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h h

= Lim = Lim =1 … (I)

h →0 h h →0 h

f (0 − h ) − 0 −h

Left Hand Derivative f ′(0) = Lim = Lim

h →0 −h h → 0 −h

h

= Lim = −1 … (II)

h →0 − h

From (I) and (II), we get R.H.D ≠ L.H.D. Therefore, f(x) is not differentiable. Hence we conclude:

If a function is differentiable at a point then it is continuous at that point, but on the other hand if a function is

continuous at a point then it is not necessarily differentiable at that point. We shall prove this statement by the

following example.

Example 21. Show f (x ) = x − a is continuous but not differentiable at x = a.

Solution. L.H.L. = Lim− f (x ) = Lim f (a − h )

x→a h →0

= Lim a − h − a = Lim − h = Lim h = 0

h →0 h →0 h →0

and R.H.L. = Lim+ f (x ) = Lim f (a + h ) = Lim a + h − a = Lim h = Lim h = 0

x→a h →0 h →0 h →0 h →0

also f (a ) = a − a = 0

∴ R.H.L = L.H.L. = f (a )

∴ f(x) is continuous at x = 2.

f (a + h ) − f (a ) a+h−a − a−a h

But Rf ′(a ) = Lim = Lim = Lim = 1

h →0 h h →0 h h →0 h

f (a − h ) − f (a ) a−h−a − a−a

and Lf ′(a ) = Lim = Lim

h →0 −h h →0 −h

−h h

= Lim = Lim = −1

h →0 − h h →0 − h

x = a but not differentiable at x = a.

Exercise 1.5

Examine the continuity of each of the following functions.

⎧3x + 5 if x > 0

1. f(x) = 2x + 5, for all value of x 2. f (x ) = ⎨ at x = 0

⎩5 − 3x if x ≥ 0

⎧1

⎪ , x≠0

3. f (x ) = x , for all value of x 4. f (x ) = ⎨ x at x = 0.

⎪⎩ 3, x > 0

⎧⎪− 2 x 2 + 4, x < 1 ⎧ x 2 − 16

⎪

5. f (x ) = ⎨ 2 at x = 1. 6. f (x ) = ⎨ x − 4 , x ≠ 4 at x = 4.

⎪⎩ x + 1, x ≥1 ⎪⎩ 10, x=4

36 A Textbook of Business Mathematics

Thus, we note that logarithm is another form of an exponential form where base is same in both the

forms.

Example 22. Find the value of:

⎛ 1 ⎞

(i) log464 (ii) log9243 (iii) log 7 ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 49 ⎠

Solution. (i) Let y = log464

⇒ 4y = 64 or (2)2y = 26 ⇒ 2y = 6 or y =3

Hence, log464 = 3.

(ii) Let y = log9243

⇒ 9y = (3)5

⇒ (3)2y = (3)5 ⇒ 2y = 5 or y = 5/2 = 2.5

⎛ 1 ⎞

(iii) Let y = log 7 ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 49 ⎠

2

1 ⎛1⎞

∴ 7y = = ⎜ ⎟ = 7 −2

49 ⎝ 7 ⎠

∴ y = −2

⎛ 1 ⎞

Hence, log 7 ⎜ ⎟ = −2

⎝ 49 ⎠

1

Example 23. If log a 2 = then find a.

6

1

Solution. log a 2 =

6

⇒ a1 6 = 2 , (by definition)

16 12

⇒ a =2

⇒ a 1 (2×3) = 21 2

⇒ (a )

13 12

= 21 2

⇒ a 1 3 = 2 , (If indices are same then base are also same)

∴ a = 23 = 8 .

Exercise 1.6

1. Write the following in logarithm form:

(i) 73 = 343 (ii) 27x = 243 (iii) a–2 = y

2. Express the following in index form:

5

(i) log2 128 = 3 (ii) log8 32 = (iii) log4 1280 = 5

3

3. Write the following in logarithm form:

(i) 52 = 25 (ii) 43 = 64 (iii) 105 = 100,000

4. Calculate logarithm of 1,008 at the base 12 7 .

Basic Preliminaries 43

Involution: To raise a given number to any power multiply the index of the power by the logarithm of the

number. The product is the logarithm of the power. By taking the antilog of this, find the values of the

power.

Evaluation: To extract any root of a given number, divide the logarithm of the number by the index of the

root. The quotient is the logarithm of the root. By taking its antilog, find the value of the root.

Example 29. Find the value of: (i) 1.045 −7 (ii) 7 0.00487

Solution. (i) Let y = (1.045)−7

⇒ log y = −7 log(1.045)

⇒ y = A.L.[− 7 log(1.045)] = A.L.[7 × 0.0191]

= A.L.(− 0.1337 ) = A.L.(− 1 + 1 − 0.1337 )

[To make mantissa positive adding and subtracting 1]

⇒ ( )

y = A.L. 1.8663 = 0.7350

7

(ii) Let y = 0.00487

⇒ y = (0.00487 )1/ 7

1

⇒ log y = log 0.00487

7

⎛ log 0.00487 ⎞ ⎛ 3.6875 ⎞

⇒ y = antilog⎜ ⎟ = antilog⎜⎜ ⎟

⎟

⎝ 7 ⎠ ⎝ 7 ⎠

⎛ 3 + .6875 ⎞ 7 + 4 + .6875 ⎞

⇒ y = antilog⎜⎜ ⎟ = antilog⎛⎜ ⎟

7 ⎟ ⎝ 7 ⎠

⎝ ⎠

⎛ 7 4.6875 ⎞

= antilog⎜ − + ⎟ = antilog(− 1 + 0.6696)

⎝ 7 7 ⎠

( )

= antilog 1.6696 = 0.4673

1.9 To Find Logarithm of Numbers when the Logarithms of some numbers are given

Example 30. If log 2 = 0.3010 and log 3 = 0.4771, find the values of the following:

(i) log 6 = log (2 × 3) = log 2 + log 3 = 0.3010 + 0.4771 = 0.7781

(ii) log 8 = log23 = 3 log 2 = 3 × 0.3010 = 0.9030

10

(iii) log10 5 = log10 = log10 10 − log10 2 = 1 − 0.3010 = 0.6990 .

2

(iv) log 9 = log32 = 2 log 3 = 2 × 0.4771 = 0.9542

(v) log 108 = log (22 × 33) = log 22 + log 33 = 2log 2 + 3log 3

= 2 × 0.3010 + 3 × 0.4771 = 0.6020 + 1.4314 = 2.0333.

Example 31. If log 5 = 0.6990, then find log 125 and log 500.

Solution. log 125 = log53 = 3 × 0.6990 = 2.0970.

and log 500 = log (5 × 100) = log 5 + log 100 = log 5 + log 102

= log 5 + 2 log 10 = log 5 + 2 [' log10 10 = 1]

= 0.6990 + 2 = 2.6990.

Example 32. log102 = 0.3010, log10 3 = 0.4771, and log105 = 0.6990, find :

25

(i) log10 675 (ii) log10

24

44 A Textbook of Business Mathematics

Solution. (i) ( )

log10 675 = log10 (3 × 3 × 3 × 5 × 5) = log10 33 × 5 2 = log10 33 + log10 5 2

= 3 log 1010 3 + 2 log10 5 = 3 × 0.4771 + 2 × 0.6990

= 1.4313 + 1.3980 = 2.8293

25 ⎛ 52 ⎞

= log10 ⎜ 3 ⎟ 2 3

⎜ 2 × 3 ⎟ = log10 5 − log10 2 − log10 3

(ii) log10

24 ⎝ ⎠

25

⇒ log10 = 2 log10 5 − 3 log10 2 − log10 3

24

= 2 × 0.6990 − 3 × 0.3010 − 0.4771

= 1.3980 − 0.9030 − 0.4771 = 0.0179 .

Example 33. If log 2 = 0.3010 and log 3 = 0.4771, find the value of the following:

(i) log 2.4 (ii) log 3 36 (iii) log 4 120 (iv) log 24

24

Solution. (i) log 2.4 = log

10

( )

= log 24 − log10 = log 23 × 3 − log10

= 3 log 2 + log 3 − log 10

= 3 × 0.3010 + 0.4771 − 1 [' log10 = 1]

= 0.9030 + 0.4771 − 1 = 1.3801 − 1 = 0.3801 .

(ii) ( )

log 3 36 = (36)1/ 3 = 2 2 × 32 = (2 × 3)2 / 3

2 2

Hence, log 3 36 = (2 × 3)2 / 3 = [log 2 + log 3] = [0.03010 + 0.4771]

3 3

2 × 0.7781

= = 0.5187

3

(iii) (

120 = (120)1 / 4 = 2 2 × 3 × 10

4

)

Hence,

1

4

( 1

) [

log 4 120 = log 2 2 × 3 × 10 = log 2 2 + log 3 + log 10

4

]

1 1

= [2 log 2 + log 3 + log 10] = [2 × 0.3010 + 0.4771 + 1]

4 4

1 2.0791

= [0.6020 + 0.4771 + 1] = = 0.51977 = 0.5198

4 4

(iv)

1 1

log 24 = log(24)1 / 2 = log 24 = log 3 × 2 3

2 2

( )

1 1

= (log 3 + 3 log 2) = [0.4771 + 3(0.3010)]

2 2

1 1

= (0.4771 + 0.9030) = (1.3801) = 0.69005

2 2

Example 34. If log 358.74 = 2.5547798 and log 594154 = 5.773899 find (0.35874)5.

