]+A : 1:2:4 (30%)
8
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Age (days)

Figure 2 Compressive strength test comparison for A1 and C1 series

It can be seen that the compressive strength for concrete containing waste glass (C1) series gives
higher compressive strength for 28 days with optimum value for replacement of sand with waste
glass for a percentage of 20%.

4.2.3 Compressive strength comparison for 3, 7 and 28 days for A4 and C4 series: The
compressive strength of concrete containing 0.5% fiber (A4) series and concrete with
replacement of sand with waste glass along with 0.5% fiber (C4) series in shown in figure 3. The
compressive strength is computed for 3, 7 and 28 days respectively.
32
31.79

28 25.75
Compressive strength (N/mm2)

24.14
24
20.33 23.12
20 18.85

16.29 16.1
16.39
16
A4 Series: C+S+A+F:1:2:4
C4 Series: C+[FA(S+WG)]+A+F:1:2:4 (10%)
12 10.12
10.3 C4 Series:C+[FA(S+WG)]+A+F:1:2:4 (20%)
9.92 C4 Series:C+[FA(S+WG)]+A+F:1:2:4 (30%)
8
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Age (days)

Figure 3 Compressive strength test comparison for A4 and C4 series

As seen above, the test samples has shown a higher value of compressive strength of 28 days for
concrete containing waste glass as replacement of fine sand (C4) series than normal concrete
(A1) series and concrete containing fiber (A4) series with optimum value for replacement of
sand with waste glass for a percentage of 20%. The higher strength obtained maybe due to the
fines of waste glass which has a dense structure and higher density which helps in filling the
voids thereby making the concrete matrix stronger.
CHAPTER 5:
REFERENCES

1. Abdallah, S. and Fan, M. (2014), Characteristics of concrete with waste glass as fine
aggregate replacement, International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research, 2(6),
11-17.
2. Abu Salem, Z.T. Khedawi, T.S., Baker, M.B., and Abendeh, R. (2017). “ Effect of waste
glass on properties of asphalt concrete mixtures.” Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering,
11(1), 117-131.
3. Adaway M, AND Wang Y(2015). “Recycled glass as a partial replacement for fine
aggregate in structural concrete – Effects on compressive strength.” Electronic Journal of
Structural Engineering, 14(1).
4. Gautam S.P, Shrivastava v, Aggarwal V.C(2012). “Use of glass wastes as fine aggregate in
concrete” J. Acad. Indus. Res., 1 (6), 320-322.
5. IS:456-2000 (reaffirmed in 2011). “Plain and reinforced concrete - code of practice.”
Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Bhawan, New Delhi.
6. IS:8112-1989(OPC)grade ”Ordinary Portland cement”
7. IS:383-1970(Conforming to zone 2)”Fine aggregate”
8. IS:1199-1959(20mm and 10mm in ratio of 60:40)”Coarse aggregate”
9. Ismail, Z.Z., and Al-Hashmi, E.A. (2009). “Recycling of waste glass as a partial
replacement for fine aggregate in concrete.” Waste Management, 29(2), 655-659.
10.Júnior, E. J. P. de M., Bezerra, H. de J. C. L., Politi, F. S. and Paiva, A. E. M. (2014),
Increasing the compressive strength of Portland cement concrete using flat glass powder,
Materials Research. 17(Suppl. 1), 45-50.
11.Khatib, J.M., Negim, E.M., Sohl, H.S., and Chileshe, N.(2012). “Glass powder utilization
in concrete production.” European Journal of Applied Sciences, 4(4), 173-176.
12.Malik M. Iqbal, Bashir Muzafar, Ahmad Sajad, Tariq Tabish, and Chowdhary Umar (2013)
“Study of Concrete Involving Use of Waste Glass as Partial Replacement of Fine
Aggregates” IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN) e-ISSN: 2250-3021, p-ISSN: 2278-
8719 Vol. 3, Issue 7 (July).
13.Metwally, I.M. (2007). “Investigations on the performance of concrete made with blended
finely milled waste glass.” Advances in Structural Engineering, 10 (1), 4753.
14.Shao, Y.X., Lefort, T., Moras, S., and Rodriguez, D. (2000). “Studies on concrete
containing ground waste glass.” Cement Concrete Research, 30 (1), 91-100.
Topcu, I.B., and Canbaz, M. (2004). “Properties of concrete containing waste glass.”
Cement Concrete Research, 34(2), 267-270.