Solution. (0.35874)5 = A.L. [5 log (0.35874)]

[ ]

= A.L. 5 × 1.5547798 = A.L. [5(− 1 + 5547798)]

Differentiation of Functions 49

y

lim lim f

x x f x

x x 0

x 0 x

dy

= the value of at P.

dx

Hence, derivative of f(x) at x = a is the slope of the tangent to the curve y = f(x) at the point [a, f(a)]. The

slope of the tangent is also called the gradient of the curve. We note that the slope of a curve at a point on it

is the same as the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point.

2.3 Differentiation from the First Principles

When we find out the derivative of a given function by using the definition, it is called differentiation from

the first principles. This method is also known as ab-initio method or delta method.

The following steps are required for using this method.

1. Let y = f(x)

2. Then y + y = f(x + x ).

3. Subtract (1) from (2), we get

y = f(x + x ) – f(x).

y f x x f x

4. Then .

x x

y f x x f x

5. lim lim .

x 0 x x 0 x

d f x x f x f x h f x

6. or f x lim or lim .

dx x 0 x h 0 h

The following examples will illustrate a systematic procedure of the method of first principles.

Example 1. (i) Find the differential coefficient of xn where n is any constant integral or rational number

using first principles.

(ii) Find the differential coefficient of the function y = c, where c is any constant from the first principles.

1

(iii) Find the differential coefficient of from the first principles.

2x 5

n

Solution. (i) Let f(x) = x ...(I)

Then f(x + x ) = (x + x )n …(II)

Subtract (I) from (II), we get

f(x + x ) – f(x) = (x + x )n – xn.

Dividing both sides by x , we obtained

f x x f x x x n x n x x n x n

.

x x x x x

Taking the limit x 0 , we get

f x x f x x x n x n

lim lim

x0 x x 0 x x x

50 A Textbook of Business Mathematics

As x 0, x x x

f x x f x x x n x n

lim lim

x0 x x x x x x x

xn an

f x nx n 1 using lim na n1

x a x a

Thus,

d n

dx

x nx n 1 .

(ii) Let y = c. Then y+ y=c

y y y c c

or y 0

y 0

or 0

x x

Taking the limit as x 0

y

lim lim 0

x 0 x x 0

dy d

or 0 i.e. c 0

dx dx

1 1

(iii) Let y and y y .

2x 5 2x x 5

1 1

Then y y y

2x x 5 2 x 5

2 x 5 2 x 2x 5 2x

y

[2x x 5] 2 x 5 [2x x 5] 2 x 5

y 2

or

x [2x x 5] 2 x 5

Proceeding to the limit as x 0

y 2 2

lim lim

x 0 x x 0 [ 2x x 5] 2 x 5 [ 2x 0 5] 2 x 5

y 2

.

x 2 x 52

Example 2. Find the derivative of the following functions from method of first principle.

1

(i) f x x 5 x

2

(ii) f x 2

x

1

(iii) f x x x 0 (iv) f x x 2 7

x

2 2

Differentiation of Functions 55

4 x 12

3 d 2

dx

3 3

x 0 4 x 12.2 x 0 4 x 24 x.

4 3 15 5 d 3 d 1 d 2

2 , then f x 4x 7 x 15 x 5 x

x x

3

dx dx dx

4x 7 3x 15 1x 5 2x

3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3

4x 21x 15x 10x

3 2 15 10

4x 21x 2 3 .

x x

Example 4. Differentiate each of the following functions with respect to x.

5 2x 7/2

(i) x 3e 5 (ii) 3x 5 log e x 9

2 3

1/ 2 1 ax 2 bx c 2 1

(iii) x 1 / 2 (iv) (v) x 2

x x x

Solution. (i) Let f x x 3e

5 2x

5 , then f x

d 5

dx

x 3

d 2x

dx

d

e 5

dx

4 2x 4 2x

5 x 3 2e 0 5 x 6e .

f x 3x

7/ 2

(ii) Let 5 log e x 9 , then

d

dx

f x

7/2

3x 5 log e x 9

d

dx

3x

7/ 2

d

dx

d

5 log e x 9 3

dx

d 7/ 2

dx

x

d d

5 log e x 9

dx dx

7 72 1 1 21 5 / 2 5

3 x 5 0 x

2 x 2 x

2

1 1

(iii) Let f x x x 2

x x

Differentiating with respect to x, we get

d

dx

1 d

f x x 2 x

x dx

d 1 d

dx

x 2

dx

1

1 1x 2 0 1 2

x

ax 2 bx c ax 2 bx c

(iv) Let y

x x x x

3/ 2 1/ 2 1 / 2

y ax bx cx

Differentiating with respect to x, we get

dy 3 1 1 3a b c

a x1 / 2 bx 1 / 2 cx 3 / 2 x1/ 2 3/ 2 .

dx 2 2 2 2 2 x 2x

Differentiation of Functions 57

1

13. (x – 2)2 14. (2x + 5)3 15. x5 x 3 16. x11 + x5 + 7

x2

17. 3x2 + 5x – 6 18. x 14 19. 2x2/3 –4x3/4 + 7x4/5 20 x 4 5 x log e x

3

x

Find the differential coefficient of each of the following functions with respect to x.

3

5/2

x

3x 23. x 2

3 x 2 x 2

x 3x 2 lx 2 mx x

24. 25. 26. 3

x 4 x7

x x1 / 3

2

1

27. x11

x

dy

28. Find if y a0 a1 x a2 x 2 a3 x 3 ...... an x n , where a0 , a1 , a2 , a3 ,......an are constants

dx

x a dy x a

29. If y , the show that 2 xy

a x dx a x

2.7 Product and Quotient Rules For Differentiation

Theorem 2.3 (Product Rule). Derivative of the product of two functions g(x) and p(x) is given by

d

g x px g x d px px d g x g x p x px g x .

dx dx dx

Proof. Let f(x) = g(x) p(x), then f(x + h) = g(x + h) p(x + h)

f x h f x g x h p x h g x p x

Now f x lim lim

h0 h h 0 h

g x h p x h g x h p x g x h p x g x p x

lim

h 0 h

g x h p x h p x px g x h g x

lim

h 0 h

px h px g x h g x

lim g x h px

h 0 h h

p x h p x g x h g x

lim g x h lim hlim px lim

h0 h 0 h 0 h0 h

g x px px g x

d

Hence, g x px g x d px px d g x .

dx dx dx

Thus, the differential coefficient of the product of two functions = The first function derivative of

second function + second function derivative of first function.

d

Corollary. uvw uv dw uw dv vw du , if u, v and w are functions of x respectively.

dx dx dx dx

Theorem 2.4 (Quotient Rule) Derivative of the quotient of two functions is defined as follows:

Definite Integrals 200

Definite IntegralV

06

6.1 Introduction

In earlier classes, we have determined the area of a closed region of the plane, when the region is bounded by the

segments. However, if the region is bonded, either partially or wholly by curves, such a computation can not be

performed by earlier methods. Therefore, there is a need of a strong mathematical technique for solving such

problems. This comes out to be possible by using the concept of the definite integrals. We have studied indefinite

integrals in Chapter 5. In this chapter, we define indefinite integral and see how it can be used to find the

area under certain curves. We will see that the indefinite integral and definite integral are closely related to

each other. The definite integral is used to solve many interesting types of problems from various

disciplines like the Business, Economies, Finance and Probability.

6.2 Definite Integral

Let f(x) be a continuous function defined over a closed interval from x = a to x = b and let F(x) be an

antiderivative of f(x), then the definite integral of f(x) over [a, b] is defined as

b

³ f x dx F b F a .

a

The numbers a, b are called limits of integration, a is called lower limit and b the upper limit. The interval

[a, b] is called the range of integration.

b

Now

³ f x dx

a

F b F a = value of antiderivative at upper limit b–value of antiderivative at

lower limit a.

Remarks.

b

1. ³ f x dx represents definite integral because its value is always a unique real number. For example,

a

b

³ f x dx F x c, then ³ f x dx >F b c@ >F a c@ F b F a .

a

b

2. The integral ³ f x dx exists for a b .

a

a b a

If a = b, then ³ f x dx 0 and if a ! b , then ³ f x dx ³ f x dx

a a b

6.2.1 Evaluation of Definite Integrals. To evaluate a definite integral, we first integrate the given

function by usual methods discussed earlier and then find the difference of the values obtained by

substituting the upper and lower limits in the obtained integral. The procedure will be clear from the

following examples given below:

Example 1. Evaluate the following integrals,

9 1 3 2 1

³ dx 2 x 3 dx dx

(i)

4 x

(ii)

1 ³(iii)

0 2 x 5 ³

Definite Integrals 207

when x = a, t = 2a – a = a

when x = 2a, t = 2a – 2a = 0

0 a

Therefore, I ³ f 2a t dt = ³ f 2a t dt . [by property 2]

a 0

a

³ f 2a x dx . … (II)

0

Hence, from (I) and (II), we get

2a a a

³ f x dx ³ f x dx ³ f 2a x dx .

0 0 0

a a

(ii) If f 2a x f x , then ³ f 2a x dx ³ f 2 x x dx .

0 0

2a a a a

f x dx f x dx f x dx 2 f x dx .

Hence by (i),

³ 0 ³ 0 ³0 ³ 0

a a

f 2a x f x , then

Again if

³ f 2a x dx ³ f x dx .

0 0

Application of (i) yields,

2a a a

f x dx f x dx

³ 0 ³ 0 ³ f x dx

0

0.

a a

6. (i) ³ f x dx ³ ^ f x f x `dx .

a 0

a a

f x dx 2 f x dx, if f x x .

(ii)

³ a ³ 0

0, if f x f x

a 0 a

Proof. (i) ³ f x dx ³ f x dx ³ f x dx .

a a 0

Putting x = –t in the first integral on R.H.S, then dx = –dt

Also if x = –a then t = a, if x = 0 then t = 0.

0 0 0 a a

Therefore, ³ f x dx ³ f t dt ³ f t dt ³ f t dt ³ f x dx .

a a a 0 0

a a a a

Hence, ³ a

f x dx ³ f x dx ³ f x dx ³ > f x f x @ dx .

0 0 0

(ii) If f(–x) = f(x) i.e., if f(x) is an even function of x then, by (i)

a a a

³ f x dx ³ > f x f x @dx 2 ³ f x dx .

a 0 0

If f(–x) = f(–x) i.e., if f(x) is an odd function of x then, by (i)

a a

³ f x dx ³ > f x f x @ dx 0.

a 0

We shall now observe that how the properties discussed above help in evaluating certain definite

integrals.

5 1 x

Example 7. Evaluate; (i)

³ 5

x 2 dx (ii) ³ 1

e dx .

Definite Integrals 211

4 2 x3

³ x dx

25.

4

26.

³ 1 x x 2

dx

9 5

x7

³ x 2 dx

27. ³ 3 x 2x 32

dx 28. 1

3 a 3

x dx x dx

29. ³ 0 x 3 x

30. ³ 0 3 a x 3 x

1 x5 2

x 4 x 2 dx

31.

³ 1 a

6

x6

dx, a ! 1 32. ³ 2

a x5 a x 5 dx

33. ³ a a8 x8

dx 34. ³ 0 x 5 a x 5

1 e 1

§2 x·

dx

35.

³ 1

log¨

©2 x¹

¸ dx 36. ³ 2 x log x

2 1 1 2 log x

37. ³ e x dx 38. ³ dx

1 x2 1 x2

4 x2 x

dx

2 e x 1 x log x

39. ³ 2 2x 1

40.

³ 1 x

dx

3 log x

dx 1 1 x2

41. ³ 1 1 x 2

42.

³ 0

x

1 x2

dx

1 x 2

43. Show that ³ 0 2

dx =

3

2 1

x 1 x

6

3 x7 64 321

44. Prove that ³ 2 dx

3 log 2 3log 22

1 3x 2 7 x 4

45. Show that ³ dx log

0 x 1x 2 x 3 3

b ba ª § ab· º

46. If f(x) = x3, then show that ³ f x dx « f a 4 f ¨ ¸ f b »

a 6 ¬ © 2 ¹ ¼

6.3 Definite Integral as an Area

In the previous sections, we have studied the definite integrals and their properties. In the present section,

we shall study some applications of definite integrals to evaluate the area of geometric figures. There is a

surprising connection between definite integrals and the geometric concept of area.

Theorem 6.1 Let f(x) be a continuous function defined over a interval a d x d b. Then the area bounded by

the curve y f x , the x-axis and the ordinates x = a and x = b is given by

b b

f x dx or

³ a ³ y dx .a

Proof. Let CD be the curve y = f(x) between the ordinates AC(x = a) and BD(x = b). Then the required area is

212 A Textbook of Business Mathematics

y

ABDC. Let P(x,y) be any point and Q(x+ G x,

y+ G y) be any neighboring point of P on the given D

curve CD. Draw PE perpendicular to OX and QF R

perpendicular to OX and complete the rectangle C

Q

S

EFQR. Draw PS perpendicular to QF. P

Let us denote the areas AEPC and AFQC by

A(x) and A(x+ G x) respectively. Then the area

EFQP = A(x + G x) – A(x)

Now area (rectangle PEFC) area (EFQP)

area (rectangle EFQR) A E F B

x

Fig. 6.1

y Gx d Ax Gx Ax d y Gy Gx

Ax Gx Ax

yd d y Gy

Gx

Ax Gx Ax

limit y d limit d limit y G y

G xo0 G xo0 Gx Gxo0

d

yd >Ax @ d y

dx

d

>Ax @ y

dx

Integrating both sides

b

>Ax @ ba ³ y dx

a

b

Ab Aa ³ y dx

a

b

Areaat x b area at x a ³ y dx

a

b

Area ABDC – 0 = ³ y dx

a

b

Area ABDC = ³ y dx

a

Remarks.

b

1.

³ y dx represents the area under the curve y = f(x), the x-axis and the ordinates x = a and x = b.

a

Definite Integrals 213

2. If the curve y = f(x) lies below x-axis as shown in Fig 6.2, then area bounded by the curve y = f(x), the

b

x-axis and ordinates x = a and x = b is negative. Hence area is given by

³ y dx

a

.

3. Similarly, the area bounded by the curve x = f(y), the y-axis and abscissae y = a and y = b as shown in Fig.

b

6.3 is given by

³ x dy .

a

4. If the curve x = f(y) lies to the left of y-axis as shown in Fig. 6.4, then the area bounded by the curve

b

x = f(y), the y-axis and the abscissae y = a and y = b is given by

³ x dy .

a

y

y

O A B

x y=b

x=a x=b B D

y=b

D B

A C

y=a

D C A

C y=a

x x

y O O

Fig. 6.2 Fig. 6.3 Fig. 6.4

To find the area required by using the formula as stated above, we first draw a rough sketch of the given

curve, shade the region whose area is to be determined and find the limits of integration. Then we set up a

definite integral for the area and finally evaluate the integral.

A curve is symmetrical about a line if the shape of the curve on one side is exactly, the same as on the other

side of the line. The curve is symmetrical about x-axis if the equation of the curve contain only even powers of y.

The curve is symmetrical about y-axis if the equation of the curve contains only even powers of x and if the

equation of the curve remains unchanged when x and y are interchanged, then the curve is symmetrical about the

line y = x.

Example 10. (i) Find the area bounded by the function y = 2x+3, the x-axis and the ordinates x=1 and x = 3.

(ii) Find the area bounded by the curve y = x2, the x –axis and the ordinate x = 1 and x = 4.

Solution (i) The required area

3

3 ª 2 º

2 x 3 dx «2 x 3x» >x @

2 3

A

³ 1 «¬ 2 »¼ 1

3x 1

>3 9 1 3@

2 2

18 4 14 Square units .

2

(ii) The equation of the curve is y = x , which contains only even powers of x. Hence it is symmetrical

about y-axis.

The required area is shaded in Fig. 6.5 and is given by

4 4

A ³ y dx ³ x 2 dx

1 1

214 A Textbook of Business Mathematics

4

ª x3 º 64 1 63

« » Sq. units .

«¬ 3 »¼ 1 3 3 3

y

y = x2

D

x

Fig. 6.5 o A B

x=1 x=4

Example 11. (i) Find the area enclosed by the line y = x and the ordinates x = –2 and x = 4.

(ii) Find the area intercepted between the curve y = x2 – 2x – 3 and the axis of x.

Solution (i) The required area is shaded in the Fig. 6.6 and is given by

Required area = area OAB + area OCD

4 0

³ y dx ³ y dx

0 2

y

4 0 B

³ x dx ³ x dx

0 2

y=x

4 0

ª x2 º ª x2 º

« » « » C A x

«¬ 2 »¼ 0 «¬ 2 »¼ 2 -2 O 4

8 2 10 Sq. Units .

D Fig. 6.6

(ii) The curve y = x2 – 2x –3 meets the x-axis where y = 0. Hence putting y = 0 in the given equation of the

curve, we get

x 2 2 x 3 0 or x 2 3x x 3 0 , i.e., xx 3 1x 3 0

x 1x 3 0 , which gives x 1, x 3 .

We have to find the area under the curve y = x2 – 2x – 3, x –axis and the ordinates x = –1 and x = 3.

3

3 ª x 3 2x 2 º § 27 · § 1

³

2 ·

? Required area x 2 x 3 dx « 3x » ¨ 9 9 ¸ ¨ 1 3¸

1 «¬ 3 2 »¼ 1 © 3 ¹ © 3 ¹

5 32 32

9 Sq. Units.

3 3 2

236 A Textbook of Business Mathematics

x

i.e. 24e x 3e 2

3x

2 3x

e 8, i.e log 8 3 log 2 or x = 2log2

2

xe 2 log 2 log 4 and p e 24e log 4 6 .

log 4

CS ³ 0

24e x dx 6 log 4 > 24e @

x log 4

0 6 log 4

§1 ·

24 e log 4 e 0 6 log 4 24¨ 1¸ 6 log 4 18 6 log 4

©4 ¹

log 4

log 4 x ª xº

PS 6 log 4

³ 0

3e 2 dx 6 log 4 «6e 2 »

«¬ »¼

0

ª log 4 º

e 0 » 6 log 4 62 1 6 log 4 6 .

6 log 4 6 «e 2

«¬ »¼

Example 31.(i) The rate of change of demand D with respect to price p is inversely proportional to the

square of the price. If D = 7 when p = 2 and D = 8 when p = 3, find the demand function.

(ii) The rate of change of supply S with respect to the price p is directly proportional to the price. If S = 52

when p = 4 and S = 16 when p = 2, find the supply function.

Solution. (i) Let D(x) be the demand function and it is given that the rate of change of D is inversely

proportional to square of the price, i.e.,

dD 1 dD k k

D 2 or 2

dD dp .

dp p dp p p2

Integrating the above equation both sides, we get.

k

D c …(I)

p

we are given D = 7 when p = 2, substituting these values in (I), we get

k

7 c ... ( II )

2

and D = 8 when p = 3, substitution of these values in (I) yields

k

8 c ... ( III )

3

Solving (II) and (III), we get c = 10. Putting the value of c in (I),

6

We get, k = 6. Hence, the demand function is Dx 10 .

p

(ii) Let S(x) be the supply function, then by the hypothesis, we have

dS dS

D p or kp dS kp dp.

dp dp

On integration both sides, we get

p2

S k k. …(I)

2

Matrices and Determinants 251

⎡2 3 4 5⎤

Example 6. Let P = ⎢⎢3 4 5 6⎥⎥ , where rows represent the number of items of type I, II, III

⎢⎣4 5 6 7⎥⎦

respectively. The four columns represent the four shops A, B, C, D respectively.

⎡1 2 3 4 ⎤ ⎡1 2 2 3⎤

Let Q = ⎢2 1 2 3⎥ , R = ⎢⎢1 2 3 4⎥⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢⎣3 2 1 2⎥⎦ ⎢⎣2 3 4 4⎥⎦

Where elements in Q represent the number of items of different types delivered at the beginning of a week

and the matrix R represent the sales during that week. Find

(i) The number of items immediately after delivery of items.

(ii) The number of items at the end of the week

(iii) The number of items needed to bring stocks of all items in all shops to 7.

⎡3 5 7 9⎤

Solution. (i) P + Q = ⎢⎢5 5 7 9⎥⎥ , represents the number of items immediately after delivery of items.

⎢⎣7 7 7 9⎥⎦

⎡ 3 5 7 9 ⎤ ⎡1 2 2 3 ⎤ ⎡ 2 3 5 6 ⎤

(ii) (P + Q ) − R = ⎢⎢5 5 7 9⎥⎥ − ⎢⎢1 2 3 4⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢4 3 4 5⎥⎥ represents the number of items at the

⎢⎣7 7 7 9⎥⎦ ⎢⎣2 3 4 4⎥⎦ ⎢⎣5 4 3 5⎥⎦

end of the week.

(iii) We want that all the elements are in (P + Q) – R should be equal to 7.

⎡5 4 2 1 ⎤ ⎡7 7 7 7 ⎤

Let S = ⎢⎢3 4 3 2⎥⎥ , then (P + Q ) − R + S = ⎢⎢7 7 7 7⎥⎥ ,

⎢⎣2 3 4 2⎥⎦ ⎢⎣7 7 7 7⎥⎦

which is the matrix in which all the elements are 7. So S represents the number of items needed to bring

stocks of all items of all shops to 7.

Example 7. The following matrix represents the results of the examinations of B.Com class.

⎡1 2 3 4 ⎤

⎢5 6 7 8 ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢⎣9 10 11 12⎥⎦

The rows represent the three sections of the class. The first three columns represent the number of students

securing Ist, IInd and IIIrd divisions respectively in that order and fourth column represents the number of

students who failed in the examination.

(i) How many students passed in three sections respectively.

(ii) How many students failed in three sections respectively.

(iii) Write down the matrix in which number of successful students is shown.

(iv) Write down the column matrix where only failed students are shown.

(v) Write down the column matrix showing students having Ist division from three sections.

Solution. (i) The number of students who passed in three sections respectively are 1+2+3 = 6, 5 + 6 + 7 = 18, 9

+ 10 + 11 = 30.

(ii) The number students who failed from three sections respectively are 4, 18, 12.

Matrices and Determinants 255

3. What are the orders of the following matrices.

⎡0 3⎤

⎡1 4 ⎤ ⎡1 3 2⎤

(i ) ⎢ 2 3⎥ (ii ) ⎢5 6 4⎥ (iii ) ⎢⎢1 2⎥⎥ (iv) [0]

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢⎣2 5⎥⎦

4. What are the diagonal elements of the following matrices.

⎡1 0 6 ⎤ ⎡1 5 5 ⎤ ⎡0 0 0⎤

⎢

(i ) ⎢0 5 5⎥ ⎥ ⎢

(ii ) ⎢7 9 1⎥ ⎥ (iii ) ⎢⎢0 0 0⎥⎥

⎢⎣7 0 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣5 3 7⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 0⎥⎦

5. Which of the following matrices are diagonal matrices.

⎡1 0 0⎤

⎡2 1⎤ ⎡0 1 ⎤ ⎡0 0 ⎤ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥

(i ) ⎢0 0⎥ (ii ) ⎢ 2 0⎥ (iii ) ⎢0 0 ⎥ (iv) ⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 1⎥⎦

6. Which of the following matrices are scalar.

⎡2 0 0⎤ ⎡0 0 0 ⎤

⎡1 0⎤ ⎡5 1 ⎤

(i ) ⎢0 1 ⎥ (ii ) ⎢0 5⎥ (iii ) ⎢⎢0 2 0⎥⎥ (iv) ⎢0 0 0 ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 2⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 0⎥⎦

7. Which of the following matrices are triangular matrices.

⎡1 0 0⎤ ⎡1 2 3⎤ ⎡0 1 2 ⎤

⎢ ⎥ ⎡0 0 ⎤

(i ) ⎢5 1 0⎥ (ii ) ⎢⎢0 0 4⎥⎥ (iii ) ⎢0 0 1 ⎥

⎢ ⎥ (iv) ⎢0 0 ⎥

⎢⎣6 2 0⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 5⎥⎦ ⎢⎣1 2 0⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎦

⎡ a 2a − b ⎤ ⎡ 2 4⎤

8. Find the values of a, b, c and d if ⎢ = .

⎣3 a − c 3b − d ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣6 8⎥⎦

⎡ 2 3 y 3 ⎤ ⎡2 81 ⎤

9. Find the values of x and y if ⎢ 2 ⎥=⎢ ⎥.

⎣⎢ x − 5 ⎦⎥ ⎣9 − 5⎦

⎡x − 2 3 2z⎤ ⎡ y z 6 ⎤

10. If ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ , then find the values of x, y and z.

⎣ 18 z y + 2 6 z ⎦ ⎣6 y x 2 y ⎦

11. Find the values of x, y, z and which satisfy the matrix equation.

⎡ x + 3 2 y + x ⎤ ⎡0 − 7 ⎤

⎢ z − 1 4 w − 6⎥ = ⎢3 2 w ⎥

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

12. Find the sum of the following matrices,

⎡5 3 ⎤ ⎡− 1 2⎤ ⎡a b ⎤ ⎡− a c ⎤

(i) ⎢1 − 2⎥, ⎢ 0 3⎥ (ii) ⎢ ⎥, ⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣− c − d ⎦ ⎣ b − d ⎦

⎡2 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 2 0 − 1⎤

⎢1 3 0 ⎥ ⎢ 1 2 3 ⎥

(iii) ⎢ ⎥, ⎢ ⎥

⎢0 4 2 ⎥ ⎢ − 1 1 2 ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎣5 2 1 ⎦ ⎣ 3 1 4 ⎦

Matrices and Determinants 259

⎡b11 b12 ⎤

⎡a a a ⎤

Example 10. (i) If A = ⎢ 11 12 13 ⎥ and ⎢⎢b21 b22 ⎥⎥ , then find the product AB.

⎣a21 a22 a23 ⎦ ⎢⎣b31 b32 ⎥⎦

⎡1 − 1⎤ ⎡1 1 ⎤

(ii) Let A = ⎢ ⎥ and B = ⎢ ⎥ , then find AB and BA. Is AB = BA.

⎣2 − 1⎦ ⎣4 − 1⎦

Solution. (i) The product AB is given by

⎡b11 b12 ⎤

⎡ a11 a12 a13 ⎤ ⎢ ⎡a b + a b + a b a11b12 + a12 b22 + a13b32 ⎤

AB = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢b21 b22 ⎥⎥ = ⎢ 11 11 12 21 13 31 ⎥.

⎣a 21 a 22 a 23 ⎦ ⎢b b ⎥ ⎣a 21b11 + a 22 b21 + a 23b31 a 21b12 + a 22 b22 + a 23b32 ⎦

⎣ 31 32 ⎦

(ii) Since A and B are both square matrices of order 2. Hence AB and BA both exist.

⎡1 − 1⎤ ⎡1 1 ⎤ ⎡1 × 1 + (−1) × 4 1 × 1 + (−1) × (−1) ⎤ ⎡1 − 4 1 + 1⎤ ⎡ − 3 2⎤

Now AB = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥

⎣2 − 1⎦ ⎣4 − 1⎦ ⎣2 × 1 + (−1) × 4 2 × 1 + (−1) × (−1)⎦ ⎣2 − 4 2 + 1⎦ ⎣− 2 3⎦

⎡1 1 ⎤ ⎡1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 1× 1 + 1× 2 1× (−1) + 1× (−1) ⎤ ⎡1 + 2 − 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎡3 − 2⎤

and BA = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ =⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥

⎣4 − 1⎦ ⎣2 − 1⎦ ⎣4 × 1 + (−1) × 2 4 × (−1) + (−1) × (−1)⎦ ⎣4 − 2 − 4 + 1⎦ ⎣2 − 3⎦

∴ AB ≠ BA

(i) Matrix multiplication is not commutative in general i.e. if A and B are two matrices, then

AB ≠ BA

It is clear from the fact that if AB is defined, then the number of columns of A should be equal to

number of rows of B and if BA is defined, then number of columns of B should be equal to number of rows

of A. Thus, some times AB is defined and BA is not defined. Some times BA is defined and AB is not

defined. For example, if

⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡3 5 1⎤

A=⎢ ⎥ and B = ⎢ ⎥,

⎣ 3 4⎦ ⎣ 2 1 6⎦

⎡6 + 2 10 + 1 2 + 6 ⎤ ⎡ 8 11 8 ⎤

then AB = ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥

⎣9 + 8 15 + 4 3 + 24⎦ ⎣17 19 27⎦

But BA is not defined because B is a 2 × 3 matrix and A is a 2 × 2 matrix. There are also some cases

where both AB and BA are defined but their orders are different and as such they are not equal. For

example, if

⎡1 2⎤ ⎡ 4 10 7 ⎤

⎡2 4 5⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎡39 38⎤ ⎢ ⎥

A=⎢ ⎥ and B = ⎢3 1⎥ then AB = ⎢15 11⎥ and BA = ⎢ 7 15 16⎥ .

⎣1 3 1⎦ ⎢⎣5 6⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢⎣16 38 31⎥⎦

Hence, AB and BA both are defined while AB is a 2 × 2 matrix and BA is a 3 × 3 matrix and AB ≠ BA.

Commutativity of matrix multiplication does not hold even if AB and BA are defined and also of the same

order. Let us consider the two matrices A and B as follows:

⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡0 1 ⎤

A=⎢ ⎥ and B = ⎢ ⎥

⎣0 − 1⎦ ⎣1 0⎦

Hence, A is a 2 × 2 matrix and B is also a 2 × 2 matrix, AB and BA both are defined.

260 A Textbook of Business Mathematics

⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 1 ⎤

Now AB = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥

⎣0 − 1⎦ ⎣1 0⎦ ⎣− 1 0⎦

⎡0 1⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡0 − 1⎤

and BA = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥

⎣1 0⎦ ⎣0 − 1⎦ ⎣1 0 ⎦

Thus, AB and BA are of the same order but AB ≠ BA. This shows that commutative law does not hold.

When we say that commutative law does not hold for matrix multiplication it implies that it does not

hold in all cases. We give below an example where AB = BA

⎡1 2 ⎤ ⎡ 5 − 2⎤

Let A=⎢ ⎥ and B = ⎢− 2 1 ⎥

⎣ 2 5 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

⎡1 2 ⎤ ⎡ 5 − 2 ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤

Then AB = ⎢ =

⎣2 5⎥⎦ ⎢⎣− 2 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 1⎥⎦

⎡5 2⎤ ⎡1 2⎤ ⎡1 0⎤

and BA = ⎢ =

⎣− 2 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣2 5⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 1⎥⎦

Hence AB = BA

(ii) If A, B and C are three matrices of order m × n, n × p and p × q respectively, then

(AB) C = A (BC)

i.e. the matrix multiplication is associative. This is known as associative law for matrices.

(iii) If A, B and C are three matrices of order m × n, n × p and p × q, then

A(B + C) = AB + AC and (A + B)C = AC + BC

i.e. the matrix multiplication is distributive with respect to addition of matrices. This is known distributive

law for matrices.

(iv) Let A be a square matrix of order n and I is an identity matrix of the same order, then

A.I=A=I.A

(v) If the product of two matrices is a zero matrix, then it is possible that none of them is a zero matrix, i.e.

If AB = 0, then A ≠ 0 and B ≠ 0, where 0 is a null matrix.

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 2 2⎤

For example; Let A=⎢ ⎥ and B = ⎢ ⎥.

⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎣ 2 2⎦

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎡2 2⎤ ⎡0 0⎤

Then AB = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥.

⎣ − 1 1 ⎦ ⎣ 2 2 ⎦ ⎣0 0 ⎦

The product AB is zero but A and B both are non-zero matrices.

(vi) If A and B are two matrices such that AB = 0, then it does not necessarily imply that BA = 0, where 0 is

a null matrix.

⎡0 1 ⎤ ⎡1 0⎤ ⎡0 1⎤ ⎡1 0⎤ ⎡0 0⎤

Let A = ⎢ ⎥ and B = ⎢ ⎥ , then AB = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥=0

⎣0 0 ⎦ ⎣0 0 ⎦ ⎣0 0 ⎦ ⎣0 0 ⎦ ⎣0 0 ⎦

⎡1 0⎤ ⎡0 1⎤ ⎡0 1⎤

and BA = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥≠0

⎣0 0 ⎦ ⎣0 0 ⎦ ⎣0 0 ⎦

(vii) If A, B and C are matrices such that AB and AC are defined, then AB = AC does not imply B = C.

This property of matrices is known as cancellation law. For Example,

⎡0 1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 0⎤ ⎡3 0⎤

Let A=⎢ ⎥ , B=⎢ ⎥ and C = ⎢ ⎥.

⎣0 0 ⎦ ⎣0 0⎦ ⎣0 0 ⎦

Matrices and Determinants 263

Hence, the total money obtained after selling the sets is Rs. [2300000 14500000] i.e. Rs. 3750000

and the total profit is Rs. 1150000.

(ii) Consider the following matrices,

⎡ 40 100 50 ⎤ ⎡2⎤

⎢ ⎥ ⎢1⎥

P = ⎢ 80 150 80 ⎥ , Q = ⎢ ⎥

⎢⎣100 250 100⎥⎦ ⎢ 12 ⎥

⎣ ⎦

where P represent labour hours, material used and subcontracted work for three types of televisions A, B

and C respectively. The column matrix Q represents labour cost per unit material cost and cost of

subcontracted work. Then

⎡180 ⎤

PQ = ⎢⎢315⎥⎥ .

⎢⎣425⎥⎦

This column matrix represents cost of each television A, B and C in that order.

Let S = [3000 2000 1000]

This row matrix represents number of televisions A, B and C to be manufactured in that order.

⎡180 ⎤

Consider S (PQ ) = [3000 2000 1000 ] ⎢⎢315⎥⎥ = [1595000]

⎢⎣425⎥⎦

Thus, total cost of manufacturing three televisions A, B and C is £ 1595000.

Example 14. The following matrix shows the sales of cold drinks in a shop during one week from Monday

to Sunday.

C F L

⎡20 25 30⎤

⎢25 30 40⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢30 25 20⎥

⎢ ⎥

A = ⎢40 30 50⎥

⎢45 40 20⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢50 20 30⎥

⎢60 40 60⎥

⎣ ⎦

where C = Coca-Cola, F = Fanta, L = Limca. The cost of each bottle of C, F and L is Rs. 1, Rs. 2 and Rs. 3

respectively, using matrix algebra find

(i) the total sale of C, F and L separately during one week

(ii) the total earning during one week.

(iii) total sale of C, F, L taken together each day from Monday to Saturday.

(iv) the total sale of C, F, L taken together during one week.

Solution. (i) Consider the product, (1 1 1 1 1 1 1) A = (270 210 250)

This matrix represents the total sale of C, F, L separately during one week

(ii) Consider the product

322 A Textbook of Business Mathematics

⎡ 5 1⎤

1 1 ⎧⎪ ⎡1 0⎤ ⎡3 1⎤ ⎫⎪ 1 ⎧⎪⎡8 0⎤ ⎡3 1⎤ ⎫⎪ 1 ⎡ 5 − 1⎤ ⎢ 8 − ⎥

A = [8I − A] = ⎨8⎢

−1

⎥−⎢ ⎥ ⎬ = ⎨⎢ ⎥−⎢ ⎥⎬ = =⎢ 8 .

8 8 ⎪⎩ ⎣0 1⎦ ⎣7 5⎦ ⎪⎭ 8 ⎪⎩⎣0 8⎦ ⎣7 5⎦ ⎪⎭ 8 ⎢⎣− 7 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢− 7 3 ⎥

⎥

⎣ 8 8 ⎦

⎡2 1⎤ ⎡− 3 2 ⎤ ⎡1 0⎤

Example 14. Find the matrix X satisfying the matrix equation ⎢ ⎥X ⎢ ⎥=⎢ 1⎥⎦

.

⎣3 2⎦ ⎣ 5 − 3⎦ ⎣0

⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡− 3 2 ⎤

Solution.Let A=⎢ ⎥ and B = ⎢ 5 − 3⎥

⎣ 3 2 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

2 1 −3 2

Then A= = 4 − 3 = 1 ≠ 0 and B = = 9 − 10 = −1 ≠ 0 .

3 2 5 −3

Thus, A and B are invertible matrices. The given equation is

⎡2 1⎤ ⎡− 3 2 ⎤ ⎡1 0⎤

⎢3 2⎥ X ⎢ 5 − 3⎥ = ⎢0 1⎥

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

AXB = I 2

A −1

( AXB ) = A−1 I 2

(A A)XB = A

−1 −1

I 2 XB = A −1

XB = A−1 .

Again ( XB )B −1

= A −1 B −1

( )

X BB −1 = A −1 B −1

XI 2 = A −1 B −1

X = A −1 B −1 …(I)

⎡ 2 − 1⎤ ⎡ − 3 − 2⎤

Now adjA = ⎢ ⎥ adjB = ⎢− 5 − 3⎥

⎣ − 3 2 ⎦, ⎣ ⎦

adjA ⎡ 2 − 1⎤ ⎡ 2 − 1⎤

Then A−1 = =1⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥

A ⎣− 3 2 ⎦ ⎣− 3 2 ⎦

ad B ⎡− 3 − 2⎤ ⎡3 2⎤

and B −1 = j = −1 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥

B ⎣− 5 − 3⎦ ⎣5 3⎦

⎡ 2 − 1⎤ ⎡3 2⎤ ⎡1 1⎤

Putting the values of A–1 and B–1 in (I), we get, X = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ =⎢ ⎥

⎣− 3 2 ⎦ ⎣5 3⎦ ⎣1 0⎦

Exercise 8.2

⎡ 3 4⎤ ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡2 3⎤ ⎡8 4 ⎤

(i) ⎢ ⎥ (ii) ⎢4 −1⎥ (iii) ⎢5 1⎥ (iv) ⎢ 2 2⎥

⎣− 2 5⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

Matrices (Continued) 323

⎡1 − 1 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 1 − 2 3⎤ ⎡1 2 3 ⎤

(i) ⎢⎢2 3 − 2⎥⎥ (ii) ⎢⎢− 2 1 1 ⎥⎥ (iii) ⎢⎢2 3 2⎥⎥

⎢⎣2 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 4 − 5 2⎥⎦ ⎢⎣3 3 4⎥⎦

⎡ 1 1 2⎤ ⎡1 2 3⎤

⎢

(iv) ⎢ 2 3 5⎥ ⎥ (v) ⎢⎢1 3 4⎥⎥

⎢⎣− 2 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣1 4 3⎥⎦

⎡5 − 2⎤

3. If A = ⎢ ⎥ , then verify that A(adjA) = (adjA)A = A I2, where I2 is an identity matrix of order 2.

⎣3 − 2⎦

⎡ 3 6⎤ ⎡− 7 8 ⎤

4. If A = ⎢ ⎥ and B = ⎢ ⎥ , then verify that adj(BA) = (adjA) (adjB).

⎣− 5 11⎦ ⎣ 9 11⎦

⎡1 2 ⎤

5. Compute the adjoint of the matrix A = ⎢ ⎥ and verify A(adjA) = A I2.

⎣3 − 5⎦

⎡2 1 8⎤

6. If A = ⎢⎢3 1 2⎥⎥ , then show that A.(adjA) = (adjA) . A = A I3. Where I3is an identity matrix of order 3.

⎢⎣1 2 3⎥⎦

⎡− 4 − 3 − 3⎤

7. If A = ⎢⎢ 1 0 1 ⎥⎥ , then show that adjA = A.

⎢⎣ 4 4 3 ⎥⎦

⎡2 3 2⎤

8. If A = ⎢⎢1 4 − 1⎥⎥ , then show that A (adj) = A I3.

⎢⎣5 6 6 ⎥⎦

⎡a b⎤

9. If A = ⎢ , then find det. [A (adjA)].

⎣c d ⎥⎦

⎡2 3 4⎤

10. (i) If A = ⎢⎢3 0 1⎥⎥ , then verify A(adj A) = (adj A)A = A I3.

⎢⎣2 1 5⎥⎦

⎡1 0 − 1⎤

(ii) If A = ⎢⎢3 4 5 ⎥⎥ , then verify A(adj A) = (adj A)A = A I3.

⎣⎢0 − 6 − 7⎦⎥

⎡ − 1 − 2 − 2⎤

11. If A = ⎢⎢ 2 1 − 2⎥⎥ , then show that adj A = 3AT.

⎢⎣ 2 − 2 1 ⎥⎦

326 A Textbook of Business Mathematics

⎡ 3 − 3 4⎤

37. If A = ⎢⎢2 − 3 4⎥⎥ , then prove that A3 = A–1.

⎢⎣0 − 1 1⎥⎦

38. Using matrix inverse, find the matrix X for which

⎡5 4⎤ ⎡1 − 2⎤ ⎡ 5 3 ⎤ ⎡14 7⎤

(i) ⎢ ⎥ X =⎢ ⎥ (ii) ⎢− 1 − 2⎥ = ⎢ 7 7 ⎥

⎣1 1⎦ ⎣1 3 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

39. Find the matrix X satisfying the equation.

⎡2 1⎤ ⎡5 3⎤ ⎡1 0⎤

⎢5 3⎥ X ⎢3 2⎥ = ⎢1 1⎥

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

40. If A is an invertible square matrix, then prove that (adj A)T = (adj AT).

8.6 Solution of a System of Linear Equations

Consider the following system of three linear equations in three unknowns

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 = b1 ⎫

⎪

a21 x1 + a22 x2 + a23 x3 = b2 ⎬ … (I)

⎪

a31 x1 + a32 x2 + a33 x3 = b3 ⎭

Following the rules of multiplication of matrices and their equality. The system (I) can be written in the

form of matrix equation as follows

AX = B,

⎡ a11 a12 a13 ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ b1 ⎤

Where A = ⎢⎢a21 a22 a23 ⎥⎥, X = ⎢⎢ x2 ⎥⎥ and B = ⎢⎢b2 ⎥⎥

⎢⎣ a31 a32 a33 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ x3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣b3 ⎥⎦

A is called the coefficient matrix of the system of linear equations.

A set of values of the variables x1, x2, x3 which simultaneously satisfy all the equations is called a solution

of the system (I).

Theorem 8.3 Let there be a system of three linear equations in three unknowns given by AX = B,

where A is the matrix of the coefficient such that A is non-singular. Then the system has a unique

solution given by X = A–1B.

Proof. Since A is non-singular ⇒ A −1 exists.We are given the system AX = B. Multiplying by A–1 from

left, we get, A–1 (AX) = A–1B

(A–1A)X = A–1B

I3X = A–1B

X = A–1B

Hence, the system AX = B has a unique solution given by X = A–1B.Now, we will show that this solution is

unique.Let X = X1 and X = X2 be two solutions of AX = B. Then AX1 = B and AX2 = B. This implies AX1 =

AX2.Since A is non-singular i.e. A ≠ 0, we get, X1 = X2 .This shows that the system has a unique solution.

Remark. We can extend this theorem for a system having n equations in n unknowns.

8.6.1 Steps Involved in Solving a System of Linear Equations. Consider a system of three equations in

three unknowns. To solve it the following steps should be taken.

1. Write down the given system of equations in the form AX = B.

2. Find A

Matrices (Continued) 333

Solution. Substituting the tabulated values in C = a + bQ + dP, we get the following set of simultaneous

linear equations

a + 10b + 40d = 6950

a + 9b + 35d = 6725

a + 12b + 40d = 7100

The above system in matrix notation is

⎡1 10 40⎤ ⎡ a ⎤ ⎡6950⎤

⎢1 9 35⎥ ⎢ b ⎥ = ⎢6725⎥ , which is of the form AX = B, where

⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢⎣1 12 40⎥⎦ ⎢⎣d ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣7100⎥⎦

⎡1 10 40⎤ ⎡a ⎤ ⎡6950⎤

A = ⎢⎢1 9 35⎥⎥, X = ⎢⎢ b ⎥⎥, B = ⎢⎢6725⎥⎥

⎢⎣1 12 40⎥⎦ ⎢⎣d ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣7100⎥⎦

1 10 40

Now A = 1 9 35 = (360 − 420) − 10(40 − 35) + 40(12 − 9) = 10 ≠ 0.

1 12 40

Since A ≠ 0, A-1 exists and the solution of the system is given by X = A-1B. It can be easily verified that

⎡ 60 80 − 10⎤

adjA = ⎢⎢− 5 0 5 ⎥⎥ .

⎢⎣ 3 − 2 − 1 ⎥⎦

⎡− 60 80 − 10⎤

adjA 1 ⎢

Then A −1 = = ⎢ −5 0 5 ⎥⎥ .

A 10

⎢⎣ 3 − 2 − 1 ⎥⎦

The solution of the system is given by

⎡− 60 80 − 10⎤ ⎡6950⎤ ⎡− 417000 + 538000 − 71000⎤ ⎡50,000⎤ ⎡5000⎤

−1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

X = A B = ⎢ −5 0 5 ⎥ ⎢6725⎥ = ⎢− 34750 + 35500 ⎥ = 10 ⎢ 750 ⎥ = ⎢ 75 ⎥

10 10

⎢⎣ 3 − 2 − 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣7100⎥⎦ ⎢⎣20850 − 13450 − 7100 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 300 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 30 ⎥⎦

∴ a = 5000, b= 75, d = 30.

Example 21. It is necessary for an adult to consume at least 75 gm of proteins, 90 gram of fats and 300 gm

of carbohydrates daily. There are three types F1, F2, F3 of foods available, which may be mixed to get the

desired food values. The following table gives the food analysis for the three types of foods:

Food values (gms) / 100 gms

Types of food Protein Fats Carbohydrate

A 8 5 5

B 4 20 5/2

C 25 5 10

What quantities of three types of foods will just be sufficient to provide the necessary food values.

Solution. Let x, y, z be quantities in 100 gm. of the types F1, F2, F3 of food, to meet just the required food

values. Then according to the given data, we get the following system of equations:

8x + 5y + 5z = 75, 4x + 20y + 5/2 z = 90, 25x + 5y + 40z = 300.

The above system of equations can be written in matrix form as follows:

Matrices (Continued) 337

⎡2 3 − 13⎤

1 ⎢

I= − 3 6 9 ⎥⎥ A .

21 ⎢

⎢⎣ 5 − 3 − 1 ⎥⎦

⎡2 3 − 13⎤

1 ⎢

9 ⎥⎥ because I = A A

-1 -1

Therefore, A = −3 6

21 ⎢

⎢⎣ 5 − 3 − 1 ⎥⎦

⎡ 1 − 2 3⎤

Example 25. Find the inverse of the matrix A = ⎢⎢ 0 − 1 4⎥⎥ by using elementary row transformations.

⎢⎣− 2 2 1 ⎥⎦

Solution. We know A = IA

⎡ 1 − 2 3⎤ ⎡1 0 0⎤

⎢ 0 − 1 4 ⎥ = ⎢0 1 0⎥⎥ A

⎢ ⎥ ⎢

⎢⎣− 2 2 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 1⎥⎦

⎡1 − 2 3⎤ ⎡1 0 0⎤

Applying R3 ĺR3 + 2R1, ⎢⎢0 − 1 4⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢0 1 0⎥⎥ A

⎢⎣0 − 2 7 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣2 0 1⎥⎦

⎡1 − 2 3 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0⎤

Applying R2 ĺ–R2, ⎢0 1 − 4 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 − 1 0⎥⎥ A

⎢ ⎥ ⎢

⎢⎣0 − 2 7 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣2 0 1⎥⎦

⎡1 0 − 5 ⎤ ⎡1 − 2 0 ⎤

Applying R1 ĺR1 + 2R2 and R3 ĺR3 + 2R2 , ⎢0 1 − 4⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢0 − 1 0⎥⎥ A

⎢

⎣⎢0 0 − 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣2 − 2 1⎥⎦

⎡1 0 − 5⎤ ⎡ 1 − 2 0 ⎤

Applying R3 ĺ–R3, ⎢0 1 − 4⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 − 1 0 ⎥⎥ A

⎢

⎢⎣0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣− 2 2 − 1⎥⎦

⎡1 0 0⎤ ⎡ − 9 8 − 5⎤

Applying R1 ĺR1 + 5R3 and R2 ĺR2 + 4R3 , ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ = ⎢ − 8 7 − 4 ⎥ A

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢⎣0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣− 2 2 − 1⎥⎦

⎡ − 9 8 − 5⎤

Hence, A–1 = ⎢ − 8 7 − 4⎥ because I = A–1A.

⎢ ⎥

⎢⎣− 2 2 − 1 ⎥⎦

Remark. If the matrix is singular, then we can not reduce the matrix A to I by applying elementary

operations. Hence, there is no need to find A before writing A = AI.

Example 26. Using method of matrix reduction, solve the following system of linear equations.

340 A Textbook of Business Mathematics

8.8.2 Elementary Column Transformation. An elementary operation involving the columns of a matrix

is called an elementary column operation. There are three types of elementary column operations.

(i) Interchange of any two columns; If ith column is interchanged with jth column, we write Ci ļCj.

(ii) Multiplying the elements of a column by a non-zero scalar; if the elements of ith column are

multiplied by a non-zero scalar k, we write Ci ĺkCi .

(iii) Adding to the elements of a column, the constant times the corresponding elements of another

column, we write Ci ĺCi + kCj.

These operations can be performed either on rows or columns but not together. The matrix can be

written in various forms using these elementary operations.

Method of Finding Inverse of a Square Matrix. Let A be a square matrix, then we should first write A = AI.

Now, we shall perform suitable elementary column operations on matrix A from left hand side and on the post

factor I from the right side of A = AI till we reach the result I = AB, then B is the required inverse of A.

We shall apply elementary column operations in such a way that the matrix A on the left hand side reduces

in the following sequence of matrices in case of a matrix of order 3.

⎡ 1 ... ...⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0⎤ ⎡1 0 0⎤

⎢... ... ...⎥ , ⎢... ... ...⎥ , ⎢... 1 ...⎥ , ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ , ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎢0 1 0⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥

⎢⎣... ... ...⎥⎦ ⎢⎣... ... ...⎥⎦ ⎢⎣... ... ...⎥⎦ ⎢⎣... ... ...⎥⎦ ⎢⎣... ... 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 1⎥⎦

⎡6 11⎤

Example 28. Find the inverse of the matrix A = ⎢ ⎥ by using elementary column operations.

⎣1 2 ⎦

Solution. We know that A = AI

⎡6 11⎤ ⎡1 0⎤

⎢1 2 ⎥ = A⎢0 1⎥

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

1 ⎡ 1 11⎤ ⎡ 6 0⎤

1

Operating C1ĺ C1 , ⎢ 1 2 ⎥ = A⎢ ⎥

6 ⎣6 ⎦ ⎣ 0 1⎦

⎡1 0⎤ ⎡ 1 − 116 ⎤

Operating C2 ĺC2 – 11C1 , ⎢ 1 1⎥

= A⎢ 6 ⎥

⎣6 6⎦ ⎣0 1 ⎦

⎡1 0⎤ ⎡ 1 − 11⎤

Operating C2 ĺC2, ⎢1 ⎥ = A⎢ 6 ⎥

⎢⎣ 6 1⎥⎦ ⎣0 6 ⎦

1 ⎡1 0⎤ ⎡ 2 − 11⎤

Operating C1 ĺ C1 − C 2 , ⎢ ⎥ = A⎢ ⎥

6 ⎣0 1⎦ ⎣− 1 6 ⎦

⎡ 2 − 11⎤

Hence A −1 = ⎢ ⎥ because I = AA .

−1

⎣ − 1 6 ⎦

⎡ 2 1 3⎤

Example 29. Find the inverse of the matrix A = ⎢⎢3 1 2⎥⎥ by using elementary column operations.

⎢⎣1 2 3⎥⎦

Solution. We have A = AI

⎡ 2 1 3⎤ ⎡1 0 0⎤

⎢ 3 1 2 ⎥ = A ⎢0 1 0 ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢⎣1 2 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 1⎥⎦

Linear Programming 345

4. Alternative Courses of Action. Alternative courses of action mean it should be possible to make a

selection between various combinations of the productive factors.

5. Non-negativity Condition. All the decision variables must assume non-negative values because

negative value of a physical quantity is an impossible situation.

6. Linearity. One of the most basic requirement of a linear programming problem is that both the objective

function and constraints must be expressed in terms of either linear equations or linear constraints.

9.2.1 Linear Programming Model. Suppose a linear programming problem involves the evaluation of the

values of n decision variables x1, x2, x3, … xn in such a way that the objective function of these variables

produces an optimum (maximum or minimum) value when these variables are subjected to a set of m

constraints. The standard form of a general linear programming problem may be stated in the following form:

Optimize (maximize or minimize) Z = c1x1 + c2x2 + c3x3 + … + cnxn (objective function)

Subject to the constraints a11 x1 a12 x2 a13 x3 ...... a1n xn d, , t b1

a21 x1 a22 x2 a23 x3 ...... a2 n xn d, , t b2

a31 x1 a32 x2 a33 x3 ...... a3n xn d, , t b3

#

am1 x1 am 2 x2 am3 x3 ...... amn xn d, , t bm

and x1, t 0, x2 t 0, x3 t 0,… , xn t 0,

where

1. x1, x2, x3, …… xn are decision variables.

2. c1, c2, c3, …… cn are called profit or cost coefficients.

3. aij (i = 1,2,3……, m, j = 1,2,3… n) are called structural coefficients.

4. b1, b2, b3, …… bm represent availability or requirement of m constraints and expression ( d ,=, t )

indicates each constraint may assume only one of the three possible forms.

5. The restrictions x t 0, y t 0 implies that all decision variables should be non-negative.

By using summation symbols, the above linear programming problem can be written as follows,

n

Optimize Z ¦c

j 1

j x j subject to the constraints

¦a

j 1

ij x j d t bi ; i = 1, 2, 3…… m

and x j t 0, j 1, 2, 3, .....n

The above linear programming problem can also be stated in matrix form as follows;

Optimize Z = CX subject to the constraints

AX d t b

and X t 0,

ªa11 a12 a13 ........... a1n º

« »

«a21 a22 a23 ........... a2 n »

where A = [aij]= «a31 a32 a33 ........... a3n » is the matrix of the coefficients of order m x n, C = (c1,

« »

«# »

«a am 2 am3 ........... amn »¼

¬ m1

Linear Programming 347

Step 4. Constraints are limited availability of components required. From the above table, the constraints for

the items A and B are given by 3x1 + 2x2 d 210, 2x1 + 4x2 d 300 and x2 d 65.

Step 5. The objective is to maximize the total profit from sale. Let Z be the total profit then Z = 20x1 +

30x2.

The linear programming problem, therefore, can be put in the following mathematical form:

Maximize Z = 20x1 + 30x2 subject to the constraints

3x1 + 2x2 d 210

2x1 + 4x2 d 300

x2 d 65

and x1 t 0, x2 t 0.

Example 2. A company has three operational departments (weaving, processing and packing) with capacity

to produce three different types of cloths namely suiting, shirtings and woolens yielding a profit of Rs. 2,

Rs. 4 and Rs. 3 per meter respectively. One meter of suiting requires 3 minutes weaving, 2 minutes in

processing and 1 minute in packing. Similarly, one meter of shirting requires 4 minutes in weaving, 1

minute in processing and 3 minutes in packing. One meter of woolen requires 3 minutes in each

department. In a week, total run time of each department is 60, 40 and 80 hours for weaving, processing

and packing respectively. Formulate the linear programming problem to find the product mix to maximize

the profit.

Solution. The data of the problem can be summarized as follows:

Table 9.2

Departments

Profit

Weaving Processing Packing

(Rs. Per meter)

(in minutes) (in minutes) (in minutes)

Suitings 3 2 1 2

Shirtings 4 1 3 4

Woolens 3 3 3 3

Availability (min) 60 u 60 40 u 60 80 u 60

Step 1. Here, the key decision is to determine the weekly rate of production of three types of cloths.

Step 2. Let us denote the weekly production of suitings, shirtings and woolens by x1 meters, x2 meters and

x3 meters respectively.

Step 3. Since the production can never be negative. The feasible alternatives are sets of values of x1, x2 and

x3 satisfying the non-negativity condition x1 t 0, x2 t 0, x3 t 0.

Step 4. Constraints are limited availability of three operational departments. One meter of suiting requires 3

minutes of weaving. The quantity being x meters, then the requirement of suiting alone will be 3x1

units. Similarly x2 meters of shirting and x3 meters of woolen will require 4x2 and 3x3 minutes

respectively. Hence, the total requirement of weaving will be 3x1 + 4x2 + 3x3, which should not

exceed the availability 3600 minutes. So, the labour constraint becomes 3x1+4x2+3x3 d 3600.

Similarly the constraints for processing and packing department are 2x 1 +x 2 +3x 3 d 2400

and x1 + 3x2 + 3x3 d 4800.

Step 5. The objective is to maximize the total profit from sales. Suppose that whatever is produced is sold in

the market, the total profit is given by Z = 2x1 + 4x2 + 3x3.

The linear programming problem can be put in mathematical form as follows:

Find x1, x2 and x3 so as to maximize Z = 2x1 + 4x2 + 3x3 subject to the constraints

3x1 + 4x2 + 3x3 d 3600.

2x1 + x2 + 3x3 d 2400

x1 + 3x2 + 3x3 d 4800.

Linear Programming 379

Table 10.5

Cj 4 5 0 0

Minimum Ratio XB/X2

B CB

XB X1 X2 X3 X4

X3 0 12 2 3 1 0 4 (Min) o

X4 0 8 2 1 0 1 8

Z = CB XB = 0 ǻj 4 5n 0p 0 XB / X1

X2 5 4 2/3 1 1/3 0 6

X2 5 2 0 1 ½ –1/2

X1 4 3 1 0 –1/4 3/4

Minimize Z = x1 – 3x2 + x3 subject to the constraints

3x1 – x2 + 2x3 d 7

–2x1 + 4x2 d 12

–4x1 + 3x2 + 8x3 d 10

and x1 t 0, x2 t 0, x3 t 0.

Solution. This is the problem of minimization so, first convert it to maximization problem by taking the

objective function as

Maximum Z’ = –Minimum Z = –x1 + 3x2 – x3.

Now convert the constraints into their corresponding equations by introducing slack variables x4, x5, x6

as follows:

3x1 – x2 + 2x3 + x4 = 7

–2x1 + 4x2 + x5 = 12

–4x1 + 3x2 + 8x3 + x6 = 10

and x1 t 0, x2 t 0, x3 t 0, x4 t 0, x5 t 0, x6 t 0.

Taking x1 = 0, x2 = 0, x3 = 0, we get, x4 = 7, x5 = 12, x6 = 10 which is the initial basic feasible solution.

382 A Textbook of Business Mathematics

Maximize Z = 107x1 + x2 + 2x3 subject to the constraints

6x1 + x2 – 2x3 + x4 = 3

16x1 + 3x2 – 6x3 + x5 = 5

3x1 – x2 – x3 + x6 = 0

and x1 0, x2 0, x3 0, x4 0, x5 0, x6 0.

Taking x1 = x2 = x3 = 0, we get x4 = 0, x5 = 5, x6 = 0, which is the initial basic feasible solution. Now we

construct the initial Simplex table.

Table 10.9

Cj 107 1 2 0 0 0

Min. Ratio

B CB XB X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 XB / X1

1

X4 0 3 6 1 –2 1 0 0

2

5

X5 0 5 16 3 –6 0 1 0

16

X6 0 0 3 –1 –1 0 0 1 0 (Min)

§6·

¨ ¸

Computing the value of 'j , '1 = C1 – CBX1 = 107– (0 0 0) ¨16 ¸ 107

¨3¸

© ¹

§1·

¨ ¸

'2 = C2 – CBX2 = 1 – (0 0 0) ¨ 3 ¸ 1

¨ 1¸

© ¹

§ 2·

¨ ¸

'3 = C3 – CB X3 = 2 – (0 0 0) ¨ 6 ¸ 2

¨ 1¸

© ¹

and '4 = '5 = '6 = 0.

Since all the values of 'j are not less than or equal to zero, hence the solution under test is not optimal. To improve

the solution, we choose an incoming and outgoing vectors. The largest positive entry of 'j in the above table is 107.

Therefore, X1 is the incoming vector and by minimum ratio rule, X6 is out going vector and the key elements is 3.

Using elementary row operations, to replace X6 by X1 and the key element is changed to 1 and all other entries of

1 6 16

this column are changed to 0. We operate R3 o R3 , R1 o R1 R3 , R2 o R2 R3 . The next simplex

3 3 3

table is as follows

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